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A company plans to develop a prototype weeding machine that

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New post 19 Apr 2014, 09:03
A company plans to develop a prototype weeding machine that uses cutting blades with optical sensors and microprocessors that distinguish weeds from crop plants by differences in shade of color. The inventor of the machine claims that it will reduce labor costs by virtually eliminating the need for manual weeding.

Which of the following is a consideration in favor of the company’s implementing its plan to develop the prototype?

What is the reason for the invention?

A. There is a considerable degree of variation in shade of color between weeds of different species. - Irrelevant
B. The shade of color of some plants tends to change appreciably over the course of their growing season. - Change of colors to crop doesnt say the reason
C. When crops are weeded manually, overall size and leaf shape are taken into account in distinguishing crop plants from weeds. - Its tempting but still they ddint said anything about the toughness of the manual weeding depending on this.
D. Selection and genetic manipulation allow plants of virtually any species to be economically bred to have a distinctive shade of color without altering their other characteristics. - Genetic manipulation of plants by other species(our case weed), Hence the good reason among all to support the necessity of invention.
E. Farm laborers who are responsible for the manual weeding of crops carry out other agricultural duties at times in the growing season when extensive weeding is not necessary. - Out of scope
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New post 27 Feb 2015, 03:25
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Reasoning: a prototype with optical sensors and microprocessors can distinguish weeds from crop plants by differences in shade of color.

Prethinking:
--> So, the bigger the diff. in shade of color between weeds and crop, the easier it will be for a mashine to distinguish between them.
--> fewer colors of weeds > many colors for the mashine to ba able to distinguish between weeds and crop.

Question Type: Strengthen --> so, new information is appreciated here


Which of the following is a consideration in favor of the company's implementing its plan to develop the prototype?

A. There is a considerable degree of variation in shade of color between weeds of different species --> weakens the argument - see the reasoning stated above
B. The shade of color of some plants tends to change appreciably over the course of their growing season --> is it easier for mashine to make a distinction it this case ? NO.
C. When crops are weeded manually, overall size and leaf shape are taken into account in distinguishing crop plants from weeds --> irrelevant. We are concerned about the shade of color. Actually, it's a weakener.... more factors that must be distiguished by the mashine.
D. Selection and genetic manipulation allow plants of virtually any species to be economically bred to have a distinctive shade of color without altering their other characteristics --> CORRECT. Distinctive shade of color makes it easier for the mashine to make such distinction.
E. Farm laborers who are responsible for the manual weeding of crops carry out other agricultural duties at times in the growing season when extensive weeding is not necessary --> irrelevat. "Zero" information about the mashines and a distinction....
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New post 15 Jun 2015, 03:04
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A company plans to develop a prototype weeding machine that uses cutting blades with optical sensors and microprocessors that distinguish weeds from crop plants by differences in shade of color. The inventor of the machine claims that it will reduce labor costs by virtually eliminating the need for manual weeding.

Which of the following is a consideration in favor of the company's implementing its plan to develop the prototype?

A. There is a considerable degree of variation in shade of color between weeds of different species. - Variation in shades of color weakens the conclusion.
B. The shade of color of some plants tends to change appreciably over the course of their growing season - Same as A
C. When crops are weeded manually, overall size and leaf shape are taken into account in distinguishing crop plants from weeds. - When considering prototype machine, manual weeding should not come into picture. Weakens the solution.
D. Selection and genetic manipulation allow plants of virtually any species to be economically bred to have a distinctive shade of color without altering their other characteristics. - Prototype machine will easily remove distinctive single color weed from crop. Strengthen the conclusion.
E. Farm laborers who are responsible for the manual weeding of crops carry out other agricultural duties at times in the growing season when extensive weeding is not necessary. - This is just an assumption.


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New post 10 Aug 2015, 06:00
Meaning of the argument:
There is a machine which can cut weeds based on the difference between the color of weeds and the color of leaves. This would lead to reduction in labor costs. Which fact is true would ensure that the company's plan is successful i.e plan that the machine would work well and that it would reduce labor costs.

