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A long-held view of the history of the English coloni

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A long-held view of the history of the English coloni  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jan 2019, 03:09
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A long-held view of the history of the English colonies that became the United States has been that England's policy toward these colonies before 1763 was Line dictated by commercial interests and that a change to more imperial policy, dominated by expansionist militarist objectives, generated the tensions that ultimately led to the American Revolution. In a recent study, Stephen Saunders Webb has presented a formidable challenge to this view. According to Webb, England already had a military imperial policy for more than a century before the American Revolution. He sees Charles II, the English monarch between 1660 and 1685, as the proper successor of the Tudor monarchs of the sixteenth century and of Oliver Cromwell, all of whom were bent on extending centralized executive power over England's possessions through the use of what Webb calls "garrison government:' Garrison government allowed the colonists a legislative assembly, but real authority, in Webb's view, belonged to the colonial governor, who was appointed by the king and supported by the "garrison," that is, by the local contingent of English troops under the colonial governor's command.

According to Webb, the purpose of garrison government was to provide military support for a royal policy designed to limit the power of the upper classes in the American colonies. Webb argues that the colonial legislative assemblies represented the interests not of the common people but of the colonial upper classes, a coalition of merchants and nobility who favored self-rule and sought to elevate legislative authority at the expense of the executive. It was, according to Webb, the colonial governors who favored the small farmer, opposed the plantation system, and tried through taxation to break up large holdings of land. Backed by the military presence of the garrison, these governors tried to prevent the gentry and merchants, allied in the colonial assemblies, from transforming colonial America into a capitalistic oligarchy.

Webb's study illuminates the political alignments that existed in the colonies in the century prior to the American Revolution, but his view of the crown's use of the military as an instrument of colonial policy is not entirely convincing. England during the seventeenth century was not noted for its military achievements. Cromwell did mount England's most ambitious overseas military expedition in more than a century, but it proved to be an utter failure. Under Charles II, the English army was too small to be a major instrument of government. Not until the war with France in 1697 did William HI persuade Parliament to create a professional standing army, and Parliament's price for doing so was to keep the army under tight legislative control. While it may be true that the crown attempted to curtail the power of the colonial upper classes, it is hard to imagine how the English army during the seventeenth century could have provided significant military support for such a policy.
The passage can best be described as a

(A) survey of the inadequacies of a conventional viewpoint
(B) reconciliation of opposing points of view
(C) summary and evaluation of a recent study
(D) defense of a new thesis from anticipated objections
(E) review of the subtle distinctions between apparently similar views


Spoiler: :: OA
C


The passage suggests that the view referred to in lines 1-7 argued that

(A) the colonial governors were sympathetic to the demands of the common people
(B) Charles II was a pivotal figure in the shift of English monarchs toward a more imperial policy in their governorship of the American colonies
(C) the American Revolution was generated largely out of a conflict between the colonial upper classes and an alliance of merchants and small farmers
(D) the military did not play a major role as an instrument of colonial policy until 1763
(E) the colonial legislative assemblies in the colonies had little influence over the colonial governors


Spoiler: :: OA
D


It can be inferred from the passage that Webb would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements regarding garrison government?

(A) Garrison government gave legislative assemblies in the colonies relatively little authority, compared to the authority that it gave the colonial governors.
(B) Garrison government proved relatively ineffective until it was used by Charles II to curb the power of colonial legislatures.
(C) Garrison government became a less viable colonial policy as the English Parliament began to exert tighter legislative control over the English military.
(D) Oliver Cromwell was the first English ruler to make use of garrison government on a large scale.
(E) The creation of a professional standing army in England in 1697 actually weakened garrison government by diverting troops from the garrisons stationed in the American colonies.


Spoiler: :: OA
A


According to the passage, Webb views Charles II as the "proper successor" of the Tudor monarchs and Cromwell because Charles II

(A) used colonial tax revenues to fund overseas military expeditions
(B) used the military to extend executive power over the English colonies
(C) wished to transform the American colonies into capitalistic oligarchies
(D) resisted the English Parliament's efforts to exert control over the military
(E) allowed the American colonists to use legislative assemblies as a forum for resolving grievances against the crown


Spoiler: :: OA
B


Which of the following, if true, would most seriously weaken the author's assertion in lines 54-58 ?

(A) Because they were poorly administered, Cromwell's overseas military expeditions were doomed to failure.
(B) Because it relied primarily on the symbolic presence of the military, garrison government could be effectively administered with a relatively small number of troops.
(C) Until early in the seventeenth century, no professional standing army in Europe had performed effectively in overseas military expeditions.
(D) Many of the colonial governors appointed by the crown were also commissioned army officers.
(E) Many of the English troops stationed in the American colonies were veterans of other overseas military expeditions.


