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# A recent research study of undergraduate students analyzed

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02 Oct 2010, 11:00
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A recent research study of undergraduate students analyzed the effects of music on human emotions. Each of the 200 participants attended at least 1 two-hour concert of classical music per week over the course of 12 weeks of their spring semester. At the end of the experiment, all of the students filled out a questionnaire assessing their emotional state. Based on the results of the questionnaires, all of the 10 students who attended the greatest number of concerts reported lower stress levels and higher satisfaction with their lives. Also, most of the 20 students who attended the fewest number of concerts reported below-average levels of emotional comfort.

Which of the following must be true based on the evidence presented above?

a) Most of the 200 participants improved their emotional state and lowered their stress levels.

b) During each week of the experiment, the participants spent at least 2 hours less on their academic work as a result of concert attendance.

c) Listening to classical music for at least 2 hours per week improves the emotional well-being of the majority of young adults.

d) More than 6 participants attended at least 14 concerts during the course of the experiment.

e) At least some of the students participated in the study in order to gain free access to classical concerts.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by Skywalker18 on 05 Jan 2017, 12:23, edited 1 time in total.

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02 Oct 2010, 11:16
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Orange08 wrote:
A recent research study of undergraduate students analyzed the effects of music on human emotions. Each of the 200 participants attended at least 1 two-hour concert of classical music per week over the course of 12 weeks of their spring semester. At the end of the experiment, all of the students filled out a questionnaire assessing their emotional state. Based on the results of the questionnaires, all of the 10 students who attended the greatest number of concerts reported lower stress levels and higher satisfaction with their lives. Also, most of the 20 students who attended the fewest number of concerts reported below-average levels of emotional comfort.

Which of the following must be true based on the evidence presented above?

a) Most of the 200 participants improved their emotional state and lowered their stress levels.
Possible candidate.

b) During each week of the experiment, the participants spent at least 2 hours less on their academic work as a result of concert attendance.
This certainly cannot be inferred. Option eliminated.

c) Listening to classical music for at least 2 hours per week improves the emotional well-being of the majority of young adults.
Could be true again not a must be true type option.

d) More than 6 participants attended at least 14 concerts during the course of the experiment.
Possible candidate.
e) At least some of the students participated in the study in order to gain free access to classical concerts.
This certainly cannot be inferred. Option eliminated.

To choose between A and D.

Option A: Among the 200 students we have the data only for the top 10 and bottom 20. However it is not clear with the data about the rest of the 180 students who form the majority. Hence this option is ruled out.

Option D wins.
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02 Oct 2010, 19:03
D ftw
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03 Oct 2010, 22:43
Got D too, whats the OA?

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04 Oct 2010, 03:35
IMO A. What's the OA?

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04 Oct 2010, 05:52
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Orange08 wrote:
A recent research study of undergraduate students analyzed the effects of music on human emotions. Each of the 200 participants attended at least 1 two-hour concert of classical music per week over the course of 12 weeks of their spring semester. At the end of the experiment, all of the students filled out a questionnaire assessing their emotional state. Based on the results of the questionnaires, all of the 10 students who attended the greatest number of concerts reported lower stress levels and higher satisfaction with their lives. Also, most of the 20 students who attended the fewest number of concerts reported below-average levels of emotional comfort.

Which of the following must be true based on the evidence presented above?

a) Most of the 200 participants improved their emotional state and lowered their stress levels.

b) During each week of the experiment, the participants spent at least 2 hours less on their academic work as a result of concert attendance.

c) Listening to classical music for at least 2 hours per week improves the emotional well-being of the majority of young adults.

d) More than 6 participants attended at least 14 concerts during the course of the experiment.

e) At least some of the students participated in the study in order to gain free access to classical concerts.

(D) is the only one which makes sense, but I don't really like it. The logic is that everyone was required to attend at least 12 concerts. They then differentiate between the 20 who attended the fewest, the 10 who attended the most, and the 170 who are in between. So, at the very least, the 20 who attended the fewest went to the bare minimum 12 concerts, while the other 180 all went to 13 or more concerts. Since they distinguish the specific 10 who went to the MOST concerts, these 10 must have gone to at least 14.

You can also arrive at this from process of elimination. The other four clearly don't fit the MUST be true criteria. For A, you don't know what their original emotional states/stress levels were, so you can't determine that they decreased - perhaps they all went up! For B, you don't know whether the participants set aside work time for the concerts or just used their spare time that would have been spent playing Playstation. For C, like A, you can't draw the conclusion, especially with the qualifier "the majority". And E is just totally off base.

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04 Oct 2010, 07:02
Orange08 wrote:
A recent research study of undergraduate students analyzed the effects of music on human emotions. Each of the 200 participants attended at least 1 two-hour concert of classical music per week over the course of 12 weeks of their spring semester. At the end of the experiment, all of the students filled out a questionnaire assessing their emotional state. Based on the results of the questionnaires, all of the 10 students who attended the greatest number of concerts reported lower stress levels and higher satisfaction with their lives. Also, most of the 20 students who attended the fewest number of concerts reported below-average levels of emotional comfort.

