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# A recent research study of undergraduate students analyzed

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Senior Manager
Joined: 15 Jun 2010
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Schools: IE'14, ISB'14, Kellogg'15
WE 1: 7 Yrs in Automobile (Commercial Vehicle industry)
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04 Aug 2012, 15:09
4
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15
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Difficulty:

75% (hard)

Question Stats:

55% (02:55) correct 45% (02:02) wrong based on 805 sessions

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A recent research study of undergraduate students analyzed the effects of music on human emotions. Each of the 200 participants attended at least 1 two-hour concert of classical music per week over the course of 12 weeks of their spring semester. At the end of the experiment, all of the students filled out a questionnaire assessing their emotional state. Based on the results of the questionnaires, all of the 10 students who attended the greatest number of concerts reported lower stress levels and higher satisfaction with their lives. Also, most of the 20 students who attended the fewest number of concerts reported below-average levels of emotional comfort.

Which of the following must be true based on the evidence presented above?

A) Most of the 200 participants improved their emotional state and lowered their stress levels.
B) During each week of the experiment, the participants spent at least 2 hours less on their academic work as a result
of concert attendance.
C) Listening to classical music for at least 2 hours per week improves the emotional well-being of the majority of
D) More than 6 participants attended at least 14 concerts during the course of the experiment.
E) At least some of the students participated in the study in order to gain free access to classical concerts.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Manager
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05 Aug 2012, 05:23
How the hell is it D ?
How ???
Manager
Joined: 05 Jul 2012
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05 Aug 2012, 05:32
18
KUDOS
now figured it out.
All attended atleast 12 concerts . as all attended atleast one concert per week.
so bottom 20 attended 12 concerts each. ( at least )
middle 170 have to attend atleast 1 more than the least number that is 12 and one less than the highest number. That is they attended 13 atleast.
top 10 has to attend atleast one more that the middle 170 that is they attended atleast 14 ..
Hence more that 6 people attended atleast 14 concers
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05 Aug 2012, 17:41
2
KUDOS
Expert's post
mandyrhtdm wrote:
now figured it out.
All attended atleast 12 concerts . as all attended atleast one concert per week.
so bottom 20 attended 12 concerts each. ( at least )
middle 170 have to attend atleast 1 more than the least number that is 12 and one less than the highest number. That is they attended 13 atleast.
top 10 has to attend atleast one more that the middle 170 that is they attended atleast 14 ..
Hence more that 6 people attended atleast 14 concers

Well explained, mandyrhtdm!

Inference problems--characterized by language in the question stem like "based on the evidence presented above"--ask you to accept the information in the stimulus as fact, and draw conclusions from it. When the facts are abstract or complex, it can be very difficult to predict an answer. But when there are numbers in the stem, it's often the case that the correct answer presents itself to a little mathematical reasoning!

Here, because we have "20" attending the "fewest" number of concerts, and "10 attending the "most" number of concerts, we have to have the remaining 170 somewhere in the middle. And since the fewest possible number of concerts is 12, the middle 170 must have each attended at least 13 concerts--and, accordingly, the remaining 10 have each attended an absolute floor of 14 concerts. (D) is correct.

For the record: (A) isn't supported--we have information on 30 out of 200, so there is no way we can support a "most" claim. (B) is out of scope; we don't know where the hours come from, not to mention that it's possible students are studying at the concerts! (C) also goes may beyond the scope of the stimulus. Finally, (E) speculates baselessly on the motivation of students. This is a reasonable supposition, but it's not actually based on anything in the text!

Best of luck studying!

