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# A theorist of modernization in underdeveloped countries has defined th

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A theorist of modernization in underdeveloped countries has defined th  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 15 Oct 2019, 03:16
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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 159, Date : 21-APR-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details

A theorist of modernization in underdeveloped countries has defined this process as one of passing from "traditional authority," derived from long-standingcustom and the authority of kinship leaders, to "legal-rational authority," based on procedures specifically established for particular goals. No doubt this scheme works well enough in categorizing some societies, but how is one to classify the Ibo society of southeastern Nigeria? In precolonial Ibo society, village decisions were reached in general meetings, and formalized by striking the ground with an ofo, a staff possessed by the head of a kinship group. This might seem to fit the theorist's model; but the Ibo altered this procedure whenever appropriate-for instance, if the senior kinship head forgot his ofo, any other ofo could be used. The Ibo, too, freely revised any customary procedures in order to pursue trade-a flexibility that served them well in the new capitalist economy introduced by colonialism. If this theorist is to be consistent, he must concede that the Ibo were "modern" before the first colonist stepped ashore.
1. The author's primary concern in this passage is to

a) describe a Nigerian society
b) reveal a shortcoming in a theory
c) show how one form of authority gives way to another
d) explain the interplay of colonialism and capitalism
e) prove that Ibo society is modern

2.Which of the following can be inferred to be consistent with the conception of "legal-rational authority," (Highlighted) in the passage?

I. A procedure is acceptable if it is not forbidden by law and is suited to a specified purpose.
II. A leader has unlimited authority within an area determined by custom.
III. A practice is correct if is one that has always been used in the past.

a) I only
b) II only
c) III only
d) I and II only
e) I and III only

3. The author would state that the categorization used by the theorist of modernization is

a) applicable in some cases
b) totally without merit
c) universally valid
d) incapable of being empirically tested
e) relevant only to societies that were never colonized

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Keep it simple. Keep it blank

Originally posted by globaldesi on 21 Apr 2019, 09:29.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 15 Oct 2019, 03:16, edited 2 times in total.
Updated - Complete topic (1011).
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Re: A theorist of modernization in underdeveloped countries has defined th  [#permalink]

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21 Apr 2019, 22:24
1
1. The author's primary concern in this passage is to

a) describe a Nigerian society
b) reveal a shortcoming in a theory
c) show how one form of authority gives way to another
d) explain the interplay of colonialism and capitalism
e) prove that Ibo society is modern

There is a theory and author tells us why is theory is not applicable to Ibo - Hence shortcomings of the theory - B

2.Which of the following can be inferred to be consistent with the conception of "legal-rational authority," (Highlighted) in the passage?

I. A procedure is acceptable if it is not forbidden by law and is suited to a specified purpose.
II. A leader has unlimited authority within an area determined by custom.
III. A practice is correct if is one that has always been used in the past.

a) I only
b) II only
c) III only
d) I and II only
e) I and III only

I- "legal-rational authority," based on procedures specifically established for particular goals.
II - This one of the instance of procedures being altered cited in para are to prove why scheme is not valid in Ibo and has nothing to do with "legal-rational authority"
III - Instance of procedures being altered cited in para are to prove why scheme is not valid in Ibo and has nothing to do with "legal-rational authority"

Hence A

3. The author would state that the categorization used by the theorist of modernization is

a) applicable in some cases
b) totally without merit
c) universally valid
d) incapable of being empirically tested
e) relevant only to societies that were never colonized

Between A and E

A -No doubt this scheme works well enough in categorizing some societies, but how is one to classify the Ibo society of southeastern Nigeria? - He agrees the scheme is applicable in some cases.

E - If this theorist is to be consistent, he must concede that the Ibo were "modern" before the first colonist stepped ashore. - Here author only talks about Ibo and not all societies

hence A
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Re: A theorist of modernization in underdeveloped countries has defined th  [#permalink]

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27 Sep 2019, 00:04
hi kitipriyanka how come D is wrong for the third question. Can you please elaborate

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Re: A theorist of modernization in underdeveloped countries has defined th  [#permalink]

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28 Sep 2019, 01:57
harinageshwar wrote:
hi kitipriyanka how come D is wrong for the third question. Can you please elaborate

Posted from my mobile device

Official Explanation

3. The author would state that the categorization used by the theorist of modernization is

Difficulty Level: 550

Explanation

The main point of the passage is to question the theorist’s ideas, but this question doesn’t ask for the main point—it asks for a point the author would assert. The second sentence states, “No doubt this scheme works well enough in categorizing some societies...,” so the author agrees with choice (A). This rules out (B), but (C) is ruled out by the case of the Ibo. So is (D)—Ibo society is an empirical test. (E) distorts the reference to the Ibos’ adapting to the post-colonization world, in the next-to-last sentence; the author never implies what (E) says. On the contrary, since the theorist’s categorization doesn’t apply to the Ibo before colonization either, (E) would seem to be ruled out.

Hope it helps
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Re: A theorist of modernization in underdeveloped countries has defined th   [#permalink] 28 Sep 2019, 01:57