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V07-15

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New post 16 Sep 2014, 02:29
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Although fullerenes - spherical molecules made entirely of carbon - were first found in the laboratory, they have since been found in nature, formed in fissures of the rare mineral shungite. Since laboratory synthesis of fullerenes requires distinctive conditions of temperature and pressure, this discovery should give geologists a test case for evaluating hypotheses about the state of the Earth's crust at the time these naturally occurring fullerenes were formed.
Which of the following, if true, most seriously undermine the argument?


A. Confirming that the shungite genuinely contained fullerenes took careful experimentation
B. Some fullerenes have also been found on the remains of a small meteorite that collided with a spacecraft
C. The mineral shungnite itself contains large amount of carbon, from which fullerenes apparently formed
D. The naturally occurring fullerenes are arranged in a previously unknown crystalline structure
E. Shungite itself is only formed under distinctive conditions

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New post 16 Sep 2014, 02:29
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Although fullerenes - spherical molecules made entirely of carbon - were first found in the laboratory, they have since been found in nature, formed in fissures of the rare mineral shungite. Since laboratory synthesis of fullerenes requires distinctive conditions of temperature and pressure, this discovery should give geologists a test case for evaluating hypotheses about the state of the Earth's crust at the time these naturally occurring fullerenes were formed.
Which of the following, if true, most seriously undermine the argument?


A. Confirming that the shungite genuinely contained fullerenes took careful experimentation
B. Some fullerenes have also been found on the remains of a small meteorite that collided with a spacecraft
C. The mineral shungnite itself contains large amount of carbon, from which fullerenes apparently formed
D. The naturally occurring fullerenes are arranged in a previously unknown crystalline structure
E. Shungite itself is only formed under distinctive conditions


D undermines the argument by attacking the premise by suggesting that naturally occurring fullerene and synthetic fullerene differ in their structure. Since the objects of comparison are not similar, the comparison between the conditions these were formed does not stand.

A) the effort which took to confirm fullerene presence in shungite is irrelevant to the argument. What matters is whether shungite contains fullerene or not.

B) This one is close. I almost fell for it. It seems to offer an alternate explanation for the formation of fullerene. But what should be considered is, even if fullerene is formed in outer space does that change anything if it is also formed in earth? No, it does not.

C) This one provides more evidence to the argument and thus is strengthening the argument.

E) This is the premise itself.


Answer: D
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New post 02 Jan 2016, 00:00
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I don't agree with the explanation. b is the right ans
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New post 16 Jul 2016, 18:56
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I did not choose answer D because of the words "previously unknown crystalline structure",does this mean that this structure is not known at present ?
Experts please explain ..

Thank you :)
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New post 18 Jul 2016, 11:59
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Jat wrote:
I did not choose answer D because of the words "previously unknown crystalline structure",does this mean that this structure is not known at present ?
Experts please explain ..

Thank you :)


This implies that the structure is known now, but it actually does not matter whether it is known now - the importatnt part is that, the structure of natural F was not known till it was discovered in nature.

First laboratory F (lab F) was synthesized - therefore the structure of lab F was already known before the discovery of natural F. Thereafter natural F (nat F) was discovered. Option D states that the crystalline structure of nat F is not previously known. This implies that the structure of nat F MUST be different from lab F. Hence the conditions at which both were created were not same. Hence laboratory conditions and earth conditions were not same. Hence laboratory synthesis of lab F cannot help in fidning out the condition of earth's crust during formation of natural F.
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New post 01 Sep 2016, 08:32
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Very tricky one and good explanation.

Critical thinkers.
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New post 23 Feb 2017, 02:21
But how is it concluded that the one synthesized in lab is not crystalline? Please Explain.

Thanks!
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Re: V07-15  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Feb 2017, 03:53
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sonam1987 wrote:
But how is it concluded that the one synthesized in lab is not crystalline? Please Explain.

Thanks!


It has not been concluded that the one synthesized in lab is not crystalline. The basis of reasoning is that the structure was not known before - both could have crystalline structure, but different from each other.
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New post 25 Mar 2017, 15:25
E. Shungite itself is only formed under distinctive conditions

My reasoning for E) is -
If Shugnite itself forms under distinctive conditions, then it would be tough for researchers to "evaluate the hypotheses about the state of the Earth's crust at the time these naturally occurring fullerenes were formed" since Shugnite and the F inside them could require different conditions. Conditions outside may not translate to the conditions inside the mineral. Researchers in this case would be looking for conditions required for F to validate their hypothesis but they would actually need to look for conditions required for the mineral.
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New post 22 Oct 2017, 12:53
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I am not very convinced yet.

Let me talk about option D later. Let us first understand why B should be incorrect?

The argument says that Since laboratory synthesis of fullerenes requires distinctive conditions of temperature and pressure, this discovery should give geologists a test case for evaluating hypotheses about the state of the Earth's crust at the time these naturally occurring fullerenes were formed.

Now, if it get known that this fullerenes came from some meteorite, than the argument definitely gets weakened, because now geologist will NOT be able to evaluate hypotheses about the state of the Earth's crust at the time these fullerenes were found (i.e. in meteor remains). So B IS a correct answer.

Now, looking at D: I am not a chemistry expert, but if the structure is different, wouldn't that make it a different substance/different compound altogether? Then it will not be called fullerene. e.g. coal and diamond have different structures of carbon. Because they have different structures, they have different properties. So they are different substances. With this understanding, option D seems to be invalid altogether. (My understanding about chemical structures may not be 100% correct though).

Please share your thoughts!!!
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New post 11 Apr 2018, 01:39
I think this is a high-quality question and the explanation isn't clear enough, please elaborate. B. undermines the conclusion that the discovery will give a test case of studying earth's crust at the time of formation of fullerenes. Bcoz fullerenes may have come from the outer space.
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New post 05 May 2018, 13:24
Okay got it. Nice question. Notice "Naturally occuring" modifier. Classic case of generalization. Fell for B.
It points to the fact that naturally occurring structure and the laboratory structure are two different compounds.

Thanks,
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V07-15 &nbs [#permalink] 05 May 2018, 13:24
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