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# While most archaeologists believe that primitive European societies

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While most archaeologists believe that primitive European societies  [#permalink]

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03 Sep 2018, 17:31
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Question 1
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While most archaeologists believe that primitive European societies were patriarchal in both their social and religious structures, a new controversial theory challenges these traditional views. This theory suggests that during the Stone Age there thrived in and around Europe peace-loving, matriarchal communities in which men and women lived together as equals, respected nature, and worshipped a nurturing deity called the Great Goddess.

The people of ―Old Europe—Europe from 7000 B.C. to 3500 B.C.—lived in stable agricultural societies in which women headed clans and men laboured as hunters and builders, but neither sex acted as a dominant force with respect to the other. War was shunned and craftspeople created comfortable dwellings and graceful ceramics instead of weapons. Like the woman-centred social system, the religion of Stone Age Europe focused on women in its veneration of the life-generating
Great Goddess and other female deities. Worship was closely linked to the themes of respect for life and regeneration.

Proponents of this theory contend that this peaceful and harmonious society was shattered by waves of Indo-European invaders in about the year 3500 B.C., when marauders from the Russian steppes transformed Europe from a peaceful, agrarian culture to one in which men dominated women and wars raged. Social and sexual egalitarianism were replaced by patriarchy and hierarchy, and warrior gods dethroned the Great Goddess. With the widespread decimation of Old Europe, the goddess-
centred religion went underground. However, its symbols have reappeared over the centuries in the forms of the female deities of Greece and Rome, in the Virgin Mary, and in the belief in spiritual forces lurking within the natural world.

The theory of the Great Goddess has been hailed by feminist social critics, artists, and religious thinkers for providing an important alternative to traditional, patriarchal mythologies and paradigms, as well as for providing a new and more positive model for the human relationship to the natural world.

Eminent anthropologist Ashley Montagu calls the theory ―a benchmark in the history of civilization,‖ yet many other investigators into prehistoric Europe consider the theory an unsubstantiated and idealistic version of history. To a number of critics, the chief problem in this radical theory is one of method. Traditional archaeologists, taking issue with unorthodox speculation on ancient belief systems, contend that archaeological evidence may tell us something about what people ate in the small villages of prehistoric Europe, how they built their homes, and what they traded, but cannot tell us much about what the dwellers of the ancient world actually thought. To them, such speculation is illegitimate. The most severe critics warn that, in blurring the distinction between intuition and fact, proponents of the new theory have failed as scientists.

But supporters of the theory of a goddess-worshipping Old Europe counter that such critiques reveal a certain narrow-mindedness on the part of scientists rather than weaknesses on the part of their theory arguing that some degree of speculation is important, perhaps even necessary, for the sake of progress in archaeology and other fields. This element of speculation helps reveal the implications of a theory.

1. Which of the following would be contrary to what a proponent of the theory of the Great Goddess most likely believes?

A. The available archaeological evidence does not rule out the idea that Old European matriarchal communities existed.
B. The field of archaeology has been dominated in the past by male- oriented scholarship.
C. Matriarchy is conducive to establishing a healthy relationship with the natural world.
D. The decimation of Old European society wiped away all traces of the Great Goddess religion.
E. Most men and women worshipped the Great Goddess

2. Based on the information in the passage, which of the following statements about prehistoric European society would traditional archaeologists most likely consider illegitimate?

A. The people were agrarian and not nomadic.
B. Food was cooked in clay vessels over a fire.
C. Arrows and spears were the most commonly used instruments of warfare.
D. The people were worried about invasion.

3. Which of the following maxims seems most in agreement with the argument that the supporters of the Great Goddess theory put forth in response to criticism?

