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A special mucous coating that serves as a chemical camouflage Allows c

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A special mucous coating that serves as a chemical camouflage Allows c  [#permalink]

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Project RC Butler 2020 - Participate and win GMAT Club Tests.
Passage # 109, Date: 25-May-2020
This post is a part of Project RC Butler 2020. Click here for Details


A special mucous coating that serves as a chemical camouflage Allows clown fish to live among the deadly tentacles of the unsuspecting sea anemone. Utterly dependent on this unlikely host for protection from predators, clown fish have evolve in isolated communities, a pattern that has led to unusual behavioural adaptations.

The rigidly defined hierarchy of each clown-fish community is dominated by a monogamous breeding pair consisting of the largest fish, a female, and the next largest, a male, attended by affixed number of sexually immature fish ranging in size from large to tiny. A remarkable adaptation is that development of these juveniles is somehow arrested until the hierarchy changes; then they grow in lockstep, maintaining their relative sizes. While the community thus economizes on limited space and food resources, life is risky for newly spawned clown fish. On hatching, the hundreds of larvae drift off into the plankton. If, within three weeks, the defenceless larval clown fish locates a suitable anemone (either by pure chance or perhaps guided by chemicals secreted by the anemone), it may survive. However, if an anemone is fully occupied, the resident clown fish will repel any newcomer.

Though advantageous for established community members, the suspended and staggered maturation or juveniles might seem to pose a danger to the continuity of the community: there is only one successor for two breeding fish. Should one of a pair die, the remaining fish cannot swim off in search of a mate, nor is one likely to arrive. It would seem inevitable that reproduction must sometimes have to halt, pending the chance arrival and maturation of a larval fish of the appropriate sex.

This, however, turns out not to be the case. In experiment, vacancies have been contrived by removing an established fish from a community. Elimination of the breeding male triggers the prompt maturation of the largest juvenile. Each remaining juvenile also grows somewhat, and a minuscule newcomer drops in from the plankton. Removal of the female also triggers growth in all remaining fish and acceptance of a newcomer, but the female is replaced by the adult male. Within days, the male's behavior alters, and physiological transformation is complete within a few months. Thus, whichever of the breeding pair is lost, a relatively large juvenile can fill the void, and reproduction can resume with a minimal loss of time. Furthermore, the new mate has already proved its ability to survive.

This transformation of a male into a female, or protandrous hermaphroditism, is rare among reef fish. The more common protogynous hermaphroditism, where females change into males, does not occur among clownfish. An intriguing question for further research is whether a juvenile clown fish can turn directly into a female or whether it must function first as a male.



Q1. The passage is primarily concerned with

A) analyzing the mutually advantageous relationship between species
B) comparing two forms of hermaphroditism among clown fish
C) describing and explaining aspects of clown-fish behavior
D) outlining proposed research on clown-fish reproduction
E) attempting to reconcile inconsistent observations of clown-fish development




Q2. It can be inferred from the passage that the clown fish is able to survive in close association with the sea anemone because the

A) sea anemone cannot detect the presence of the clown fish
B) clown fish is attached to chemicals secreted by sea anemone
C) sea anemone prefers other prey
D) clown fish larvae swim off into the plankton before the anemone can catch them
E) clown fish has developed tolerance to the sea anemone's poison



Q3. It can be inferred from the passage that sex change would have been less necessary for the clown fish if

A) the male clown fish were larger than the female
B) each sea anemone were occupied by several varieties of clown fish
C) many mature clown fish of both sexes occupied each sea anemone
D) juvenile clown fish had a lower mortality rate
E) both male clown fish and female clown fish were highly territorial




Q4. The author mentions all of the following as a characteristic of the "rigidly defined hierarchy" of the clown-fish community EXCEPT:

A) At any time only one female clown fish can be reproductively active.
B) The mature clown fish are monogamous.
C) The growth of clown fish is synchronized.
D) The maximum number of clown fish is fixed.
E) There are equal number of male juveniles and female juveniles.


_________________

Keep it simple. Keep it blank

Originally posted by globaldesi on 18 Dec 2019, 20:13.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 26 May 2020, 01:21, edited 3 times in total.
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Re: A special mucous coating that serves as a chemical camouflage Allows c  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Dec 2019, 23:12
1
1. OA: C
Tag: big picture

The passage discusses the different aspects of the clown fish behavior: relationship with sea anemone, mating behavior, maturation etc. Option C is therefore the most relevant.

