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Verbal Diagnostic Test No : 6 – CR Q No: 12

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Verbal Diagnostic Test No : 6 – CR Q No: 12  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Mar 2014, 10:34
2
10
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

Difficulty:

  95% (hard)

Question Stats:

39% (01:54) correct 61% (02:07) wrong based on 254 sessions

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Some people believe that high optimism in some individuals is due to genetic and cultural practices alone. However, studies from many countries indicate a strong correlation between high optimism and high educational levels. Thus research supports the view that high optimism is largely due to the result of making informed choices.

The reasoning in the argument is most vulnerable to criticism on the grounds that the argument

A. presumes, without providing justification that only highly educated people make informed choices
B. overlooks the possibility that people who make informed choices may nonetheless suffer from inherited vices
C. presumes, without providing justification, that informed choices are available to everyone
D. overlooks the possibility that the some factors other than genetics and culture may causally contribute both to education and to high optimism
E. does not acknowledge that some people who fail to make informed choices exude high optimism

OA: D
OE:
(A) The culprit word is “only”. To polarize that only highly educated people exhibit high optimism is too radical and extreme thinking.
(B) The author specifically ignores the negative aspect of human characteristics such as inherited vices, which are unrestrainable in spite of educational levels
(C) Availability of certain factors is not discussed in the stimulus. The author simply correlates two factors.
(D) This is the correct answer. An outside element can cause the same effect; say for example working in a high-profile company such as Google or Microsoft... It is the third element which is the cause of the acquired habit
(E) The author specifically says that the effect is largely the result of the cause, and some people may still be oozing high optimism in spite of low education. So this answer goes against the grain of the argument.

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Re: Verbal Diagnostic Test No : 6 – CR Q No: 12  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 13 Mar 2014, 17:31
3
The key here is to notice that causal arguments in general are susceptible to alternative causes. I initially chose A because a few words matched the stimulus, but that's never a good strategy -- too myopic. Option D is better because causal arguments are inherently weak to other causes (or different relationships). To answer this correctly, one must take a step back and analyze the line of reasoning in the argument.

A. presumes, without providing justification that only highly educated people make informed choices
- Wrong because of "only"

B. overlooks the possibility that people who make informed choices may nonetheless suffer from inherited vices
- 1) Neutral. Do inherited vices cause someone to not have optimism? Don't know. 2) Tangential to the argument.

C. presumes, without providing justification, that informed choices are available to everyone
- Weaken. Reverse logic. since Informed choices is sufficient condition, and high education is necessary condition, informed choices come from those who have high education.

D. overlooks the possibility that the some factors other than genetics and culture may causally contribute both to education and to high optimism
- Correct. Classic scenario

E. does not acknowledge that some people who fail to make informed choices exude high optimism
- Neutral. If those who don't make informed decisions exude high optimism may or may not be a significant number. Since it doesn't specify, this is a non-factor.

Originally posted by mejia401 on 13 Mar 2014, 17:29.
Last edited by mejia401 on 13 Mar 2014, 17:31, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: Verbal Diagnostic Test No : 6 – CR Q No: 12  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Mar 2014, 17:30
Double post by accident. Please disregard.
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Re: Verbal Diagnostic Test No : 6 – CR Q No: 12  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jun 2014, 19:43
I dont agree with D. Why can't 'cultural practices' cause both high optimism and education? why does the option say 'some factors other than genetics and culture may causally contribute'? I know there can be a third causal reason too for such correlations, and also that a correlation does not directly infer causal relation. but the phrase that i just stated makes it confusing.
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Re: Verbal Diagnostic Test No : 6 – CR Q No: 12  [#permalink]

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New post 15 May 2015, 07:36
daagh wrote:
Some people believe that high optimism in some individuals is due to genetic and cultural practices alone. However, studies from many countries indicate a strong correlation between high optimism and high educational levels. Thus research supports the view that high optimism is largely due to the result of making informed choices.

The reasoning in the argument is most vulnerable to criticism on the grounds that the argument

A. presumes, without providing justification that only highly educated people make informed choices
B. overlooks the possibility that people who make informed choices may nonetheless suffer from inherited vices
C. presumes, without providing justification, that informed choices are available to everyone
D. overlooks the possibility that the some factors other than genetics and culture may causally contribute both to education and to high optimism
E. does not acknowledge that some people who fail to make informed choices exude high optimism

OA: D
OE:
(A) The culprit word is “only”. To polarize that only highly educated people exhibit high optimism is too radical and extreme thinking.
(B) The author specifically ignores the negative aspect of human characteristics such as inherited vices, which are unrestrainable in spite of educational levels
(C) Availability of certain factors is not discussed in the stimulus. The author simply correlates two factors.
(D) This is the correct answer. An outside element can cause the same effect; say for example working in a high-profile company such as Google or Microsoft... It is the third element which is the cause of the acquired habit
(E) The author specifically says that the effect is largely the result of the cause, and some people may still be oozing high optimism in spite of low education. So this answer goes against the grain of the argument.

Narrowed to B and D.

b-moderate
d-critic tone. criticize argument as a whole.

:)
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Re: Verbal Diagnostic Test No : 6 – CR Q No: 12  [#permalink]

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New post 15 May 2015, 16:29
I don't agree with any of the answers here. We want to know what criticism the argument is "most vulnerable to". The argument says, essentially:

• education produces optimism
• therefore making informed choices produces optimism

That argument is 'most vulnerable to the criticism' that it doesn't make any sense. What does the first point have to do with the second? It's a simple non sequitur. It's not an argument at all unless there's a link between 'education' and 'informed choices', so I suppose I'd pick A here, because it addresses the most serious problem with the argument - a much more serious problem than that the argument ignores alternative causes. But it's just not a well-designed question.
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Re: Verbal Diagnostic Test No : 6 – CR Q No: 12  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Nov 2015, 13:32
I don't understand how it can be D. The argument doesn't state that "genetics and culture may causally contribute both to education and to high optimism"

Is not the argument dismissing the belief stated in the first sentence?
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Re: Verbal Diagnostic Test No : 6 – CR Q No: 12  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Nov 2015, 23:55
Correlation can prove that:

1) factor 1 depends on factor 2
2) factor 2 depends on factor 1
3) factor 1 and 2 both depend on factor 3

D fits the 3rd case
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Re: Verbal Diagnostic Test No : 6 – CR Q No: 12  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Mar 2019, 23:51
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Re: Verbal Diagnostic Test No : 6 – CR Q No: 12   [#permalink] 19 Mar 2019, 23:51
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