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Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple crops. Several food

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Re: Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple crops. Several food  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Oct 2016, 01:13
A is the correct answer

Conclusion: If we discover when rice and yams rice and yams were introduced into western Africa we will be able to know when agricultural societies arose in Western Africa

Premise: There are 3 of them (Given as facts/evidences)
Evidence 1: Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple crops
Evidence 2: the recorded staple crops grown in western Africa were introduced from elsewhere
Evidence 3: Rice and yams were the first recorded staple crops.

C&D are simple information
E is irrelevant
B stands a chance. But, it is not necessarily required (It is possible that, inspite of plant existence, residents did not have process for conversion of food crop)

A wins here
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Re: Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple crops. Several food  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Dec 2016, 21:23
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It is always better to simplify the argument -

Premise 1 - Agricultural Societies --> Staple Crops
Premise 2 - Rice and yam --> First Staple Crops in Africa

Conclusion - Time when rice and yam were introduced --> Start of Agricultural Societies in W.Africa

Let us look at each of the answer options -

A - let us negate this answer option.
"people developed staple crops before rice and yam were introduced" - this statement weakens the conclusion. If this were indeed true, then it is entirely possible that agricultural societies developed before the time when rice and yam were introduced.

B - even if there are plants that could be domesticated to be staple crops, we do not know whether they were ever domesticated.
Negating this option does not weaken the argument.

C - Not relevant.
We are only concerned with what happened in Western Africa.

D - Does not mean that kola and rice are/were used as staple foods. This answer option, thus, has no impact on the argument.
(If they were indeed used as staple foods, this could weaken the argument).

E - "Domesticated" is not the same as "staple foods".
We are concerned with whether they were staple crops or not.
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Re: Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple crops. Several food  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Feb 2017, 05:15
A it is:
Say societies cultivated other staple crops way before rice and yams were introduced, then the authors conclusion that discovering when rice and yam were introduced would establish the earliest date when agricultural societies have arisen in W.A. will not hold true, agricultural societies cannot exist without staple crops.
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Re: Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple crops. Several food  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Mar 2017, 18:21
nakib77 wrote:
Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple crops. Several food plants, such as kola and okra, are known to have been domesticated in western Africa, but they are all supplemental, not staple, foods. All the recorded staple crops grown in western Africa were introduced from elsewhere, beginning, at some unknown date, with rice and yams. Therefore, discovering when rice and yams were introduced into western Africa would establish the earliest date at which agricultural societies could have arisen there.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. People in western Africa did not develop staple crops that they stopped cultivating once rice and yams were introduced.
B. There are no plants native to western Africa that, if domesticated, could serve as staple food crops.
C. Rice and yams were grown as staple crops by the earliest agricultural societies outside of western Africa.
D. Kola and okra are better suited to growing conditions in western Africa than domesticated rice and yams are.
E. Kola and okra were domesticated in western Africa before rice and yams were introduced there.


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Re: Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple crops. Several food  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Jun 2017, 16:41
nakib77 wrote:
Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple crops. Several food plants, such as kola and okra, are known to have been domesticated in western Africa, but they are all supplemental, not staple, foods. All the recorded staple crops grown in western Africa were introduced from elsewhere, beginning, at some unknown date, with rice and yams. Therefore, discovering when rice and yams were introduced into western Africa would establish the earliest date at which agricultural societies could have arisen there.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. People in western Africa did not develop staple crops that they stopped cultivating once rice and yams were introduced.
B. There are no plants native to western Africa that, if domesticated, could serve as staple food crops.
C. Rice and yams were grown as staple crops by the earliest agricultural societies outside of western Africa.
D. Kola and okra are better suited to growing conditions in western Africa than domesticated rice and yams are.
E. Kola and okra were domesticated in western Africa before rice and yams were introduced there.

The fact: All the recorded staple crops grown in western Africa were introduced from elsewhere, beginning, at some unknown date, with rice and yams.

The missing information: People in western Africa did not develop staple crops that they stopped cultivating once rice and yams were introduced.

Conclusion:Therefore, discovering when rice and yams were introduced into western Africa would establish the earliest date at which agricultural societies could have arisen there.
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Re: Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple crops. Several food  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Jun 2017, 09:05
Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple crops. Several food plants, such as kola and okra, are known to have been domesticated in western Africa, but they are all supplemental, not staple, foods. All the recorded staple crops grown in western Africa were introduced from elsewhere, beginning, at some unknown date, with rice and yams. Therefore, discovering when rice and yams were introduced into western Africa would establish the earliest date at which agricultural societies could have arisen there.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. People in western Africa did not develop staple crops that they stopped cultivating once rice and yams were introduced.
B. There are no plants native to western Africa that, if domesticated, could serve as staple food crops.
C. Rice and yams were grown as staple crops by the earliest agricultural societies outside of western Africa.
D. Kola and okra are better suited to growing conditions in western Africa than domesticated rice and yams are.
E. Kola and okra were domesticated in western Africa before rice and yams were introduced there.