A. Those who live by the sword will die by the sword.
B. A mind is like a parachute in that it only works when open.
C. He who does not understand his opponent‘s arguments does not understand his own.
D. The squeaky wheel gets the grease.
E. The early bird gets the worm

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Re: While most archaeologists believe that primitive European societies  [#permalink]

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04 Sep 2018, 19:31
Can someone explain me all three questions??
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Joined: 10 May 2018
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Re: While most archaeologists believe that primitive European societies  [#permalink]

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05 Sep 2018, 00:18
1
Allow me to explain

Question 1.Which of the following would be contrary to what a proponent of the theory of the Great Goddess most likely believes?

A. The available archaeological evidence does not rule out the idea that Old European matriarchal communities existed.
This is not what the information was intended to mean.
B. The field of archaeology has been dominated in the past by male- oriented scholarship.
Nothing has been discussed about the archaelogical society with respect to male or female domination.
C. Matriarchy is conducive to establishing a healthy relationship with the natural world.
Does not imply that matriatchial society is conducive.
D. The decimation of Old European society wiped away all traces of the Great Goddess religion.
Clearly mentioned here: With the widespread decimation of Old Europe, the goddess-centred religion went underground.
E. Most men and women worshipped the Great Goddess
Not mentioned in the passage.

Question 2.Based on the information in the passage, which of the following statements about prehistoric European society would traditional archaeologists most likely consider illegitimate?

A. The people were agrarian and not nomadic.
Mentioned in the passage to be legitimate.
B. Food was cooked in clay vessels over a fire.
Not mentioned in the passage.
C. Arrows and spears were the most commonly used instruments of warfare.
Not mentioned in the passage.
D. The people were worried about invasion.
Implied here: ...when marauders from the Russian steppes transformed Europe from a peaceful, agrarian culture to one...
Not true from what we know of the passage about the traditional achaelogists.

Question 3.Which of the following maxims seems most in agreement with the argument that the supporters of the Great Goddess theory put forth in response to criticism?

A. Those who live by the sword will die by the sword.
This was not the intended meaning.
B. A mind is like a parachute in that it only works when open.
Can be inferred from here: ...Old Europe counter that such critiques reveal a certain narrow-mindedness on the part of scientists rather than...
C. He who does not understand his opponent‘s arguments does not understand his own.
This was not the intended meaning.
D. The squeaky wheel gets the grease.
This was not the intended meaning.
E. The early bird gets the worm
This was not the intended meaning.

Golusoni wrote:
Can someone explain me all three questions??

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While most archaeologists believe that primitive European societies  [#permalink]

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05 Sep 2018, 01:39
abhinav770 wrote:
Allow me to explain

Question 1.Which of the following would be contrary to what a proponent of the theory of the Great Goddess most likely believes?

A. The available archaeological evidence does not rule out the idea that Old European matriarchal communities existed.
This is not what the information was intended to mean.
B. The field of archaeology has been dominated in the past by male- oriented scholarship.
Nothing has been discussed about the archaelogical society with respect to male or female domination.
C. Matriarchy is conducive to establishing a healthy relationship with the natural world.
Does not imply that matriatchial society is conducive.
D. The decimation of Old European society wiped away all traces of the Great Goddess religion.
Clearly mentioned here: With the widespread decimation of Old Europe, the goddess-centred religion went underground.
E. Most men and women worshipped the Great Goddess
Not mentioned in the passage.

Question 2.Based on the information in the passage, which of the following statements about prehistoric European society would traditional archaeologists most likely consider illegitimate?

A. The people were agrarian and not nomadic.
Mentioned in the passage to be legitimate.
B. Food was cooked in clay vessels over a fire.
Not mentioned in the passage.
C. Arrows and spears were the most commonly used instruments of warfare.
Not mentioned in the passage.
D. The people were worried about invasion.
Implied here: ...when marauders from the Russian steppes transformed Europe from a peaceful, agrarian culture to one...
Not true from what we know of the passage about the traditional achaelogists.

Question 3.Which of the following maxims seems most in agreement with the argument that the supporters of the Great Goddess theory put forth in response to criticism?