A. There is a considerable degree of variation in shade of color between weeds of different species. So what? The machine needs to compare weeds and leaves.
B. The shade of color of some plants tends to change appreciably over the course of their growing season.So what again..The plants may change to look like the weeds
C. When crops are weeded manually, overall size and leaf shape are taken into account in distinguishing crop plants from weeds. Out of scope. We are concerned with a contrast between the colors of the leaf and the weed
D. Selection and genetic manipulation allow plants of virtually any species to be economically bred to have a distinctive shade of color without altering their other characteristics. if this were true and in place, then finding a difference between the colors of the weed and the plant would be easy. A very audacious assumption, but it is an assumption which if true would be a proponent to the company's plan
E. Farm laborers who are responsible for the manual weeding of crops carry out other agricultural duties at times in the growing season when extensive weeding is not necessary. Out of scope, as the argument does not posit any reference to the time saving factor
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New post 16 Mar 2016, 18:43
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okdongdong wrote:
Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review, 2nd Edition

Practice Question
Question No.: 51
Page: 137
Difficulty:


A company plans to develop a prototype weeding machine that uses cutting blades with optical sensors and microprocessors that distinguish weeds from crop plants by differences in shade of color. The inventor of the machine claims that it will reduce labor costs by virtually eliminating the need for manual weeding.

Which of the following is a consideration in favor of the company's implementing its plan to develop the prototype?

A. There is a considerable degree of variation in shade of color between weeds of different species.
B. The shade of color of some plants tends to change appreciably over the course of their growing season.
C. When crops are weeded manually, overall size and leaf shape are taken into account in distinguishing crop plants from weeds.
D. Selection and genetic manipulation allow plants of virtually any species to be economically bred to have a distinctive shade of color without altering their other characteristics.
E. Farm laborers who are responsible for the manual weeding of crops carry out other agricultural duties at times in the growing season when extensive weeding is not necessary.


the main point - machine will be able to distinguish between weeds and crops.

A - tells about shades of color between different species of WEEDS. not really helping. if the weeds had different colors than the crops, then yes, it would have been the right answer.
B - not helping but rather weakening the claim. it might be the case that the machine will cut the crops.
C - what are the criterion to distinguish between crops and weeds is out of scope.
D - yes...if this can be done, then we can give a specific color to the crops..and the remaining colors would be cut by the machine..so less weeds..looks good.
E - what laborers do - is out of scope.
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New post 14 Apr 2016, 23:48
Conclusion: Machine will reduce labour costs by eliminating need for manual labour.
Premise: Machines can distinguish weed plants from crops by shades of colour

Assumption: Crops are actually different in their shade of colour from weeds.

Something which validates this assumption will strengthen the argument
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New post 15 Apr 2016, 23:04
PoojaSimply wrote:
A company plans to develop a prototype weeding machine that uses cutting blades with optical sensors and microprocessors that distinguish weeds from crop plants by differences in shade of color. The inventor of the machine claims that it will reduce labor costs by virtually eliminating the need for manual weeding.


Which of the following is a consideration in favor of the company’s implementing its plan to develop the prototype?

A. There is a considerable degree of variation in shade of color between weeds of different species.
Variation of shades is not an issue. prototype is going to handle all these. it's a premise so consider true. this choice is a weaken-er.

B. The shade of color of some plants tends to change appreciably over the course of their growing season.

same as A. this is not a problem. this choice is a weaken-er.

C. When crops are weeded manually, overall size and leaf shape are taken into account in distinguishing crop plants from weeds.
that may be true. but it does not help to strengthen anything about the conclusion. Irrelevant.

D. Selection and genetic manipulation allow plants of virtually any species to be economically bred to have a distinctive shade of color without altering their other characteristics.
if we can have a shade of color with no extra cost and no change in characteristic then it strengthen the fact that prototype will will be successful in its implementation and will reduce the manual work. hence reduce the extra cost.

