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A study of the dietary habits of a group of people who had recently d

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A study of the dietary habits of a group of people who had recently d  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Sep 2018, 21:18
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A study of the dietary habits of a group of people who had recently developed cancer and a group without cancer found that during the previous five years the diets of"
"the two groups' members closely matched each other in the amount of yogurt they contained. Yogurt contains galactose, which is processed in the body by an enzyme. In the people with cancer the levels of this enzyme were too low to process the galactose in the yogurt they were consuming. It can be concluded that galactose in amounts exceeding the body's ability to process it is carcinogenic.

Of the following, which one constitutes the strongest objection to the reasoning in the argument?

(A) The argument fails to consider whether the dietary habits of everyone in the two groups were the same in all other respects."
(B) The argument neglects to recommend that people with low levels of the enzyme avoid eating yogurt."
(C) The argument focuses on only one substance that can increase the risk of cancer when it is well known that there are many such substances."
(D) The argument overlooks the possibility that cancer causes low levels of the enzyme."
(E) The argument does not specify whether any member of either group lacked the enzyme entirely.

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Re: A study of the dietary habits of a group of people who had recently d  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Sep 2018, 21:27
A. This sounds tempting, but it’s not necessary. Read carefully. It asks whether:
1. Everyone’s diet
2. was exactly the same
3. in all other respects No medical study meets this standard. It’s impossible. People’s diets are very different. A study can still tell us something, even if not every variable is controlled with perfect accuracy.

B The argument is just making a claim about galactose. It doesn’t have to make practical recommendations to improve people’s lives.

C The argument doesn’t have to describe every possible cause of cancer. There are thousands of causes. The argument didn’t say that galactose is the only cause of cancer.

D CORRECT. If cancer causes low enzyme levels, then galactose malabsorption is an effect of cancer, not a cause.

E The groups were presumably somewhat large. If one person in a group lacked the enzyme, that shouldn’t affect the overall study.
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Re: A study of the dietary habits of a group of people who had recently d &nbs [#permalink] 10 Sep 2018, 21:27
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A study of the dietary habits of a group of people who had recently d

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