It is currently 11 Dec 2017, 21:58

Close

GMAT Club Daily Prep

Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track
Your Progress

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Not interested in getting valuable practice questions and articles delivered to your email? No problem, unsubscribe here.

Close

Request Expert Reply

Confirm Cancel

Events & Promotions

Events & Promotions in June
Open Detailed Calendar

V03-27

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  
Author Message
TAGS:

Hide Tags

Expert Post
Math Expert
User avatar
V
Joined: 02 Sep 2009
Posts: 42544

Kudos [?]: 135295 [0], given: 12686

V03-27 [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 16 Sep 2014, 02:00
Expert's post
3
This post was
BOOKMARKED
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

Difficulty:

  75% (hard)

Question Stats:

44% (00:54) correct 56% (01:10) wrong based on 50 sessions

HideShow timer Statistics

A certain eye infection has been linked to exposure to certain type of high-salinity sea water. While not dangerous, these infections are painful and often unnoticeable, at least to those who contract them. Over 80% of children ages 4-14 who bathed in a particular sea called "The White Sea" have contracted the infection in varying levels of severity. Although bathing in "The White Sea" does not always lead to a contraction of the infection, the only way to completely avoid the infection is to refrain from bathing in "The White Sea" and other Sea waters altogether.

Which of the following indicates a flaw in the author’s reasoning?


A. It relies on evidence about a specific place to make a recommendation about an entire class of such places.
B. It assumes that one possible cause of a condition is the only cause of that condition.
C. It assumes to be true what it sets out to prove.
D. It makes a generalization based on one segment of the population.
E. It contradicts itself by proclaiming a condition to be not dangerous and then offering a recommendation to avoid that condition.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

_________________

New to the Math Forum?
Please read this: Ultimate GMAT Quantitative Megathread | All You Need for Quant | PLEASE READ AND FOLLOW: 12 Rules for Posting!!!

Resources:
GMAT Math Book | Triangles | Polygons | Coordinate Geometry | Factorials | Circles | Number Theory | Remainders; 8. Overlapping Sets | PDF of Math Book; 10. Remainders | GMAT Prep Software Analysis | SEVEN SAMURAI OF 2012 (BEST DISCUSSIONS) | Tricky questions from previous years.

Collection of Questions:
PS: 1. Tough and Tricky questions; 2. Hard questions; 3. Hard questions part 2; 4. Standard deviation; 5. Tough Problem Solving Questions With Solutions; 6. Probability and Combinations Questions With Solutions; 7 Tough and tricky exponents and roots questions; 8 12 Easy Pieces (or not?); 9 Bakers' Dozen; 10 Algebra set. ,11 Mixed Questions, 12 Fresh Meat

DS: 1. DS tough questions; 2. DS tough questions part 2; 3. DS tough questions part 3; 4. DS Standard deviation; 5. Inequalities; 6. 700+ GMAT Data Sufficiency Questions With Explanations; 7 Tough and tricky exponents and roots questions; 8 The Discreet Charm of the DS; 9 Devil's Dozen!!!; 10 Number Properties set., 11 New DS set.


What are GMAT Club Tests?
Extra-hard Quant Tests with Brilliant Analytics

Kudos [?]: 135295 [0], given: 12686

Expert Post
1 KUDOS received
Math Expert
User avatar
V
Joined: 02 Sep 2009
Posts: 42544

Kudos [?]: 135295 [1], given: 12686

Re V03-27 [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 16 Sep 2014, 02:00
1
This post received
KUDOS
Expert's post
1
This post was
BOOKMARKED
Official Solution:


A certain eye infection has been linked to exposure to certain type of high-salinity sea water. While not dangerous, these infections are painful and often unnoticeable, at least to those who contract them. Over 80% of children ages 4-14 who bathed in a particular sea called "The White Sea" have contracted the infection in varying levels of severity. Although bathing in "The White Sea" does not always lead to a contraction of the infection, the only way to completely avoid the infection is to refrain from bathing in "The White Sea" and other Sea waters altogether.

Which of the following indicates a flaw in the author’s reasoning?


A. It relies on evidence about a specific place to make a recommendation about an entire class of such places.
B. It assumes that one possible cause of a condition is the only cause of that condition.
C. It assumes to be true what it sets out to prove.
D. It makes a generalization based on one segment of the population.
E. It contradicts itself by proclaiming a condition to be not dangerous and then offering a recommendation to avoid that condition.

The question stem asks us to find a flaw in reasoning. In this question the first step is to identify the conclusion and determine whether we can find a recognizable flaw. The arguments conclusion is that “the only way to avoid contracting the eye infection is to stay away from all the sea waters including “The White Sea”. The type of reasoning discussed in the passage is a cause and effect reasoning. The author is assuming that the cause for contracting eye infection is only bathing in sea waters; this is exactly the flaw in the argument. If we do the POE then it becomes really difficult to prove that an answer choice is incorrect. In such question we should be beware of answer choice that just discusses only a part of the argument or just state what the author is doing, but the answer is not telling us what the flaw is. To test whether a choice is incorrect we can try to change the argument so that it addresses the flaw mentioned in a choice. If the conclusion still remains flawed the answer choice is incorrect. However, it is much easier in this case to find out which answer choice is correct.
  1. This choice is just telling what the author is doing to prove his/ her point.
  2. Correct. This is the correct answer choice that states the flaw in the cause and effect reasoning.
  3. The author is not assuming what he sets out to prove. As with answer choice (A) the argument does this but this is not a flaw in the reasoning.
  4. As with (A) this choice is also just telling what the author is doing to prove his/ her point. Hence, this is not a flaw.
  5. Same as other incorrect answer choices, this is not the flaw in the argument.

