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# V08-01

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30 Jul 2015, 07:26
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Difficulty:

55% (hard)

Question Stats:

48% (00:32) correct 52% (00:32) wrong based on 187 sessions

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Lack of fresh water is an ongoing problem in the outposts, and it is expected to continue until reinforcements arrive.

A. Lack of fresh water is an ongoing problem in the outposts, and it is expected to continue until reinforcements arrive.
B. Lack of fresh water is an ongoing problem in the outposts, which was expected to continue until reinforcements arrive.
C. Lack of fresh water is an ongoing problem in the outposts, and they are expected to continue until reinforcements arrive.
D. The outposts lacked fresh water, this problem is expected to continue until reinforcements arrive.
E. The outposts have a lack of fresh water, a problem expected to continue until reinforcements arrive.

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03 Jun 2016, 04:23
Official Solution:

Lack of fresh water is an ongoing problem in the outposts, and it is expected to continue until reinforcements arrive.

A. Lack of fresh water is an ongoing problem in the outposts, and it is expected to continue until reinforcements arrive.
B. Lack of fresh water is an ongoing problem in the outposts, which was expected to continue until reinforcements arrive.
C. Lack of fresh water is an ongoing problem in the outposts, and they are expected to continue until reinforcements arrive.
D. The outposts lacked fresh water, this problem is expected to continue until reinforcements arrive.
E. The outposts have a lack of fresh water, a problem expected to continue until reinforcements arrive.

(A) The pronoun it has an unclear antecedent (B) The pronoun which has an unclear antecedent (C) The plural pronoun they could only refer to outposts, which implies that the outposts are expected to continue rather than the problem (D) Run-on sentence. Two independent clauses cannot be joined using a comma only. (E) Correct. "A problem" correctly refers to a lack of fresh water at the outposts; the sentence is concise and correct. It is not necessary to use that, as in choice D.

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11 Jun 2016, 08:57
rpriya wrote:
I think this the explanation isn't clear enough, please elaborate. Its been a day i bought this package from gmatclub. Given an option i would want a refund. I have not used the set yet. OA and questions are not good.

The options D and E both are grammatically correct. These options uses "absolute phrase"modifier, which has the following structure:
Noun + noun modifier

An absolute phrase refers to an entire clause, either preceding it or following it.

Here,

noun = problem
modifier = option D. that is expected to continue until reinforcements arrive / option E.expected to continue until reinforcements arrive

We are in the process of revising the question.

In case you do not agree with any OA or OE, please free to comment and in case you need urgent response / explanation, feel free to send a message to me with a link to your post / query. Nonetheless it would be easier to explain if you could specify which point you do not agree with or need explanation for.
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13 Jun 2016, 04:59
sayantanc2k wrote:
rpriya wrote:
I think this the explanation isn't clear enough, please elaborate. Its been a day i bought this package from gmatclub. Given an option i would want a refund. I have not used the set yet. OA and questions are not good.

The options D and E both are grammatically correct. These options uses "absolute phrase"modifier, which has the following structure:
Noun + noun modifier

An absolute phrase refers to an entire clause, either preceding it or following it.

Here,

noun = problem
modifier = option D. that is expected to continue until reinforcements arrive / option E.expected to continue until reinforcements arrive

We are in the process of revising the question.

In case you do not agree with any OA or OE, please free to comment and in case you need urgent response / explanation, feel free to send a message to me with a link to your post / query. Nonetheless it would be easier to explain if you could specify which point you do not agree with or need explanation for.

Completely messed up on this one. I marked option A. I thought "it" refers to problem ? Besides the phrase "have a lack of fresh water" seems a little absurd. sayantanc2k , can you please help me with this ?
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18 Jun 2016, 12:49
spetznaz wrote:
sayantanc2k wrote:
rpriya wrote:
I think this the explanation isn't clear enough, please elaborate. Its been a day i bought this package from gmatclub. Given an option i would want a refund. I have not used the set yet. OA and questions are not good.

The options D and E both are grammatically correct. These options uses "absolute phrase"modifier, which has the following structure:
Noun + noun modifier

An absolute phrase refers to an entire clause, either preceding it or following it.

Here,

noun = problem
modifier = option D. that is expected to continue until reinforcements arrive / option E.expected to continue until reinforcements arrive

We are in the process of revising the question.

In case you do not agree with any OA or OE, please free to comment and in case you need urgent response / explanation, feel free to send a message to me with a link to your post / query. Nonetheless it would be easier to explain if you could specify which point you do not agree with or need explanation for.

Completely messed up on this one. I marked option A. I thought "it" refers to problem ? Besides the phrase "have a lack of fresh water" seems a little absurd. sayantanc2k , can you please help me with this ?