E. Farm laborers who are responsible for the manual weeding of crops carry out other agricultural duties at times in the growing season when extensive weeding is not necessary.
this choice weakens the argument. Argument is not focussed on benifits from laborers but from machine.
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New post 27 Jun 2016, 19:55
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a constant pattern in colour change, on that ground it will distingush weed from crop plants. - this is only thing that is supporting it.

A. There is a considerable degree of variation in shade of color between weeds of different species. weaken it.
B. The shade of color of some plants tends to change appreciably over the course of their growing season. not supportive for sure.
C. When crops are weeded manually, overall size and leaf shape are taken into account in distinguishing crop plants from weeds. - weaken it.
D. Selection and genetic manipulation allow plants of virtually any species to be economically bred to have a distinctive shade of color without altering their other characteristics. - machine is actually based on this fact only.
E. Farm laborers who are responsible for the manual weeding of crops carry out other agricultural duties at times in the growing season when extensive weeding is not necessary. - weaken it.
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New post 27 Nov 2016, 03:36
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Option E: Farm laborers who are responsible for the manual weeding of crops carry out other agricultural duties at times in the growing season when extensive weeding is not necessary.

The argument says that the machine helps reduce labor costs.

First, when extensive weeding is necessary, the usage of m/c might help the case. We aren't sure. The option doesn't talk about any advantage the company might have in implementing a prototype of such a machine.
Second, when there isn't extensive weeding required, the farm laborers are already involved in other activities. In such a case, the machine will not help in reducing costs.

I hope this clears it herbgatherer
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New post 18 Dec 2016, 22:53
PoojaSimply wrote:
A company plans to develop a prototype weeding machine that uses cutting blades with optical sensors and microprocessors that distinguish weeds from crop plants by differences in shade of color. The inventor of the machine claims that it will reduce labor costs by virtually eliminating the need for manual weeding.

Which of the following is a consideration in favor of the company’s implementing its plan to develop the prototype?

A. There is a considerable degree of variation in shade of color between weeds of different species.
B. The shade of color of some plants tends to change appreciably over the course of their growing season.
C. When crops are weeded manually, overall size and leaf shape are taken into account in distinguishing crop plants from weeds.
D. Selection and genetic manipulation allow plants of virtually any species to be economically bred to have a distinctive shade of color without altering their other characteristics.
E. Farm laborers who are responsible for the manual weeding of crops carry out other agricultural duties at times in the growing season when extensive weeding is not necessary.


Type - Strengthen
Boil it down - prototype weeding machine that distinguishes weeds from crop plants by differences in shade of color will reduce labor costs
Pre-thinking - do the weeds and crops have distinct colors at the first place ? A technique using which this can be achieved

D. Selection and genetic manipulation allow plants of virtually any species to be economically bred to have a distinctive shade of color without altering their other characteristics.
- Correct answer
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Re: A company plans to develop a prototype weeding machine that  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Dec 2016, 23:46
nailin16 wrote:
Why is it not A?

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Hi nailin16 ,
A. There is a considerable degree of variation in shade of color between weeds of different species. - This statement is likely to make it difficult for prototype weeding machine to distinguish weed from crop plants . The complexity of underlying technology will increase if it has to have optical sensors that can differentiate between considerable degree of variation in shade of color between weeds of different species and crop plants .
At worst it tells that the prototype weeding machine might be unsuccessful and weakens the argument .

Hope this helps!! :)
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New post 21 Jun 2017, 07:52
A company plans to develop a prototype weeding machine that uses cutting blades with optical sensors and microprocessors that distinguish weeds from crop plants by differences in shade of color. The inventor of the machine claims that it will reduce labor costs by virtually eliminating the need for manual weeding.

Which of the following is a consideration in favor of the company's implementing its plan to develop the prototype?