A: Too broad; the passage is only concerned about the clown fish
B: Comparison of hermaphroditism - incorrect
D: Prospective research - incorrect
E: does not reconcile this - incorrect


Solution 2. OA: A

Tag: inference
The scope lies here : ”A special mucous coating that serves as a chemical camouflage allows clown fish to live among the deadly tentacles of the unsuspecting sea anemone.” This is given in line 2.

The word “camouflage” suggests that the sea anemone does not detect the presence of the clown fish.

B: insufficient evidence to support this.
C: insufficient evidence to support this.
D: In contrast they actually do come in close proximity with the anemone
E: This is commonsensical but is NOT supported by the information provided in the passage - eliminate

Solution 3. OA: C
Tag: inference
Sex change happens an adult female is removed. In the absence of the adult female, the adult male becomes female. This can be prevented if an adult female is available in the group. Therefore option C is true.
A: that the male needs to be larger is not substantiated by the passage
B: This does not point towards the reduced need for sex change
D: This would only have an adverse effect and will not help reduce rate of sex change
E: This again would do nothing to reduce the rate of sex change


Solution4. OA: E
Tag: Anchor Phrase
The passage provides proof for options A, B, C and D (2nd para). There is no substantiation for option E though. Option E therefore is the correct response.

A: …. A remarkable adaptation is that development of juveniles is somehow…. Suggesting that only one female is reproductively active at any given time. A is true
B: is dominated by a monogamous breeding pair…. B is true
C: …. A remarkable adaptation is that development of juveniles is somehow…. Shows how the community grows in synch in response to the hierarchy C is true
D: while the community thus economizes on limited space and food source… suggesting that there is a fixed upper cap to the population in the community D is true
E: There is no proof suggesting this and E is therefore the correct response
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A special mucous coating that serves as a chemical camouflage Allows c  [#permalink]

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New post 26 May 2020, 10:27
1
globaldesi wrote:
Project RC Butler 2020 - Participate and win GMAT Club Tests.
Passage # 109, Date: 25-May-2020
This post is a part of Project RC Butler 2020. Click here for Details


A special mucous coating that serves as a chemical camouflage Allows clown fish to live among the deadly tentacles of the unsuspecting sea anemone. Utterly dependent on this unlikely host for protection from predators, clown fish have evolve in isolated communities, a pattern that has led to unusual behavioural adaptations.

The rigidly defined hierarchy of each clown-fish community is dominated by a monogamous breeding pair consisting of the largest fish, a female, and the next largest, a male, attended by affixed number of sexually immature fish ranging in size from large to tiny. A remarkable adaptation is that development of these juveniles is somehow arrested until the hierarchy changes; then they grow in lockstep, maintaining their relative sizes. While the community thus economizes on limited space and food resources, life is risky for newly spawned clown fish. On hatching, the hundreds of larvae drift off into the plankton. If, within three weeks, the defenceless larval clown fish locates a suitable anemone (either by pure chance or perhaps guided by chemicals secreted by the anemone), it may survive. However, if an anemone is fully occupied, the resident clown fish will repel any newcomer.

Though advantageous for established community members, the suspended and staggered maturation or juveniles might seem to pose a danger to the continuity of the community: there is only one successor for two breeding fish. Should one of a pair die, the remaining fish cannot swim off in search of a mate, nor is one likely to arrive. It would seem inevitable that reproduction must sometimes have to halt, pending the chance arrival and maturation of a larval fish of the appropriate sex.

This, however, turns out not to be the case. In experiment, vacancies have been contrived by removing an established fish from a community. Elimination of the breeding male triggers the prompt maturation of the largest juvenile. Each remaining juvenile also grows somewhat, and a minuscule newcomer drops in from the plankton. Removal of the female also triggers growth in all remaining fish and acceptance of a newcomer, but the female is replaced by the adult male. Within days, the male's behavior alters, and physiological transformation is complete within a few months. Thus, whichever of the breeding pair is lost, a relatively large juvenile can fill the void, and reproduction can resume with a minimal loss of time. Furthermore, the new mate has already proved its ability to survive.