If a pronoun is subject of a clause and has two possible antecedents in the sentence, one of them subject of another clause in the sentence, then the pronoun would refer to the subject antecedent by virtue of parallelism.

Option A:
Pronoun: "it" - subject of a clause
Two possible antecedents" "lack", "problem"
Antecedent "lack" - subject of another clause.
Hence "it" refers to "lack", not "problem".
This reference is wrong since "it" should actually refer to "problem".
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27 Jun 2016, 01:27
sayantanc2k, why do you think that "it" can refer to water? Referral should be logical, the only antecedent that makes logical sense for "it" is "problem". Otherwise there would be "water is expected to continue", which is illogical.
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29 Jun 2016, 11:24
manlog wrote:
sayantanc2k, why do you think that "it" can refer to water? Referral should be logical, the only antecedent that makes logical sense for "it" is "problem". Otherwise there would be "water is expected to continue", which is illogical.

Please refer to the post above:
v08-202564.html#p1698625

I would like to elaborate further on this explanation. The pronoun "it" has 3 possible antecedents: "lack", "water" and "problem". Such usage is NOT considered ambiguous because by virtue of parallelism the pronoun "it", which is the subject of a clause, refers to "lack", which is the subject of another clause - such usages have been accepted in GMAT. Nonetheless here this reference is wrong since the intended meaning is that "problem" is expected to continue, and "it" should refer to "problem", not "lack".
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29 Jun 2016, 11:38
sayantanc2k wrote:
manlog wrote:
sayantanc2k, why do you think that "it" can refer to water? Referral should be logical, the only antecedent that makes logical sense for "it" is "problem". Otherwise there would be "water is expected to continue", which is illogical.

Please refer to the post above:
v08-202564.html#p1698625

I would like to elaborate further on this explanation. The pronoun "it" has 3 possible antecedents: "lack", "water" and "problem". Such usage is NOT considered ambiguous because by virtue of parallelism the pronoun "it", which is the subject of a clause, refers to "lack", which is the subject of another clause - such usages have been accepted in GMAT. Nonetheless here this reference is wrong since the intended meaning is that "problem" is expected to continue, and "it" should refer to "problem", not "lack".

Now I see, thanks. But why do you think that "it" should refer to "problem"? Maybe it's a stupid claim, but why can't it be that "lack is expected to continue"? The original sentence doesn't give any clue on that. Moreover, if we use the original meaning, then "it" refers to lack and we have to use it as a guidance for the intended logical meaning.
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08 Jul 2016, 06:41
manlog wrote:
sayantanc2k wrote:
manlog wrote:
sayantanc2k, why do you think that "it" can refer to water? Referral should be logical, the only antecedent that makes logical sense for "it" is "problem". Otherwise there would be "water is expected to continue", which is illogical.

Please refer to the post above:
v08-202564.html#p1698625

I would like to elaborate further on this explanation. The pronoun "it" has 3 possible antecedents: "lack", "water" and "problem". Such usage is NOT considered ambiguous because by virtue of parallelism the pronoun "it", which is the subject of a clause, refers to "lack", which is the subject of another clause - such usages have been accepted in GMAT. Nonetheless here this reference is wrong since the intended meaning is that "problem" is expected to continue, and "it" should refer to "problem", not "lack".

Now I see, thanks. But why do you think that "it" should refer to "problem"? Maybe it's a stupid claim, but why can't it be that "lack is expected to continue"? The original sentence doesn't give any clue on that. Moreover, if we use the original meaning, then "it" refers to lack and we have to use it as a guidance for the intended logical meaning.

The usage "The lack continued for 7 days" is awkward. The word "deficiency" could be used instead.
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15 Oct 2016, 06:56
Option D also is incorrect because it changes the intended meaning of the original sentence.
D) The outposts lacked fresh water, this problem is expected to continue until reinforcements arrive.

Per this choice, Outposts lacked fresh water (past tense), and it is not an ongoing problem anymore (as stated in the original sentence. Then D states that the past problem is expected to continue, so it has a contradictory meaning.
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15 Oct 2016, 08:45
Gabyms89 wrote:
Option E. The outposts have a lack of fresh water, a problem expected to continue until reinforcements arrive.

"a problem expected to continue until reinforcements arrive." is a clause (S+V) right? If this is a clause then it should be separated by a semicolon (;) instead of a comma (,).

I understand everything else is correct, but I discarded this answer because it has a comma followed by a complete sentence.

Thanks,

No, "a problem expected to continue until reinforcements arrive." is not a clause - it is am absolute phrase: noun + noun modifier.

noun: a problem
modifier: expected to continue.....