A. There is a considerable degree of variation in shade of color between weeds of different species. Out of scope
Reasoning: Shades of different species of weed is discussed rather than discussing difference in shades if weed and crop.

B. The shade of color of some plants tends to change appreciably over the course of their growing season. Wrong
Reasoning:This option is generalizing it for all the plants instead of discussing weed and crop.

C. When crops are weeded manually, overall size and leaf shape are taken into account in distinguishing crop plants from weeds. Wrong
Reasoning : Shape and size of the leaves are discussed here and not shades irrelevant.

D. Selection and genetic manipulation allow plants of virtually any species to be economically bred to have a distinctive shade of color without altering their other characteristics. Correct
Reasoning : here since we can manipulate the shades of any plant which include weed also we can well distinguish between the crop and weed and the machine work on the principle of shades variation detected it will work and hence the company can produce the prototype

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Please do correct me if i have gone somewhere in reasoning.

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New post 23 Aug 2017, 00:42
"D" is the correct choice, Making crop plants easily distinguishable from weeds would facilitate the effective use of the weeding machine.

I used the elimination method in this, clearly leading me to the right choice.

Reasoning: Looking for the options that favors the company's plans.

A - Greater variation between weed and crop plants is against the idea of using machines
B - Not in favour of using machine - so this is out
C - Not in favour of the benefits derived from the machines - this is also out
E - This does not favor the company's implementing the plan to develop the machine
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New post 07 Nov 2017, 19:58
sevenplusplus wrote:
Can someone point of which type of question is it? Strengthen or assumption?


Kaplan or Manhattan can say strengthen is a kind of an assumption, but the two are different. For practice purposes, all test takers often see strengthen and assumption are two different types of question.

The question is strengthen b/c of 2 elements that are in the question: "consideration" & "plan"

"consideration" = "Reason" = "ground" = "support" = .... ; this word is not clear enough to identify a question type.
In the same way, "plan" = "Argument" = "hypothesis" = "statement" =....this word is not clear enough to identify a question type.

Two of them together tells that this is a strengthen question.

There is another type of question: combination of strengthen and explanation. That is, you have to find an answer that strengthens one explanation but weaken the other explanation.

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New post 21 Mar 2018, 07:35
Let just say you have a machine that can distinguish weed from normal plant on the basis of shade of color. let just say light green is weed and dark green is plant. now if that light green shade is any where on field this machine will detect it and cut it down.

lets find something to give some hope to these guys.

A. There is a considerable degree of variation in shade of color between weeds of different species. --- so I put light green and shade varied to some darker side. not good for these folks, out.
B. The shade of color of some plants tends to change appreciably over the course of their growing season. ---- again if shade is varying so much then its not okay. out.
C. When crops are weeded manually, overall size and leaf shape are taken into account in distinguishing crop plants from weeds. --- machine has no setting for size based identification. out of scope.
D. Selection and genetic manipulation allow plants of virtually any species to be economically bred to have a distinctive shade of color without altering their other characteristics. ----- so weed can have any shade of color, from light green to dark green but just one shade at a time. put that shade in the machine and it will cut all weeds. sounds good to me.
E. Farm laborers who are responsible for the manual weeding of crops carry out other agricultural duties at times in the growing season when extensive weeding is not necessary. ---- straight out of scope.

hope it helps in improving your understanding.
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New post 28 Mar 2018, 11:06
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I am down to A and D and i find A more convincing then D to choose.

Please help me with this.
I invented a machine which differentiates Tshirts on the basis of color and helps me to pick one.
Now the more degree of variation of color, more will be the efficiency of the machine to choose correctly.

Example - I want a red shirt and the pool contains Red - Blue - Black which all are vibrant colors and easy to differentiate from.
However, If the pool contains Magenta,Purple, Dark Purple which narrows are variation of colors and this will lead to a subtle difference in choosing of an Tshirt for the machine and this will be a problem for the machine.
How to choose?

The same is the case for this machine here.