Spoiler: :: OA
B


According to Webb's view of colonial history, which of the following was (were) true of the merchants and nobility mentioned in line 30 ?

I. They were opposed to policies formulated by Charles II that would have transformed the colonies into capitalistic oligarchies.
II. They were opposed to attempts by the English crown to limit the power of the legislative assemblies.
III. They were united with small farmers in their opposition to the stationing of English troops in the colonies.

(A) I only
(B) II only
(C) I and II only
(D) II and III only
(E) I, II, and III


Spoiler: :: OA
B


The author suggests that if William III had wanted to make use of the standing army mentioned in line 52 to administer garrison government in the American colonies, he would have had to

(A) make peace with France
(B) abolish the colonial legislative assemblies
(C) seek approval from the English Parliament
(D) appoint colonial governors who were more sympathetic to royal policy
(E) raise additional revenues by increasing taxation of large landholdings in the colonies


Spoiler: :: OA
C



NOTE: passage from official GRE Material.

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Re: A long-held view of the history of the English coloni  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 09 Jan 2019, 04:35
5
9 mins and all correct! Pleased to get them all right... good read. :-)

Will post my take on answer explanations in successive edits to this post.
Edit 1:
Summar: Author has a negative view of Webb's Recent study which is outlined in detail.
Long held view - earlier British conquest (before 1763) was only commercial and once they brought in the military and tried to enforce imperial policy the American revolution took place. The main point of discussion is a recent study by Stephen Saunders Webb which opposes this view. Saunders goes on to state that the British Empire had a garrison government approach to American colonies for a 100 years before the revolution - with a Governor having executive power and a legislative assembly of high-class colonists only enjoyed only superficial powers. Webb goes on to detail how the garrison government might have prevented the high-class colonists from going on to set a capitalist oligarchy (similar to the TSAR's Russia) by preventing them to loot the peasants. ( Verbatim - "Webb argues that the colonial legislative assemblies represented the interests not of the common people but of the colonial upper classes, a coalition of merchants and nobility") The author goes on to give some credit to Webb for presenting the political conditions but then refutes his theory. The author reasons that the English did not have a large army and that the expeditions of Charles II were unsuccessful & it is not clear how the garrison governments could have supported the governor in establishing the interests of the Empire.


Central idea question - need to summarize the passage for this.
The passage can best be described as a
(A) survey of the inadequacies of a conventional viewpoint TRAP - the is indirectly what the author tries to do but this is not the central theme.
(B) reconciliation of opposing points of view Discard. There are no opposing views.
(C) summary and evaluation of a recent study BINGO - Webb's recent study is the main idea being discussed.
(D) defense of a new thesis from anticipated objections Discard. Too vague.
(E) review of the subtle distinctions between apparently similar views Discard for same as above.

The opening line provides the long lasting view which Webb's recent study opposes.
The passage suggests that the view referred to in lines 1-7 argued that
(A) the colonial governors were sympathetic to the demands of the common people Irrelevant to the mentioned lines.
(B) Charles II was a pivotal figure in the shift of English monarchs toward a more imperial policy in their governorship of the American colonies Irrelevant to the mentioned lines.
(C) the American Revolution was generated largely out of a conflict between the colonial upper classes and an alliance of merchants and small farmers Opposite - the first seven lines talk about the American revolution being against the imperial military invasion post 1763
(D) the military did not play a major role as an instrument of colonial policy until 1763 BINGO - mentioned verbatim
(E) the colonial legislative assemblies in the colonies had little influence over the colonial governors Irrelevant to the mentioned lines.

Webb thought that garrison governments were the instrument used by the governor to control the colonies and also prevent the high-class colonists from taking over the peasants and converting America into a capitalist Oligarchy.
It can be inferred from the passage that Webb would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements regarding garrison government?
(A) Garrison government gave legislative assemblies in the colonies relatively little authority, compared to the authority that it gave the colonial governors. BINGO - easy correct choice. Please to have it as Option (A)
(B) Garrison government proved relatively ineffective until it was used by Charles II to curb the power of colonial legislatures. TRAP - Garrison governments did not exist before the military came in and hence this is incorrect.
(C) Garrison government became a less viable colonial policy as the English Parliament began to exert tighter legislative control over the English military. Opposite is true. Discard.
(D) Oliver Cromwell was the first English ruler to make use of garrison government on a large scale. Not mentioned discard.
(E) The creation of a professional standing army in England in 1697 actually weakened garrison government by diverting troops from the garrisons stationed in the American colonies. Oposite could be true. Discard.

Detail question - straightforward from the passage.
According to the passage, Webb views Charles II as the "proper successor" of the Tudor monarchs and Cromwell because Charles II
(A) used colonial tax revenues to fund overseas military expeditions Not mentioned. Discard.
(B) used the military to extend executive power over the English colonies BINGO - this description is used in the passage.
(C) wished to transform the American colonies into capitalistic oligarchies Discard.
(D) resisted the English Parliament's efforts to exert control over the military Did not resist thoseefforts but had toseek their blessings.
(E) allowed the American colonists to use legislative assemblies as a forum for resolving grievances against the crown Not mentioned discard.