Answer: B
_________________

New to the Math Forum?
Please read this: Ultimate GMAT Quantitative Megathread | All You Need for Quant | PLEASE READ AND FOLLOW: 12 Rules for Posting!!!

Resources:
GMAT Math Book | Triangles | Polygons | Coordinate Geometry | Factorials | Circles | Number Theory | Remainders; 8. Overlapping Sets | PDF of Math Book; 10. Remainders | GMAT Prep Software Analysis | SEVEN SAMURAI OF 2012 (BEST DISCUSSIONS) | Tricky questions from previous years.

Collection of Questions:
PS: 1. Tough and Tricky questions; 2. Hard questions; 3. Hard questions part 2; 4. Standard deviation; 5. Tough Problem Solving Questions With Solutions; 6. Probability and Combinations Questions With Solutions; 7 Tough and tricky exponents and roots questions; 8 12 Easy Pieces (or not?); 9 Bakers' Dozen; 10 Algebra set. ,11 Mixed Questions, 12 Fresh Meat

DS: 1. DS tough questions; 2. DS tough questions part 2; 3. DS tough questions part 3; 4. DS Standard deviation; 5. Inequalities; 6. 700+ GMAT Data Sufficiency Questions With Explanations; 7 Tough and tricky exponents and roots questions; 8 The Discreet Charm of the DS; 9 Devil's Dozen!!!; 10 Number Properties set., 11 New DS set.


What are GMAT Club Tests?
Extra-hard Quant Tests with Brilliant Analytics

Kudos [?]: 135295 [1], given: 12686

Intern
Intern
avatar
Joined: 04 Oct 2015
Posts: 3

Kudos [?]: [0], given: 0

Re V03-27 [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 13 Feb 2016, 07:51
I think this the explanation isn't clear enough, please elaborate.

Kudos [?]: [0], given: 0

Board of Directors
User avatar
P
Joined: 17 Jul 2014
Posts: 2696

Kudos [?]: 447 [0], given: 207

Location: United States (IL)
Concentration: Finance, Economics
GMAT 1: 650 Q49 V30
GPA: 3.92
WE: General Management (Transportation)
GMAT ToolKit User Premium Member Reviews Badge
V03-27 [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 20 Feb 2016, 17:24
I chose A, and I can say that the author of the argument makes a generalization of all the seas based on the results from one sea. note how the author presents that bathing in the white sea leads to infection, then concludes that to not get the infection, not to BATH IN ANY SEAS.
this type of FLAW is known as "GENERALIZATION", when someone tries to make a conclusion based on a LIMITED sample.

Kudos [?]: 447 [0], given: 207

Manager
Manager
User avatar
Joined: 12 Nov 2015
Posts: 60

Kudos [?]: 25 [0], given: 126

Location: Uruguay
Concentration: General Management
Schools: Goizueta '19 (A)
GMAT 1: 610 Q41 V32
GMAT 2: 620 Q45 V31
GMAT 3: 640 Q46 V32
GPA: 3.97
Re: V03-27 [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 18 Jun 2016, 15:26
mvictor wrote:
I chose A, and I can say that the author of the argument makes a generalization of all the seas based on the results from one sea. note how the author presents that bathing in the white sea leads to infection, then concludes that to not get the infection, not to BATH IN ANY SEAS.
this type of FLAW is known as "GENERALIZATION", when someone tries to make a conclusion based on a LIMITED sample.


Can someone expand on the explanation? I think both A and B may work :?:

Kudos [?]: 25 [0], given: 126

Expert Post
Verbal Expert
User avatar
S
Joined: 14 Dec 2013
Posts: 3219

Kudos [?]: 3628 [0], given: 22

Location: Germany
Schools: HHL Leipzig
GMAT 1: 780 Q50 V47
WE: Corporate Finance (Pharmaceuticals and Biotech)
GMAT ToolKit User Premium Member Reviews Badge
Re: V03-27 [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 19 Jun 2016, 15:44
Avigano wrote:
mvictor wrote:
I chose A, and I can say that the author of the argument makes a generalization of all the seas based on the results from one sea. note how the author presents that bathing in the white sea leads to infection, then concludes that to not get the infection, not to BATH IN ANY SEAS.
this type of FLAW is known as "GENERALIZATION", when someone tries to make a conclusion based on a LIMITED sample.


Can someone expand on the explanation? I think both A and B may work :?:


Cause: X (bathing in "white sea") Effect: Y (eye infection)

The author concludes that removal of X (i.e., not bathing in "white sea" ) and all causes in the category of X (i.e., not bathing in ANY salt water) would eliminate Y.