There is no verb in this part - "expected" is a past participle, not a verb.
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23 Nov 2016, 22:33
Can anybody please tell me why B is incorrect
which is referring to Lack of water I suppose????
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25 Nov 2016, 11:07

Let's first check out the meaning in the original sentence structure:

Lack of fresh water is an ongoing problem in the outposts, and it is expected to continue until reinforcements arrive.

This sentence is telling us that the scarcity of water is a current issue in the outposts, and this problem is expected to continue in the future until aid arrive.

Lets review option B..

B. Lack of fresh water is an ongoing problem in the outposts, which was expected to continue until reinforcements arrive.

There are two errors in this option:
1st Pronoun error: The relative pronoun "which" is incorrectly referring to outposts. Per this choice, it is the outposts and not the lack of fresh water (issue) that is expected to continue until aid arrive. So as a general rule, relative pronouns modify the immediate previous noun (outposts in this case). Lack of fresh water is too far away.
2nd Tense error: The sentence starts with a general present fact. Then it says that before the lack of water happens, there was an expectation that this problem will continue. How can you expected an issue to continue before the issue actually occurs?

Hope the analysis helps!
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21 Apr 2017, 21:44
The question is in the present continuous tense "Lack of fresh water is an ongoing problem in the outposts"
Option D is incorrect because it uses the past tense "lacked", thereby changing the meaning of the question. So only option E is correct.
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01 May 2017, 02:18
kishankr8 wrote:
The question is in the present continuous tense "Lack of fresh water is an ongoing problem in the outposts"
Option D is incorrect because it uses the past tense "lacked", thereby changing the meaning of the question. So only option E is correct.

In addition, option D is a run-on sentence - two independent clauses are separated by a comma.

(A small correction in your post: The verb "is" is not present continuous as you mentioned, but simple present.)
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20 May 2017, 16:28
Why cant "it"" refers to "lack of fresh water". After all a pronoun can refer to Noun Phrase as well. In that case Option A make sense. Also given the explanation by you earlier that "it" can greater propensity to go with the subject of the preceding clause the sentence is no longer ambiguous whether "it" is modifying "lack of fresh water " or "problem". Please advise.
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01 Jun 2017, 12:07
souvik101990 wrote:
Official Solution:

Lack of fresh water is an ongoing problem in the outposts, and it is expected to continue until reinforcements arrive.

A. Lack of fresh water is an ongoing problem in the outposts, and it is expected to continue until reinforcements arrive.
B. Lack of fresh water is an ongoing problem in the outposts, which was expected to continue until reinforcements arrive.
C. Lack of fresh water is an ongoing problem in the outposts, and they are expected to continue until reinforcements arrive.
D. The outposts lacked fresh water, this problem is expected to continue until reinforcements arrive.
E. The outposts have a lack of fresh water, a problem expected to continue until reinforcements arrive.

(A) The pronoun it has an unclear antecedent (B) The pronoun which has an unclear antecedent (C) The plural pronoun they could only refer to outposts, which implies that the outposts are expected to continue rather than the problem (D) Run-on sentence. Two independent clauses cannot be joined using a comma only. (E) Correct. "A problem" correctly refers to a lack of fresh water at the outposts; the sentence is concise and correct. It is not necessary to use that, as in choice D.

OE of B is incorrect. The pronoun which has a clear antecedent problem . Remember that which can refer back to any pronoun until we encounter a verb going back and if there are 2 or more pronouns, the verb coming after which will dictate the antecedent.

So, going back from comma, we have 2 nouns - Outposts (Plural) and An ongoing problem (singular). Verb after which is was (singular). Hence, which is referring to An ongoing problem.

The problem with B is inconsistency/change in meaning The problem is ongoing and it WAS expected that it will end... INSTEAD OF it IS expected that the problem will end...
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28 Jan 2018, 08:35
Why is O A incorrect? The pronoun "it" refers to "problem" or "lack of water". In both cases refers to the same issue. I don´t see any lack of clarity, because it refers to the same issue.

Lack of fresh water is an ongoing problem in the outposts, and it is expected to continue until reinforcements arrive.
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24 Mar 2018, 12:13
Can an expert please explain the issue with B? "Which" refers to "problem". Right?
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04 Apr 2018, 11:54
ag111 wrote:
Why cant "it"" refers to "lack of fresh water". After all a pronoun can refer to Noun Phrase as well. In that case Option A make sense. Also given the explanation by you earlier that "it" can greater propensity to go with the subject of the preceding clause the sentence is no longer ambiguous whether "it" is modifying "lack of fresh water " or "problem". Please advise.

I have the same doubt as ag111
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# V08-01

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