A. Those who live by the sword will die by the sword.
This was not the intended meaning.
B. A mind is like a parachute in that it only works when open.
Can be inferred from here: ...Old Europe counter that such critiques reveal a certain narrow-mindedness on the part of scientists rather than...
C. He who does not understand his opponent‘s arguments does not understand his own.
This was not the intended meaning.
D. The squeaky wheel gets the grease.
This was not the intended meaning.
E. The early bird gets the worm
This was not the intended meaning.

Golusoni wrote:
Can someone explain me all three questions??

How exactly did you arrive at the ans for question 2? It says what would the traditionalists consider illegitimate... Nowhere does it say that

However, in the statements "but cannot tell us much about what the dwellers of the ancient world actually thought. To them, such speculation is illegitimate. The most severe critics warn that, in blurring the distinction between intuition and fact, proponents of the new theory have failed as scientists." we can infer that we have no idea about their "thoughts" or in other words, their worries

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Re: While most archaeologists believe that primitive European societies  [#permalink]

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05 Sep 2018, 05:28
rahulkashyap wrote:

How exactly did you arrive at the ans for question 2? It says what would the traditionalists consider illegitimate... Nowhere does it say that

However, in the statements "but cannot tell us much about what the dwellers of the ancient world actually thought. To them, such speculation is illegitimate. The most severe critics warn that, in blurring the distinction between intuition and fact, proponents of the new theory have failed as scientists." we can infer that we have no idea about their "thoughts" or in other words, their worries

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OE
We know only two main things about traditional archaeologists: they advocate a patriarchal model, and, as described in the question above, they‘re skeptical that archaeology can cast much light onto what ancient peoples actually thought.
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Re: While most archaeologists believe that primitive European societies  [#permalink]

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10 Sep 2018, 10:41
OEs..
1) Keep the main elements of the Great Goddess theory in mind as you review the choices. Look for an answer choice that a proponent of this theory would have no opinion on or would disagree with. (D) fits nicely: ¶3 states explicitly that traces remained.

(A): Opposite. The proponent would have to agree with this, or there would be no logical way to believe the theory.

(B): Opposite. This is addressed in ¶4.

(C): Opposite. This is also explicitly stated in ¶4.

(E): Opposite. This is addressed in ¶1.

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Re: While most archaeologists believe that primitive European societies  [#permalink]

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10 Sep 2018, 10:42
2) Use your momentum from the last question to start this one out. We know only two main things about traditional archaeologists: they advocate a patriarchal model, and, as described in the question above, they‘re skeptical that archaeology can cast much light onto what ancient peoples actually thought. Scan the answer choices for a statement that runs afoul of one of these. Only choice (D) fits either one, referring to a ―worry‖ that traditionalists would say we can‘t know anything about.

(A): Out of Scope. This would be the sort of statement that a traditionalist would believe could potentially be backed up by evidence.

(B): Out of Scope. Like (A), entirely factual and therefore verifiable.

(C): Out of Scope. As above.

(E): Out of Scope. As above.

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Re: While most archaeologists believe that primitive European societies  [#permalink]

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10 Sep 2018, 10:44
3) Before jumping into the answer choices, make sure you‘re clear on the main argument the Great Goddess theorists use to respond to criticism. They have no evidence to counter with, but argue that unorthodox theories are useful for their own sake, because they stimulate dialogue. Keeping this in mind will quickly yield B.

(A): Out of Scope. Violence has nothing to do with the response the Great Goddess theorists make to criticism.

(C):Distortion. Though they might argue that new theories increase understanding, there‘s no indication that the traditionalists don‘t understand the Great Goddess theory.

(D): Out of Scope. This has nothing to do with the theorists‘ response.

(E): Out of Scope. This has nothing to do with the theorists‘ response

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Re: While most archaeologists believe that primitive European societies   [#permalink] 10 Sep 2018, 10:44
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