Detail question which is difficult to spot as these lines have not been highlighted.
Which of the following, if true, would most seriously weaken the author's assertion in lines 54-58 ?
(A) Because they were poorly administered, Cromwell's overseas military expeditions were doomed to failure. Not mentioned in the passage, Discard.
(B) Because it relied primarily on the symbolic presence of the military, garrison government could be effectively administered with a relatively small number of troops. BINGO - this undermines the author when he refutes Webb's study.
(C) Until early in the seventeenth century, no professional standing army in Europe had performed effectively in overseas military expeditions. Irrelevant to the lines.. discard.
(D) Many of the colonial governors appointed by the crown were also commissioned army officers. Irrelevant discard.
(E) Many of the English troops stationed in the American colonies were veterans of other overseas military expeditions.Out of scope. Discard.

Detail question - multiple correct type. Need to understand the gist of the passage to be able to answer this.
According to Webb's view of colonial history, which of the following was (were) true of the merchants and nobility mentioned in line 30 ?

I. They were opposed to policies formulated by Charles II that would have transformed the colonies into capitalistic oligarchies. Opposite - the author mentions that the garrison governments did not allow the high-class colonists from doing so, hence they ought to have been opposed.
II. They were opposed to attempts by the English crown to limit the power of the legislative assemblies. Yep - true for above reason.
III. They were united with small farmers in their opposition to the stationing of English troops in the colonies. Webb does not agree that the high-class colonists were united with the farmers.

(A) I only
(B) II only Correct option.
(C) I and II only
(D) II and III only
(E) I, II, and III

Detail question from the last paragraph of the passage.
The author suggests that if William III had wanted to make use of the standing army mentioned in line 52 to administer garrison government in the American colonies, he would have had to
(A) make peace with France Not mentioned. Discard.
(B) abolish the colonial legislative assemblies Legislative assemblies worked with the garrison governments.
(C) seek approval from the English Parliament Yup, verbatim from the passage.
(D) appoint colonial governors who were more sympathetic to royal policy Out of scope. Discard.
(E) raise additional revenues by increasing taxation of large landholdings in the colonies Out of scope - the parliament had provided for the army. Discard.

Hope these explanations are helpful.
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Originally posted by Gladiator59 on 09 Jan 2019, 04:02.
Last edited by Gladiator59 on 09 Jan 2019, 04:35, edited 1 time in total.
Added answer explanations to all questions.
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Re: A long-held view of the history of the English coloni  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Jan 2019, 20:39

+1 kudos to the posts containing answer explanations of all questions


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Re: A long-held view of the history of the English coloni  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Jan 2019, 02:35
19 minutes. All correct. I don't know how to avoid re-reading setneces when doing passages.

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A long-held view of the history of the English coloni  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Jan 2019, 08:49
Gladiator59 wrote:
9 mins and all correct! Pleased to get them all right... good read. :-)

Will post my take on answer explanations in successive edits to this post.
Edit 1:
Summar: Author has a negative view of Webb's Recent study which is outlined in detail.
Long held view - earlier British conquest (before 1763) was only commercial and once they brought in the military and tried to enforce imperial policy the American revolution took place. The main point of discussion is a recent study by Stephen Saunders Webb which opposes this view. Saunders goes on to state that the British Empire had a garrison government approach to American colonies for a 100 years before the revolution - with a Governor having executive power and a legislative assembly of high-class colonists only enjoyed only superficial powers. Webb goes on to detail how the garrison government might have prevented the high-class colonists from going on to set a capitalist oligarchy (similar to the TSAR's Russia) by preventing them to loot the peasants. ( Verbatim - "Webb argues that the colonial legislative assemblies represented the interests not of the common people but of the colonial upper classes, a coalition of merchants and nobility") The author goes on to give some credit to Webb for presenting the political conditions but then refutes his theory. The author reasons that the English did not have a large army and that the expeditions of Charles II were unsuccessful & it is not clear how the garrison governments could have supported the governor in establishing the interests of the Empire.


Central idea question - need to summarize the passage for this.
The passage can best be described as a
(A) survey of the inadequacies of a conventional viewpoint TRAP - the is indirectly what the author tries to do but this is not the central theme.
(B) reconciliation of opposing points of view Discard. There are no opposing views.
(C) summary and evaluation of a recent study BINGO - Webb's recent study is the main idea being discussed.
(D) defense of a new thesis from anticipated objections Discard. Too vague.
(E) review of the subtle distinctions between apparently similar views Discard for same as above.

