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# A key decision required of advertising managers

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BSchool Forum Moderator
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11 Oct 2015, 21:59
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83% (04:05) correct 17% (03:33) wrong based on 143

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OG 16 Verbal Review
Passage No.:3
Questions: 11 to 17

A key decision required of advertising managers is whether a “hard-sell” or “soft-sell” strategy is appropriate for a specific target market. The hard-sell approach involves the use of direct, forceful claims regarding the benefits of the advertised brand over competitors’ offerings. In contrast, the soft-sell approach involves the use of advertising claims that imply superiority more subtly.

One positive aspect of the hard-sell approach is its use of very simple and straightforward product claims presented claims presented as explicit conclusions, with little room for confusion regarding the advertiser's message. However, some consumers may resent being told what to believe and some may distrust the message. Resentment and distrust often lead to counterargumentation and to boomerang effects where consumers come to believe conclusions diametrically opposed to conclusions endorsed in advertising claims. By contrast, the risk of boomerang erects is greatly reduced with soft-sell approaches. One way to implement the soft-sell approach is to provide information that implies the main conclusions the advertiser wants the consumer to draw, but leave the conclusions themselves unstated. Because consumers are invited to make up their own minds, implicit conclusions reduce the risk of resentment, distrust, and counterargumentation.

Recent research on consumer memory and judgement suggests another advantage of implicit conclusions. Beliefs or conclusions that are self-generated are more accessible from memory than beliefs from conclusions provided explicitly by other individuals, and thus have a greater impact on judgment and decision making. Moreover, self-generated beliefs are often perceived as more accurate and valid than the beliefs of others, because other individuals may be perceived as less knowledgeable, or may be perceived as manipulative or deliberately misleading.

Despite these advantages, implicit conclusions may mot always be more effective than explicit conclusions. One risk is that some consumers may fail to draw their own conclusions and thus miss the point of the message. Inferential activity is likely only when consumers are motivated and able to engage in effortful cognitive processes. Another risk is that some consumers may draw conclusions other than the one intended. Even if inferential activity is likely, there is no guarantee that consumers will follow the path provided by the advertiser. Finally, a third risk is that consumers may infer the intended conclusion but question the validity of their inference.

11 It can be inferred from the passage that one reason an advertiser might prefer a hard-sell approach to a soft-sell approach is that

A) the risks of boomerang effects are minimized when the conclusions an advertiser wants the consumer to draw are themselves left unstated

B) counterargumentation is likely from consumers who fail to draw their own conclusions regarding an advertising claims

C) inferential activity is likely to occur even if consumers perceive themselves to be more knowledgeable than the individuals presenting product claims

D) research on consumer memory suggests that the explicit conclusions provided by an advertiser using hard-sell approach have a significant impact on decision making

E) the information presented by an advertiser using the soft-sell approach may imply different conclusions to different consumers
[Reveal] Spoiler:
OA:E

12 Each of the following is mentioned in the passage as a characteristic of the hard-sell approach EXCEPT

A) its overall message is readily grasped

B) it appeals to consumers' knowledge about the product

C) it makes to explicit claims that the advertised brand is superior to other brands

D) it makes explicit claims that the advertised brand is superior to other brands

E) it makes claims in the form of direct conclusions
[Reveal] Spoiler:
OA:B

13 It can be inferred from the passage that advertisers could reduce one of the risks discussed in the last paragraph if they were able to provide

B) information that implies the advertiser’s intended conclusion but leaves that conclusion unstated

C) subtle evidence that the advertised product is superior to that of competitors

D) information comparing the advertised product with its competitors

E) opportunity for consumers to generate their own beliefs or conclusions
[Reveal] Spoiler:
OA:A

14 The primary purpose of the passage is to

A) point out the risks involved in the use of a particular advertising strategy

B) make a case or the superiority of one advertising strategy over another

C) illustrate the ways in which two advertising strategies may be implemented

E) contrast the types of target markets for which two advertising strategies are appropriate
[Reveal] Spoiler:
OA:D

15 which of the following best describes the function of the sentence in lines 25-28(Because consumers are invited to make up their)
in the context of the passage as a whole?

A) it reiterates a distinction between two advertising strategies that is made in the first paragraph

B) it explains how a particular strategy avoids a drawback described earlier in the paragraph

C) it suggests that a risk described earlier in the paragraph is less serious than some researchers believe it to be

D) it outlines why the strategy described in the previous sentence involves certain risks for an advertisement’s

E) it introduces an argument that will be refunded in the following paragraph
[Reveal] Spoiler:
OA:B

16 It can be inferred from the passage that one situation in which the boomerang effect often occurs is when consumers

A) have been exposed to forceful claims that are diametrically opposed to those in an advertiser’s message

B) have previous self-generated beliefs or conclusions that are readily accessible from memory

C) are subjected to advertising messages that are targeted at specific markets to which those consumers do not belong

D) are confused regarding the point of the advertiser’s message

E) come to view the advertiser’s message with suspicion
[Reveal] Spoiler:
OA:E

17 It can be inferred from the passage that the research mentioned in line 43 (Recent research on consumer memory and judgment) supports which of the following statements?

A) implicit conclusions are more likely to capture accurately the point of the advertiser’s message than are explicit conclusions.

B) Counterargument action is less likely to occur if an individual’s beliefs or conclusions are readily accessible from memory.

C) The hard-sell approach results in conclusions that are more difficult for the consumer to recall than are conclusions resulting from the soft-sell approach.