Nonetheless the author ignores the fact that some other cause P could also have caused Y.

Now let us consider answer choice 1: It simply restates what the author has concluded (blue highlighted part above). It does not state the flaw in the conclusion .
answer choice 2: This option states the flaw in the conclusion (red highlighted part above)

Kudos [?]: 3628 [0], given: 22

Manager
Manager
avatar
B
Joined: 08 Jan 2015
Posts: 86

Kudos [?]: 10 [0], given: 53

GMAT ToolKit User
Re: V03-27 [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 22 Jun 2016, 23:26
sayantanc2k, I guess I understand what you're trying to say, but is the generalization (and other sea altogether) in the conclusion flawed? If yes, why then option A isn't correct as well. Just trying to understand how to avoid this trap.

Kudos [?]: 10 [0], given: 53

Expert Post
Verbal Expert
User avatar
S
Joined: 14 Dec 2013
Posts: 3219

Kudos [?]: 3628 [0], given: 22

Location: Germany
Schools: HHL Leipzig
GMAT 1: 780 Q50 V47
WE: Corporate Finance (Pharmaceuticals and Biotech)
GMAT ToolKit User Premium Member Reviews Badge
V03-27 [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 30 Jun 2016, 04:04
manlog wrote:
sayantanc2k, I guess I understand what you're trying to say, but is the generalization (and other sea altogether) in the conclusion flawed? If yes, why then option A isn't correct as well. Just trying to understand how to avoid this trap.


X and Y happens together..... Author concludes that not just X, but also everything which are similar to X causes Y. What the author overlooks is that something other than X (which is neither X, nor falls under the set "similar to X") may have caused Y.

The green highlighted part is the option 1, which basically shows a positive aspect of the author´s conclusion - that he extended his observation to a larger field.
The blue highlighted part is the option 2. It shows where the author went wrong.

Kudos [?]: 3628 [0], given: 22

Intern
Intern
User avatar
B
Joined: 12 Nov 2016
Posts: 29

Kudos [?]: 23 [0], given: 27

Location: Nepal
Concentration: Accounting, Economics
GPA: 3.63
WE: Account Management (Accounting)
Re: V03-27 [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 24 Jun 2017, 10:43
Hi sayantanc2k

Although bathing in "The White Sea" does not always lead to a contraction of the infection, the only way to completely avoid the infection is to refrain from bathing....

The author is clearly stating that the infection could be caused by other reasons as well.
Now look at option B
It assumes that one possible cause of a condition is the only cause of that condition.
Wonder how this could be correct.

Kudos [?]: 23 [0], given: 27

Intern
Intern
User avatar
B
Joined: 12 Nov 2016
Posts: 29

Kudos [?]: 23 [0], given: 27

Location: Nepal
Concentration: Accounting, Economics
GPA: 3.63
WE: Account Management (Accounting)
Re: V03-27 [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 24 Jun 2017, 10:46
sayantanc2k wrote:
manlog wrote:
sayantanc2k, I guess I understand what you're trying to say, but is the generalization (and other sea altogether) in the conclusion flawed? If yes, why then option A isn't correct as well. Just trying to understand how to avoid this trap.


X and Y happens together..... Author concludes that not just X, but also everything which are similar to X causes Y. What the author overlooks is that something other than X (which is neither X, nor falls under the set "similar to X") may have caused Y.

The green highlighted part is the option 1, which basically shows a positive aspect of the author´s conclusion - that he extended his observation to a larger field.
The blue highlighted part is the option 2. It shows where the author went wrong.

Hi sayantanc2k

Although bathing in "The White Sea" does not always lead to a contraction of the infection, the only way to completely avoid the infection is to refrain from bathing....

The author is clearly stating that the infection could be caused by other reasons as well.
Now look at option B
It assumes that one possible cause of a condition is the only cause of that condition.
Wonder how this could be correct.

Kudos [?]: 23 [0], given: 27

Manager
Manager
avatar
B
Joined: 23 Jan 2017
Posts: 68

Kudos [?]: 0 [0], given: 8

CAT Tests
Re: V03-27 [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 24 Oct 2017, 15:32
Option A recommends about an entire class of sea waters by relying upon the evidence related to White Sea. If somehow the evidence is found flawed, the recommendation about the entire class will carry no value.

Option B directly hurts the evidence from White Sea, which option A is relying upon.

So option B carries more weightage than option A.

I chose B as the answer.

Kudos [?]: 0 [0], given: 8

Re: V03-27   [#permalink] 24 Oct 2017, 15:32
Display posts from previous: Sort by

V03-27

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  

Moderators: chetan2u, Bunuel



GMAT Club MBA Forum Home| About| Terms and Conditions| GMAT Club Rules| Contact| Sitemap

Powered by phpBB © phpBB Group | Emoji artwork provided by EmojiOne

Kindly note that the GMAT® test is a registered trademark of the Graduate Management Admission Council®, and this site has neither been reviewed nor endorsed by GMAC®.