The opening line provides the long lasting view which Webb's recent study opposes.
The passage suggests that the view referred to in lines 1-7 argued that
(A) the colonial governors were sympathetic to the demands of the common people Irrelevant to the mentioned lines.
(B) Charles II was a pivotal figure in the shift of English monarchs toward a more imperial policy in their governorship of the American colonies Irrelevant to the mentioned lines.
(C) the American Revolution was generated largely out of a conflict between the colonial upper classes and an alliance of merchants and small farmers Opposite - the first seven lines talk about the American revolution being against the imperial military invasion post 1763
(D) the military did not play a major role as an instrument of colonial policy until 1763 BINGO - mentioned verbatim
(E) the colonial legislative assemblies in the colonies had little influence over the colonial governors Irrelevant to the mentioned lines.

Webb thought that garrison governments were the instrument used by the governor to control the colonies and also prevent the high-class colonists from taking over the peasants and converting America into a capitalist Oligarchy.
It can be inferred from the passage that Webb would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements regarding garrison government?
(A) Garrison government gave legislative assemblies in the colonies relatively little authority, compared to the authority that it gave the colonial governors. BINGO - easy correct choice. Please to have it as Option (A)
(B) Garrison government proved relatively ineffective until it was used by Charles II to curb the power of colonial legislatures. TRAP - Garrison governments did not exist before the military came in and hence this is incorrect.
(C) Garrison government became a less viable colonial policy as the English Parliament began to exert tighter legislative control over the English military. Opposite is true. Discard.
(D) Oliver Cromwell was the first English ruler to make use of garrison government on a large scale. Not mentioned discard.
(E) The creation of a professional standing army in England in 1697 actually weakened garrison government by diverting troops from the garrisons stationed in the American colonies. Oposite could be true. Discard.

Detail question - straightforward from the passage.
According to the passage, Webb views Charles II as the "proper successor" of the Tudor monarchs and Cromwell because Charles II
(A) used colonial tax revenues to fund overseas military expeditions Not mentioned. Discard.
(B) used the military to extend executive power over the English colonies BINGO - this description is used in the passage.
(C) wished to transform the American colonies into capitalistic oligarchies Discard.
(D) resisted the English Parliament's efforts to exert control over the military Did not resist thoseefforts but had toseek their blessings.
(E) allowed the American colonists to use legislative assemblies as a forum for resolving grievances against the crown Not mentioned discard.

Detail question which is difficult to spot as these lines have not been highlighted.
Which of the following, if true, would most seriously weaken the author's assertion in lines 54-58 ?
(A) Because they were poorly administered, Cromwell's overseas military expeditions were doomed to failure. Not mentioned in the passage, Discard.
(B) Because it relied primarily on the symbolic presence of the military, garrison government could be effectively administered with a relatively small number of troops. BINGO - this undermines the author when he refutes Webb's study.
(C) Until early in the seventeenth century, no professional standing army in Europe had performed effectively in overseas military expeditions. Irrelevant to the lines.. discard.
(D) Many of the colonial governors appointed by the crown were also commissioned army officers. Irrelevant discard.
(E) Many of the English troops stationed in the American colonies were veterans of other overseas military expeditions.Out of scope. Discard.

Detail question - multiple correct type. Need to understand the gist of the passage to be able to answer this.
According to Webb's view of colonial history, which of the following was (were) true of the merchants and nobility mentioned in line 30 ?

I. They were opposed to policies formulated by Charles II that would have transformed the colonies into capitalistic oligarchies. Opposite - the author mentions that the garrison governments did not allow the high-class colonists from doing so, hence they ought to have been opposed.
II. They were opposed to attempts by the English crown to limit the power of the legislative assemblies. Yep - true for above reason.
III. They were united with small farmers in their opposition to the stationing of English troops in the colonies. Webb does not agree that the high-class colonists were united with the farmers.

(A) I only
(B) II only Correct option.
(C) I and II only
(D) II and III only
(E) I, II, and III

Detail question from the last paragraph of the passage.
The author suggests that if William III had wanted to make use of the standing army mentioned in line 52 to administer garrison government in the American colonies, he would have had to
(A) make peace with France Not mentioned. Discard.
(B) abolish the colonial legislative assemblies Legislative assemblies worked with the garrison governments.
(C) seek approval from the English Parliament Yup, verbatim from the passage.
(D) appoint colonial governors who were more sympathetic to royal policy Out of scope. Discard.
(E) raise additional revenues by increasing taxation of large landholdings in the colonies Out of scope - the parliament had provided for the army. Discard.

Hope these explanations are helpful.


16 minutes one wrong . Timing :( Cosidering 1 minute per question. You read the entire passage in 2 minutes ? Awestruck !!
Strategies to read convoluted passages such as this (humanities) faster ?
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A long-held view of the history of the English coloni   [#permalink] 14 Jan 2019, 08:49
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