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# A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduced the a

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Intern
Joined: 21 Nov 2012
Posts: 7
Schools: Duke '15
A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduced the a  [#permalink]

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19 Mar 2014, 09:34
1
00:00

Difficulty:

(N/A)

Question Stats:

100% (00:37) correct 0% (00:00) wrong based on 100 sessions

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A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump into the Great Lakes.

(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
(B) reduced the phosphate amount that municipalities had been dumping
(C) reduces the phosphate amount municipalities have been allowed to dump
(D) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump
(E) reduces the amount of phosphates allowed for dumping by municipalities

Hallo egmat - Please help for the following Meaning analysis - Why A is wrong from meaning point of view [ in exam it will be very difficult to understand the intended meaning as per answer choice D ]

Official choice is - A

Why A is incorrect ?

Two Meaning - Everything happened in the past with a sequence -
A 1972 agreement reduced the amnt of phosphates had been allowed to dump [ municipalities had been dumping phosphates but the 1972 agreement reduced that ]

Answer choice A has no other visible error except the intended meaning as per correct answer choice D .

OPEN DISCUSSION OF THIS QUESTION IS HERE: https://gmatclub.com/forum/a-1972-agree ... 52000.html
Senior Manager
Joined: 28 Apr 2012
Posts: 275
Location: India
Concentration: Finance, Technology
GMAT 1: 650 Q48 V31
GMAT 2: 770 Q50 V47
WE: Information Technology (Computer Software)
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduced the a  [#permalink]

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19 Mar 2014, 15:04
1
This is a tense question.

Past Perfect and Past Perfect Continuos are always used when you have two actions in history and you want to show the sequence.

In Past Perfect, action 1 completes first, then action 2 starts.
In Past Perfect Continuous, action 1 has already continued over a period of time, then action 2 starts. [Note the difference - you cannot conclude that action 1 is complete when action 2 started]

Now what's an agreement ?
When both parties concur to follow a common instruction. So it is very clear that after 1972, municipalities followed the new limit and did not continue dumping the same amount they were dumping earlier. Hence you cannot use Past Perfect Continuous (had been dumping).

You can either use simple past (were allowed to dump - suggesting both action occurred at same time in history. i.e. they reduced the then allowed dumping limit and the dumping no longer continues today)
Or
use simple present(are allowed to dump - suggesting the dumping still continues today with the agreed limit).

Only option D fits to one of the scenario.
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Math Expert
Joined: 02 Sep 2009
Posts: 52910
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduced the a  [#permalink]

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19 Jan 2019, 01:11
gmat2013s wrote:
A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump into the Great Lakes.

(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
(B) reduced the phosphate amount that municipalities had been dumping
(C) reduces the phosphate amount municipalities have been allowed to dump
(D) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump
(E) reduces the amount of phosphates allowed for dumping by municipalities

Hallo egmat - Please help for the following Meaning analysis - Why A is wrong from meaning point of view [ in exam it will be very difficult to understand the intended meaning as per answer choice D ]

Official choice is - A

Why A is incorrect ?

Two Meaning - Everything happened in the past with a sequence -
A 1972 agreement reduced the amnt of phosphates had been allowed to dump [ municipalities had been dumping phosphates but the 1972 agreement reduced that ]

Answer choice A has no other visible error except the intended meaning as per correct answer choice D .

OPEN DISCUSSION OF THIS QUESTION IS HERE: https://gmatclub.com/forum/a-1972-agree ... 52000.html
_________________
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduced the a   [#permalink] 19 Jan 2019, 01:11
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