Which of the following must be true based on the evidence presented above?

a) Most of the 200 participants improved their emotional state and lowered their stress levels.

b) During each week of the experiment, the participants spent at least 2 hours less on their academic work as a result of concert attendance.

c) Listening to classical music for at least 2 hours per week improves the emotional well-being of the majority of young adults.

d) More than 6 participants attended at least 14 concerts during the course of the experiment.

e) At least some of the students participated in the study in order to gain free access to classical concerts.

Certainly D is the OA.
A: how can we talk about the MOST of ...?
B: they might have compensate the academic time by eliminating some other stuff ,
C: majority is not right
D: OK
E: this could (not must) be true, don't fall for it.

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04 Oct 2010, 08:38
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Orange08 wrote:
A recent research study of undergraduate students analyzed the effects of music on human emotions. Each of the 200 participants attended at least 1 two-hour concert of classical music per week over the course of 12 weeks of their spring semester. At the end of the experiment, all of the students filled out a questionnaire assessing their emotional state. Based on the results of the questionnaires, all of the 10 students who attended the greatest number of concerts reported lower stress levels and higher satisfaction with their lives. Also, most of the 20 students who attended the fewest number of concerts reported below-average levels of emotional comfort.

Which of the following must be true based on the evidence presented above?

a) Most of the 200 participants improved their emotional state and lowered their stress levels. Stimulus doesn't say that most of the students improved, in fact it never talked about the improvement overall... all it said is about the levels of 10 and 20 students our of 200 participated... so eliminated

b) During each week of the experiment, the participants spent at least 2 hours less on their academic work as a result of concert attendance.stimulus did not talk about the academic work, so eliminated

c) Listening to classical music for at least 2 hours per week improves the emotional well-being of the majority of young adults.Again, Stimulus doesn't talk about this in general, it only mentions about state of 10 and 20 students from the pool of 200... so eliminated

d) More than 6 participants attended at least 14 concerts during the course of the experiment.Stimulus says 12 hours is minimum for all 200 folks, and each session is 2 hour length... so, the next greatest number of hours is 14... and we see that at least 10 folks (which is greater than 6 in this answer) have taken the greatest number of hours... So, this can not be eliminated

e) At least some of the students participated in the study in order to gain free access to classical concerts.again, nowhere stimulus talks about the cost of the program, so eliminated

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04 Oct 2010, 08:45
I can also observe something from the stimulus... this passage never talked about the total results, only talked about the statistics based on some part of the participants. so, I believe, we can eliminate the answers that would have a summary/conclusion about the total results...

what say? Is my reasoning correct?
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04 Oct 2010, 13:10
D
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07 Oct 2010, 09:05
I got two great explanations after jumping thru couple of links on the web. Hope this helps.

This definitely a mathematical question :D.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
If 20 partecipants-> fewest n° of Cons (that means 12) and 10 partecipants-> greatest n° of Cons, follows that should be a median, let's say that this median is 13 (the lowest median possible), simple consequence indicates that the greatest is at least 14.
So ten students follows 14 or more concerts -> "More than 6 participants attended at least 14 concerts during the course of the experiment."
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
This is a weird question. I basically used process of elimination to choose D. Then I proved. Now this might not be the best way but here's how.

I: The concerts were over a 12 week period
II: "Each of the 200 participants attended at least 1 two-hour concert of classical music per week" This means that there were more than than 1 classical musical concert a week. Let's just say there were 2. Now we have 24 concerts for the entire semester.
III:"all of the 10 students who attended the greatest number of concerts reported lower stress levels" What this tells you is that 10 students attended more than 1 concert a week. If they attended just one more it would be 13, but I'm assuming they attended 2-4 more. Sometimes you have to assume just so long as it not a stretch.

Therefore, this ten students attended 14 or more concerts. Which is D.
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07 Oct 2010, 09:07
Orange08 wrote:
A recent research study of undergraduate students analyzed the effects of music on human emotions. Each of the 200 participants attended at least 1 two-hour concert of classical music per week over the course of 12 weeks of their spring semester. At the end of the experiment, all of the students filled out a questionnaire assessing their emotional state. Based on the results of the questionnaires, all of the 10 students who attended the greatest number of concerts reported lower stress levels and higher satisfaction with their lives. Also, most of the 20 students who attended the fewest number of concerts reported below-average levels of emotional comfort.

Which of the following must be true based on the evidence presented above?

a) Most of the 200 participants improved their emotional state and lowered their stress levels. Stimulus doesn't say that most of the students improved, in fact it never talked about the improvement overall... all it said is about the levels of 10 and 20 students our of 200 participated... so eliminated

b) During each week of the experiment, the participants spent at least 2 hours less on their academic work as a result of concert attendance.stimulus did not talk about the academic work, so eliminated

c) Listening to classical music for at least 2 hours per week improves the emotional well-being of the majority of young adults.Again, Stimulus doesn't talk about this in general, it only mentions about state of 10 and 20 students from the pool of 200... so eliminated

d) More than 6 participants attended at least 14 concerts during the course of the experiment.Stimulus says 12 hours is minimum for all 200 folks, and each session is 2 hour length... so, the next greatest number of hours is 14... and we see that at least 10 folks (which is greater than 6 in this answer) have taken the greatest number of hours... So, this can not be eliminated

e) At least some of the students participated in the study in order to gain free access to classical concerts.again, nowhere stimulus talks about the cost of the program, so eliminated

You say that "and each session is 2 hour length... so, the next greatest number of hours is 14". why cant the next greater number be 13.
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08 Oct 2010, 02:30
OA Pls?