D) When the beliefs of others are presented as definite and forceful claims, they are perceived to be as accurate as self-generated beliefs.

E) Despite the advantages of implicit conclusions, the hard-sell approach involves fewer risks for the advertiser than does the soft-sell approach.
[Reveal] Spoiler:
OA:C

[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #1 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #2 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #3 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #4 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #5 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #6 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #7 OA

Last edited by Vyshak on 10 Oct 2016, 08:00, edited 2 times in total.
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12 Oct 2015, 13:43
got 13th question wrong, but now satisfied with the OA.
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08 Jan 2016, 03:11
Can someone please explain the 16th?

I might have missed something.
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27 Jan 2016, 20:49
11. It can be inferred from the passage that one reason an advertiser might prefer a hard-sell approach to a soft-sell approach is that
E) the information presented by an advertiser using the soft-sell approach may imply different conclusions to different consumers
"the hard-sell approach is its use of very simple and straightforward product claims presented claims presented as explicit conclusions" &"the soft-sell approach is to provide information that implies the main conclusions the advertiser wants the consumer to draw"

12.Each of the following is mentioned in the passage as a characteristic of the hard-sell approach EXCEPT
B) it appeals to consumers' knowledge about the product
4 other choices each are mentioned in the passage.

13. It can be inferred from the passage that advertisers could reduce one of the risks discussed in the last paragraph if they were able to provide
"Inferential activity is likely only when consumers are motivated and able to engage in effortful cognitive processes."

14. The primary purpose of the passage is to
" The first passage introduce two methods, the other ones discuss disadvantage and advantage of the two methods"

15. Which of the following best describes the function of the sentence in lines 25-28(Because consumers are invited to make up their) in the context of the passage as a whole?
B) it explains how a particular strategy avoids a drawback described earlier in the paragraph
"Because consumers are invited to make up their own minds, implicit conclusions reduce the risk of resentment, distrust, and counterargumentation" these risks are belonged to the hard-sell methods.

16. It can be inferred from the passage that one situation in which the boomerang effect often occurs is when consumers
E) come to view the advertiser’s message with suspicion
"counterargumentation and to boomerang effects where consumers come to believe conclusions diametrically opposed to conclusions endorsed in advertising claims."

17. It can be inferred from the passage that the research mentioned in line 43 (Recent research on consumer memory and judgment) supports which of the following statements?
C) The hard-sell approach results in conclusions that are more difficult for the consumer to recall than are conclusions resulting from the soft-sell approach.
"Beliefs or conclusions that are self-generated are more accessible from memory than beliefs from conclusions provided explicitly by other individuals, and thus have a greater impact on judgment and decision making"
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28 Jul 2016, 09:41
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Top Contributor
12 mins all correct. Let me know if there are any queries.
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26 Dec 2016, 10:35
12 min 43 seconds.. 5 correct out of 7..
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24 Jan 2017, 00:17
14 mins all correct. Last one was a little confusing.
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28 Jan 2017, 01:50
For 13th, i too first opted for A:Motivation which will lead to inferential activity.
But later in the para its mentioned this "Even if inferential activity is likely, there is no guarantee that consumers will follow the path provided by the advertiser."
Even inferential activity will not prevent this risk. So ultimately motivation is also not helpful.

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31 Mar 2017, 03:24
JarvisR wrote:
12 mins all correct. Let me know if there are any queries.

Sent from my Lenovo YT3-850M using GMAT Club Forum mobile app
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31 Mar 2017, 22:53
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srikanth9502 wrote:
JarvisR wrote:
12 mins all correct. Let me know if there are any queries.

Sent from my Lenovo YT3-850M using GMAT Club Forum mobile app

Let me try. The question is:

16 It can be inferred from the passage that one situation in which the boomerang effect often occurs is when consumers

A) have been exposed to forceful claims that are diametrically opposed to those in an advertiser’s message
B) have previous self-generated beliefs or conclusions that are readily accessible from memory
C) are subjected to advertising messages that are targeted at specific markets to which those consumers do not belong
D) are confused regarding the point of the advertiser’s message
E) come to view the advertiser’s message with suspicion

According to the passage, boomerang effect occurs in hard cell approach where explicit conclusions about the superiority of the product are stated by advertising managers to the customers. However, some consumers, who already had their own belief may distrust these conclusions eventually leading to boomerang effect. Since, according to the passage, own beliefs are considered to be more accurate than those presented by others, these customers will be skeptical about these hard conclusions.

POE:
A) have been exposed to forceful claims that are diametrically opposed to those in an advertiser’s message Claims to which consumers are exposed will not be diametrically opposite. Rather, claims consumers already have will be diametrically opposite to those they have exposed

B) have previous self-generated beliefs or conclusions that are readily accessible from memory Even if the conclusions are readily available, we don't know whether they are in line with the advertising manager's conclusion or they are opposite

C) are subjected to advertising messages that are targeted at specific markets to which those consumers do not belongIf the consumers do not belong to those specific markets they will not have any beliefs and there will be no boomerang effect.

D) are confused regarding the point of the advertiser’s messageIf the consumers themselves are confused , they are not likely to have distrust over advertising manager's beliefs

E) come to view the advertiser’s message with suspicion If the consumers come with suspicion, means they already have self beliefs and they are likely to contradict with advertising manager's beliefs which ma lead to boomerang effect.

Kudos if it helped...
A key decision required of advertising managers   [#permalink] 31 Mar 2017, 22:53
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