Option A is the answer
It gives us proper assumption that the African people did not develop staple crop that they stopped growing after rice and yams were introduced.
If this was true then we can not deduce when agriculture societies originated.
Thus the argument fails if we negate option A

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Re: Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple crops. Several food  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Feb 2018, 21:39
Sorry for bouncing this subject again, but when the answer states:

A. People in western Africa did not develop staple crops that they stopped cultivating once rice and yams were introduced.

Does the double negative translate to: People in Western Africa still developed staple crops even when rice and yams were introduced?
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Re: Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple crops. Several food  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Feb 2018, 22:05
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Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple crops. Several food plants, such as kola and okra, are known to have been domesticated in western Africa, but they are all supplemental, not staple, foods. All the recorded staple crops grown in western Africa were introduced from elsewhere, beginning, at some unknown date, with rice and yams. Therefore, discovering when rice and yams were introduced into western Africa would establish the earliest date at which agricultural societies could have arisen there.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

* For assumption questions, I like to find the Conclusion, then NEGATE the A/C to BREAK the Conclusion!
- Conclusion: discovering when rice and yams were introduced into western Africa would establish the earliest date at which agricultural societies could have arisen there.



A. People in western Africa did not develop staple crops that they stopped cultivating once rice and yams were introduced.
- Rewrite: People in western Africa developed staple crops that they stopped cultivating once rice and yams were introduced.This means we discovered that rice and yams cannot determine the earliest date at which agri societies could have arisen

B. There are no plants native to western Africa that, if domesticated, could serve as staple food crops.
- Rewrite: There are plants native to western Africa that, if domesticated, could serve as staple food crops. Out of scope. Does not give us info to determine the earliest date agri societies could have arisen

C. Rice and yams were grown as staple crops by the earliest agricultural societies outside of western Africa.
- Rewrite: Rice and yams were not grown as staple crops by the earliest agricultural societies outside of western Africa. Out of scope. Why do we care about agri societies OUTSIDE of western Africa?

D. Kola and okra are better suited to growing conditions in western Africa than domesticated rice and yams are.
- Rewrite: Kola and okra are not better suited to growing conditions in western Africa than domesticated rice and yams are. Out of scope. Again, does not give us info to determine the earliest date agri societies could have arisen

E. Kola and okra were domesticated in western Africa before rice and yams were introduced there.
- Rewrite: Kola and okra were not domesticated in western Africa before rice and yams were introduced there. Out of scope. Kola and okra not our concern: they are not staple crops. So we don't care about them at all.


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Re: Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple crops. Several food  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jan 2019, 21:12
Why is B incorrect? It says there were no plants native to Africa. So the people there didn't have a staple food source till then.
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Re: Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple crops. Several food  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jan 2019, 12:53
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ajtmatch wrote:
Why is B incorrect? It says there were no plants native to Africa. So the people there didn't have a staple food source till then.

The author of the passage concludes that "discovering when rice and yams were introduced into western Africa would establish the earliest date at which agricultural societies could have arisen there." His/her evidence for this argument is that "all the recorded staple crops grown in western Africa were introduced from elsewhere, beginning, at some unknown date, with rice and yams."

So, we are looking for a statement that shows that the first staple crops are the same as the first recorded staple crops -- namely, rice and yams. Keeping this in mind, take another look at answer choice (B):
Quote:
There are no plants native to western Africa that, if domesticated, could serve as staple food crops.

This answer choice is telling us that in western Africa there are absolutely no plants that could possibly be used as staple food crops. If this were true, it would mean that the first staple food crop must have been introduced from somewhere else. This is looking pretty good for the author's argument, right?

There is just one problem: answer choice (B) is not required for the conclusion to be true. An assumption is a piece of evidence that must be true in order for the author's argument to hold -- so (B) is not an assumption.

The conclusion doesn't require the total absence native plants that could be staple food crops as described in (B). Even if there were plants native to western Africa that could become staple food crops, we'd still have no idea whether anyone ever domesticated them. And that's the real issue: Which plants were first domesticated for use as staple food crops? Could it have been a plant that wasn't in the records?

You could say that this statement strengthens the argument, but we are not looking for a strengthener -- we are looking for an assumption. (B) is out.

Contrast this with answer choice (A):
Quote:
(A) People in western Africa did not develop staple crops that they stopped cultivating once rice and yams were introduced.

This statement provides the missing link between the first recorded staple crops and the first staple crops, because it precludes the possibility of unrecorded staple crops at an earlier time. Answer choice (A) must be true in order for the argument to hold, so it is the correct option.

I hope that helps!
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Re: Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple crops. Several food   [#permalink] 25 Jan 2019, 12:53

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