This transformation of a male into a female, or protandrous hermaphroditism, is rare among reef fish.
The more common protogynous hermaphroditism, where females change into males, does not occur among clownfish. An intriguing question for further research is whether a juvenile clown fish can turn directly into a female or whether it must function first as a male.



Q1. The passage is primarily concerned with

A) analyzing the mutually advantageous relationship between species
B) comparing two forms of hermaphroditism among clown fish
C) describing and explaining aspects of clown-fish behavior The passage introduces the topic in discussion in the first paragraph and then, goes on explaining the details
D) outlining proposed research on clown-fish reproduction
E) attempting to reconcile inconsistent observations of clown-fish development




Q2. It can be inferred from the passage that the clown fish is able to survive in close association with the sea anemone because the

A) sea anemone cannot detect the presence of the clown fish
B) clown fish is attached to chemicals secreted by sea anemone
C) sea anemone prefers other prey
D) clown fish larvae swim off into the plankton before the anemone can catch them
E) clown fish has developed tolerance to the sea anemone's poison



Q3. It can be inferred from the passage that sex change would have been less necessary for the clown fish if

A) the male clown fish were larger than the female
B) each sea anemone were occupied by several varieties of clown fish
C) many mature clown fish of both sexes occupied each sea anemone
D) juvenile clown fish had a lower mortality rate
E) both male clown fish and female clown fish were highly territorial




Q4. The author mentions all of the following as a characteristic of the "rigidly defined hierarchy" of the clown-fish community EXCEPT:

A) At any time only one female clown fish can be reproductively active.
B) The mature clown fish are monogamous.
C) The growth of clown fish is synchronized.
D) The maximum number of clown fish is fixed.
E) There are equal number of male juveniles and female juveniles.



Please check the coloured paragraphs or parts of paragraph within the passage. Each question's correct answer has a different colour, and the corresponding part of passage is highlighted in the colour similar to the answer choice.
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Re: A special mucous coating that serves as a chemical camouflage Allows c  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Jun 2020, 00:58
globaldesi wrote:
1. OA: C
Tag: big picture

The passage discusses the different aspects of the clown fish behavior: relationship with sea anemone, mating behavior, maturation etc. Option C is therefore the most relevant.

A: Too broad; the passage is only concerned about the clown fish
B: Comparison of hermaphroditism - incorrect
D: Prospective research - incorrect
E: does not reconcile this - incorrect


Solution 2. OA: A

Tag: inference
The scope lies here : ”A special mucous coating that serves as a chemical camouflage allows clown fish to live among the deadly tentacles of the unsuspecting sea anemone.” This is given in line 2.

The word “camouflage” suggests that the sea anemone does not detect the presence of the clown fish.

B: insufficient evidence to support this.
C: insufficient evidence to support this.
D: In contrast they actually do come in close proximity with the anemone
E: This is commonsensical but is NOT supported by the information provided in the passage - eliminate

Solution 3. OA: C
Tag: inference
Sex change happens an adult female is removed. In the absence of the adult female, the adult male becomes female. This can be prevented if an adult female is available in the group. Therefore option C is true.
A: that the male needs to be larger is not substantiated by the passage
B: This does not point towards the reduced need for sex change
D: This would only have an adverse effect and will not help reduce rate of sex change
E: This again would do nothing to reduce the rate of sex change


Solution4. OA: E
Tag: Anchor Phrase
The passage provides proof for options A, B, C and D (2nd para). There is no substantiation for option E though. Option E therefore is the correct response.

A: …. A remarkable adaptation is that development of juveniles is somehow…. Suggesting that only one female is reproductively active at any given time. A is true
B: is dominated by a monogamous breeding pair…. B is true
C: …. A remarkable adaptation is that development of juveniles is somehow…. Shows how the community grows in synch in response to the hierarchy C is true
D: while the community thus economizes on limited space and food source… suggesting that there is a fixed upper cap to the population in the community D is true
E: There is no proof suggesting this and E is therefore the correct response


in q3, what is the meaning of occupied by sea anemone? from where we can infer that if both mature is occupied by sea anemone then there is no need of sex change?
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Re: A special mucous coating that serves as a chemical camouflage Allows c   [#permalink] 06 Jun 2020, 00:58

A special mucous coating that serves as a chemical camouflage Allows c

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