Regards,
_________________

Eli Meyer
Kaplan Teacher
http://www.kaptest.com/GMAT

Prepare with Kaplan and save $150 on a course! Kaplan Reviews Manager Joined: 02 Jan 2011 Posts: 197 Followers: 1 Kudos [?]: 53 [0], given: 22 Re: A recent research study of undergraduate students analyzed [#permalink] ### Show Tags 05 Aug 2012, 22:01 A) Most of the 200 participants improved their emotional state and lowered their stress levels. - This cannot be true as the evidence states that top 10 group experienced less stress and most of the bottom 20 experienced below average level of comfort. The rest 170 may or may not have experienced any change in their emotional well being - Incorrect B) During each week of the experiment, the participants spent at least 2 hours less on their academic work as a result of concert attendance. - It is already stated in the passage that 1 two-hour concert is mandatory for all participants. The participants may or may not have cut back their academic work for attending concert. - Incorrect C) Listening to classical music for at least 2 hours per week improves the emotional well-being of the majority of young adults. - As already stated in the explanation for (A), the results donot propose a concrete theory on whether listening to classical music improves emotional well-being - Incorrect D) More than 6 participants attended at least 14 concerts during the course of the experiment. - The 10-170-20 split explains this scenario perfectly - Correct E) At least some of the students participated in the study in order to gain free access to classical concerts. - Highly Unlikely scenario. The whole arragement might have been part of an assignment too. Too many unknowns. - Incorrect Intern Joined: 09 May 2012 Posts: 9 Followers: 3 Kudos [?]: 12 [0], given: 3 Re: A recent research study of undergraduate students analyzed [#permalink] ### Show Tags 09 Aug 2012, 11:08 We need only 1 statement to answer this one. the statement is- all of the 10 students who attended the greatest number of concerts reported lower stress levels and higher satisfaction with their lives greatest no of concerts must be >1 i.e minimum 2 because everybody has attended one session per week. thus 20 students attended minimum 12 *2=24 sessions. thus this easily more that what D states. Tell me if I have a faulty logic. _________________ GMAT 1- 770(Q 51 V44) cya ISB in 2013 !! GMAT Club Legend Joined: 01 Oct 2013 Posts: 10310 Followers: 1000 Kudos [?]: 225 [0], given: 0 Re: A recent research study of undergraduate students analyzed [#permalink] ### Show Tags 29 Oct 2013, 18:22 Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot! Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos). Want to see all other topics I dig out? Follow me (click follow button on profile). You will receive a summary of all topics I bump in your profile area as well as via email. BSchool Forum Moderator Joined: 23 Jul 2010 Posts: 558 GPA: 3.4 WE: General Management (Non-Profit and Government) Followers: 110 Kudos [?]: 885 [0], given: 321 Re: A recent research study of undergraduate students analyzed [#permalink] ### Show Tags 08 Nov 2013, 05:45 Manager Joined: 22 Jan 2013 Posts: 61 Followers: 0 Kudos [?]: 27 [0], given: 28 Re: A recent research study of undergraduate students analyzed [#permalink] ### Show Tags 28 Jan 2014, 10:30 dentobizz wrote: Can you please explain this. how did we get 13 and 14 sessions as explained in the previous explanations. there are only 12 weeks and 1 session per week Senior Manager Joined: 04 May 2013 Posts: 355 Location: India Concentration: Operations, Human Resources Schools: XLRI GM"18 GPA: 4 WE: Human Resources (Human Resources) Followers: 3 Kudos [?]: 126 [0], given: 70 Re: A recent research study of undergraduate students analyzed [#permalink] ### Show Tags 28 Jan 2014, 10:47 As for me..... Selection of the correct answer in this case, due to figurative analysis , was difficult- but the balance 4 answers being definitely incorrect made this a prospect answer.... Manager Joined: 11 Jan 2014 Posts: 95 Concentration: Finance, Statistics GMAT Date: 03-04-2014 GPA: 3.77 WE: Analyst (Retail Banking) Followers: 3 Kudos [?]: 58 [0], given: 11 Re: A recent research study of undergraduate students analyzed [#permalink] ### Show Tags 29 Jan 2014, 10:27 I sort of get why D is the OA. But isn't the statement open-ended? "more than" seems a little broad. Someone please tell me what I'm missing. Current Student Joined: 28 Apr 2012 Posts: 306 Location: India Concentration: Finance, Technology GMAT 1: 650 Q48 V31 GMAT 2: 770 Q50 V47 WE: Information Technology (Computer Software) Followers: 29 Kudos [?]: 411 [1] , given: 142 Re: A recent research study of undergraduate students analyzed [#permalink] ### Show Tags 29 Jan 2014, 14:05 1 This post received KUDOS 1 This post was BOOKMARKED Abdul29 wrote: I sort of get why D is the OA. But isn't the statement open-ended? "more than" seems a little broad. Someone please tell me what I'm missing. It is a must be true question. Fact 1: Everyone attended at least 12 concerts Fact 2: There are 20 people who attended the least number of concerts = 12 concerts Fact 3: There are 10 people who attended the greatest number of concerts Now, how many concerts these 10 people have attended ? [possible numbers: 14, 15, 16...]