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09 Oct 2010, 02:20
OA is D.

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04 Aug 2012, 15:09
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A recent research study of undergraduate students analyzed the effects of music on human emotions. Each of the 200 participants attended at least 1 two-hour concert of classical music per week over the course of 12 weeks of their spring semester. At the end of the experiment, all of the students filled out a questionnaire assessing their emotional state. Based on the results of the questionnaires, all of the 10 students who attended the greatest number of concerts reported lower stress levels and higher satisfaction with their lives. Also, most of the 20 students who attended the fewest number of concerts reported below-average levels of emotional comfort.

Which of the following must be true based on the evidence presented above?

A) Most of the 200 participants improved their emotional state and lowered their stress levels.
B) During each week of the experiment, the participants spent at least 2 hours less on their academic work as a result
of concert attendance.
C) Listening to classical music for at least 2 hours per week improves the emotional well-being of the majority of
D) More than 6 participants attended at least 14 concerts during the course of the experiment.
E) At least some of the students participated in the study in order to gain free access to classical concerts.
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05 Aug 2012, 05:23
How the hell is it D ?
How ???

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05 Aug 2012, 05:32
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now figured it out.
All attended atleast 12 concerts . as all attended atleast one concert per week.
so bottom 20 attended 12 concerts each. ( at least )
middle 170 have to attend atleast 1 more than the least number that is 12 and one less than the highest number. That is they attended 13 atleast.
top 10 has to attend atleast one more that the middle 170 that is they attended atleast 14 ..
Hence more that 6 people attended atleast 14 concers

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05 Aug 2012, 17:41
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mandyrhtdm wrote:
now figured it out.
All attended atleast 12 concerts . as all attended atleast one concert per week.
so bottom 20 attended 12 concerts each. ( at least )
middle 170 have to attend atleast 1 more than the least number that is 12 and one less than the highest number. That is they attended 13 atleast.
top 10 has to attend atleast one more that the middle 170 that is they attended atleast 14 ..
Hence more that 6 people attended atleast 14 concers

Well explained, mandyrhtdm!

Inference problems--characterized by language in the question stem like "based on the evidence presented above"--ask you to accept the information in the stimulus as fact, and draw conclusions from it. When the facts are abstract or complex, it can be very difficult to predict an answer. But when there are numbers in the stem, it's often the case that the correct answer presents itself to a little mathematical reasoning!

Here, because we have "20" attending the "fewest" number of concerts, and "10 attending the "most" number of concerts, we have to have the remaining 170 somewhere in the middle. And since the fewest possible number of concerts is 12, the middle 170 must have each attended at least 13 concerts--and, accordingly, the remaining 10 have each attended an absolute floor of 14 concerts. (D) is correct.

For the record: (A) isn't supported--we have information on 30 out of 200, so there is no way we can support a "most" claim. (B) is out of scope; we don't know where the hours come from, not to mention that it's possible students are studying at the concerts! (C) also goes may beyond the scope of the stimulus. Finally, (E) speculates baselessly on the motivation of students. This is a reasonable supposition, but it's not actually based on anything in the text!

Best of luck studying!

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05 Aug 2012, 22:01
A) Most of the 200 participants improved their emotional state and lowered their stress levels. - This cannot be true as the evidence states that top 10 group experienced less stress and most of the bottom 20 experienced below average level of comfort. The rest 170 may or may not have experienced any change in their emotional well being - Incorrect
B) During each week of the experiment, the participants spent at least 2 hours less on their academic work as a result of concert attendance. - It is already stated in the passage that 1 two-hour concert is mandatory for all participants. The participants may or may not have cut back their academic work for attending concert. - Incorrect
C) Listening to classical music for at least 2 hours per week improves the emotional well-being of the majority of young adults. - As already stated in the explanation for (A), the results donot propose a concrete theory on whether listening to classical music improves emotional well-being - Incorrect
D) More than 6 participants attended at least 14 concerts during the course of the experiment. - The 10-170-20 split explains this scenario perfectly - Correct
E) At least some of the students participated in the study in order to gain free access to classical concerts. - Highly Unlikely scenario. The whole arragement might have been part of an assignment too. Too many unknowns. - Incorrect

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09 Aug 2012, 11:08
We need only 1 statement to answer this one.

the statement is- all of the 10 students who attended the greatest
number of concerts reported lower stress levels and higher satisfaction with their lives

greatest no of concerts must be >1 i.e minimum 2 because everybody has attended one session per week.

thus 20 students attended minimum 12 *2=24 sessions.

thus this easily more that what D states.

Tell me if I have a faulty logic.
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Re: A recent research study of undergraduate students analyzed   [#permalink] 09 Aug 2012, 11:08

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