Thanking in advance.
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New post 28 Mar 2018, 19:29
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Sakshij0694 wrote:
mikemcgarry GMATNinja
I am down to A and D and i find A more convincing then D to choose.

Please help me with this.
I invented a machine which differentiates Tshirts on the basis of color and helps me to pick one.
Now the more degree of variation of color, more will be the efficiency of the machine to choose correctly.

Example - I want a red shirt and the pool contains Red - Blue - Black which all are vibrant colors and easy to differentiate from.
However, If the pool contains Magenta,Purple, Dark Purple which narrows are variation of colors and this will lead to a subtle difference in choosing of an Tshirt for the machine and this will be a problem for the machine.
How to choose?

The same is the case for this machine here.

Thanking in advance.


I think you can solve this problem by giving emphasis on this part "distinguish weeds from crop plants by differences in shade of color" . its not shades of color. Feel that machine has two input one take purple, one take magenta. and tell true/false as it should be.

Hope it helps.
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New post 10 May 2018, 17:09
GMATNinja VeritasPrepKarishma

I would like to know what is it that a student misses to get to OA
in such HARD questions apart from skimming through the argument.

Goal of plan: To develop a prototype that makes clear difference between weeds and plants on basis of differences in shades of color.

Q type: I need to strengthen the implementation of above plan.

Quote:
(A) There is a considerable degree of variation in shade of color between weeds of different species

Nope we need to chop off weeds from plants, different types of weeds are not my areas of concern

Quote:
B) The shade of color of some plants tends to change appreciably over the course of their growing season.

It says shades of some plants change drastically ie in a large extent during the span of their growth.
So it does help new prototype machine to chop of plants from weeds.

Quote:
(C) When crops are weeded manually, overallsize and leaf shape are taken into account in distinguishing crop plants from weeds.

No mention how difference in color is useful in chopping off plants from weeds.

Quote:
(D) Selection and genetic manipulation allow plants of virtually any species to be economically bred to have a distinctive shade of color without altering their other characteristics.

As per me, the biggest reason missing out on this is: no mention of automatic weeding machine in OA, but I had to infer fair amount
of understanding from argument to link how selection and genetic changing of almost a large number of plants to allow to have
an unique shade of color of each plant from one another . At least I could not infer to such an understanding level under time pressure.
What is the correct way of approach here?

Quote:
(E)]Farm laborers who are responsible for the manual weeding of crops carry out other agricultural duties at times in the growing season when extensive weeding is not necessary.

Totally out of scope
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New post 10 May 2018, 21:28
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A company plans to develop a prototype weeding machine that uses cutting blades with optical sensors and microprocessors that distinguish weeds from crop plants by differences in shade of color. The inventor of the machine claims that it will reduce labor costs by virtually eliminating the need for manual weeding.

Question type: Strengthen

Known Information:
A prototype weeding machine to eliminate the need for manual weeding. This is classic Man vs Machine argument.

Supporting statement: Company claims that the machine distinguishes weeds from crops using difference in shade of color.

So anything that would make this differentiation would weaken company's claims. Now lets see the options

(A) There is a considerable degree of variation in shade of color between weeds of different species - This will make the job of the machine difficult.

B) The shade of color of some plants tends to change appreciably over the course of their growing season - If the color changes , will the machine keep up the with the changes ? Another challenge for the machine.

(C) When crops are weeded manually, overall size and leaf shape are taken into account in distinguishing crop plants from weeds - Huh we considered only the color differentiation here - This definitely weakens.

(D) Selection and genetic manipulation allow plants of virtually any species to be economically bred to have a distinctive shade of color without altering their other characteristics - This sounds good. Only differentiation is based on color which ideally suits the machine's work - Lets hold on to this option for now.

(E) Farm laborers who are responsible for the manual weeding of crops carry out other agricultural duties at times in the growing season when extensive weeding is not necessary - Out of scope for the question here.

D is the promising option here

Ans: D
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