. It cannot be 13, because between top 10 and bottom 20, we have a middle group (the left out 170). So we can say, at least 10 people attended 14 or more concerts. The option says more than 6 people, which fits to at least 10 people zone. Hope it is clear. _________________ "Appreciation is a wonderful thing. It makes what is excellent in others belong to us as well." ― Voltaire Press Kudos, if I have helped. Thanks! Manager Joined: 11 Jan 2014 Posts: 95 Concentration: Finance, Statistics GMAT Date: 03-04-2014 GPA: 3.77 WE: Analyst (Retail Banking) Followers: 3 Kudos [?]: 58 [0], given: 11 Re: A recent research study of undergraduate students analyzed [#permalink] ### Show Tags 29 Jan 2014, 14:18 ConnectTheDots wrote: Abdul29 wrote: I sort of get why D is the OA. But isn't the statement open-ended? "more than" seems a little broad. Someone please tell me what I'm missing. It is a must be true question. Fact 1: Everyone attended at least 12 concerts Fact 2: There are 20 people who attended the least number of concerts = 12 concerts Fact 3: There are 10 people who attended the greatest number of concerts Now, how many concerts these 10 people have attended ? [possible numbers: 14, 15, 16...]. It cannot be 13, because between top 10 and bottom 20, we have a middle group (the left out 170). So we can say, at least 10 people attended 14 or more concerts. The option says more than 6 people, which fits to at least 10 people zone. Hope it is clear. +Kudos. I took the "more than" to an extreme level, I must say. Clear as mud, cheers. Senior Manager Joined: 04 May 2013 Posts: 355 Location: India Concentration: Operations, Human Resources Schools: XLRI GM"18 GPA: 4 WE: Human Resources (Human Resources) Followers: 3 Kudos [?]: 126 [0], given: 70 Re: A recent research study of undergraduate students analyzed [#permalink] ### Show Tags 30 Jan 2014, 08:29 1. A recent research study of undergraduate students analyzed the effects of music on human emotions. 2. Each of the 200 participants attended at least 1 two-hour concert of classical music per week over the course of 12 weeks of their spring semester. 3. All of the 10 students who attended the greatest number of concerts reported lower stress levels and higher satisfaction with their lives. 4. Most of the 20 students who attended the fewest number of concerts reported below-average levels of emotional comfort. Which of the following must be true based on the evidence presented above? A) Most of the 200 participants improved their emotional state and lowered their stress levels.MAY NOT BE TRUE ...SEE 4. B) During each week of the experiment, the participants spent at least 2 hours less on their academic work as a result of concert attendance.IRRELEVANT... JUST TALK OF STRESS LEVELS C) Listening to classical music for at least 2 hours per week improves the emotional well-being of the majority of young adults.YOUNG ADULTS WERE NOT CONSIDERED IN THE STUDY BUT UNDERGRADUATES D) More than 6 participants attended at least 14 concerts during the course of the experiment.CORRECT....20 STUDENTS ATTENDED 12 HOURS OF CONCERT...IE MINIMUM...( SEE POINT 2 ABOVE) .....BALANCE 180 ATTENDED MORE THAN 12 HOURS OF THE CONCERT....IE 13, 14 .....OR MORE.....10 ATTENDED MAXIMUM NUMBER OF HOURS..... THIS MAXIMUM CANNOT BE 13 HOURS AS OTHER WISE HOW MANY HOURS WOULD THE BALANCE 170 HAVE ATTENDED ?HENCE THOSE WHO ATTENDED 14 OR MORE HOURS HAVE TO BE AT LEAST 10 IE THE MAX ONES.......SO AS TO MAKE SPACE FOR THE BALANCE 170 TO OCCUPY 13 HOURS OF CONCERT E) At least some of the students participated in the study in order to gain free access to classical concerts.WHY ONE ATTENDED THE CONCERT IS NOT IMPORTANT..... Intern Joined: 05 Oct 2013 Posts: 5 Followers: 0 Kudos [?]: 1 [0], given: 8 Re: A recent research study of undergraduate students analyzed [#permalink] ### Show Tags 02 Mar 2014, 09:23 its (D) More than 6 participants attended at least 14 concerts during the course of the experiment. Our facts have proved that there are at least three levels of concert goers: fewest (20 students), greatest (10 students) and "the rest" (170 students). The fewest attended at least 12 concerts (by definition of the study); thus, "the rest" must have attended at least 13 concerts and "the greatest" must have attended at least 14 concerts. Since "the greatest" includes 10 students, it is true that More than 6 participants attended at least 14 concerts during the course of the experiment. GMAT Club Legend Joined: 01 Oct 2013 Posts: 10310 Followers: 1000 Kudos [?]: 225 [0], given: 0 Re: A recent research study of undergraduate students analyzed [#permalink] ### Show Tags 12 May 2015, 14:12 Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot! Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos). Want to see all other topics I dig out? Follow me (click follow button on profile). You will receive a summary of all topics I bump in your profile area as well as via email. Manager Joined: 06 Jul 2011 Posts: 126 Followers: 0 Kudos [?]: 79 [0], given: 240 Re: A recent research study of undergraduate students analyzed [#permalink] ### Show Tags 12 May 2015, 18:07 1 This post was BOOKMARKED Just my 2 ¢ - When in time crunch on the exam, never discount the most convoluted option. Also, POE is your best friend. Here is how - A) Most of the 200 participants improved their emotional state and lowered their stress levels. - For sure, the passage doesn't say so. Eliminate! B) During each week of the experiment, the participants spent at least 2 hours less on their academic work as a result of concert attendance. - We don't know. Again, the passage doesn't say so. Eliminate! C) Listening to classical music for at least 2 hours per week improves the emotional well-being of the majority of young adults. - Improved for 10 folks for sure, 10 out of 200 not a majority. Eliminate! D) More than 6 participants attended at least 14 concerts during the course of the experiment. - I don't know what the hell is this. Hold now. E) At least some of the students participated in the study in order to gain free access to classical concerts. - Absurd and out of scope. Eliminate! By POE Hit D and move forward. Optimus Prep Instructor Joined: 06 Nov 2014 Posts: 1812 Followers: 56 Kudos [?]: 444 [0], given: 22 Re: A recent research study of undergraduate students analyzed [#permalink] ### Show Tags 13 May 2015, 07:48 Expert's post 1 This post was BOOKMARKED A recent research study of undergraduate students analyzed the effects of music on human emotions. Each of the 200 participants attended at least 1 two-hour concert of classical music per week over the course of 12 weeks of their spring semester. At the end of the experiment, all of the students filled out a questionnaire assessing their emotional state. Based on the results of the questionnaires, all of the 10 students who attended the greatest number of concerts reported lower stress levels and higher satisfaction with their lives. Also, most of the 20 students who attended the fewest number of concerts reported below-average levels of emotional comfort. Which of the following must be true based on the evidence presented above? A) Most of the 200 participants improved their emotional state and lowered their stress levels. cannot be inferred B) During each week of the experiment, the participants spent at least 2 hours less on their academic work as a result of concert attendance.no information to support this C) Listening to classical music for at least 2 hours per week improves the emotional well-being of the majority of young adults. the study provides information only on undergraduate students, not young adults D) More than 6 participants attended at least 14 concerts during the course of the experiment. It's stated that the 10 students who attended the fewest number, in this case more than 12 concerts (1 concert x 12 weeks), reported the beneficial effect of music. E) At least some of the students participated in the study in order to gain free access to classical concerts.no information to support this _________________ # Janielle Williams Customer Support Special Offer:$80-100/hr. 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05 Jan 2016, 10:24
KapTeacherEli wrote:
mandyrhtdm wrote:
now figured it out.
All attended atleast 12 concerts . as all attended atleast one concert per week.
so bottom 20 attended 12 concerts each. ( at least )
middle 170 have to attend atleast 1 more than the least number that is 12 and one less than the highest number. That is they attended 13 atleast.
top 10 has to attend atleast one more that the middle 170 that is they attended atleast 14 ..
Hence more that 6 people attended atleast 14 concers

Well explained, mandyrhtdm!

Inference problems--characterized by language in the question stem like "based on the evidence presented above"--ask you to accept the information in the stimulus as fact, and draw conclusions from it. When the facts are abstract or complex, it can be very difficult to predict an answer. But when there are numbers in the stem, it's often the case that the correct answer presents itself to a little mathematical reasoning!

Here, because we have "20" attending the "fewest" number of concerts, and "10 attending the "most" number of concerts, we have to have the remaining 170 somewhere in the middle. And since the fewest possible number of concerts is 12, the middle 170 must have each attended at least 13 concerts--and, accordingly, the remaining 10 have each attended an absolute floor of 14 concerts. (D) is correct.

For the record: (A) isn't supported--we have information on 30 out of 200, so there is no way we can support a "most" claim. (B) is out of scope; we don't know where the hours come from, not to mention that it's possible students are studying at the concerts! (C) also goes may beyond the scope of the stimulus. Finally, (E) speculates baselessly on the motivation of students. This is a reasonable supposition, but it's not actually based on anything in the text!

Best of luck studying!

Regards,

I used the POE to get the correct answer.
Re: A recent research study of undergraduate students analyzed   [#permalink] 05 Jan 2016, 10:24
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