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An effort to control the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil’s inte

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An effort to control the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil’s inte  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 04 Jun 2018, 22:16
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An effort to control the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil’s interior cities, begun almost thirty years ago, has been partially successful, despite the setback of a major drought and the interruption of aid during an extended economic crisis.

(A) to control the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil’s interior cities, begun almost thirty years ago,

(B) begun almost thirty years ago for controlling the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil’s interior cities,

(C) begun for controlling the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil’s interior cities almost thirty years ago,

(D) at controlling the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil’s interior cities begun almost thirty years ago,

(E) that has begun almost thirty years ago to control the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil’s interior cities,



Can someone pls explain the reason why the wrong choices are wrong?
My other question is about the usage of idioms: effort to, effort at & effort for. Apart from the above context, which of these idioms are always incorrect?

Originally posted by sddhrthsn on 08 Aug 2011, 15:16.
Last edited by Bunuel on 04 Jun 2018, 22:16, edited 2 times in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: An effort to control the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil’s inte  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Aug 2011, 15:59
"Effort to" is idiomatic here.
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Re: An effort to control the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil’s inte  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Aug 2011, 19:19
+1 for A.

The phrase "begun ...." is acting as a modifier to the effort.

An effort to control XXXX,begun 30 years ago, has been partially .....

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Re: An effort to control the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil’s inte  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Mar 2014, 16:21
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Question about A: "begun" 30 yrs ago. Shouldn't it be "began"? Plz if someone could answer it

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Re: An effort to control the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil’s inte  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Mar 2014, 11:49
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"Began" is a verb. You need a participle/adjective there--hence "begun".
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Re: An effort to control the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil’s inte  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Dec 2015, 23:05
Always read the choices with the subject ‘an effort’. The subject ‘an effort’ can go with a preposition such as ‘to’ or ‘at’ without the intervening comma and can join the mainstream of the sentence. However, a past participle such as ‘begun’ has to be separated by a comma from its modified noun. Or else, it cannot be separated from the verb ‘has been partially’ with a comma. So, B and C are eliminated. In D, the modifier ‘begun almost 30 years ago, should be separated from the noun phrase by a comma. In E, that ‘has begun’ is a wrong tense. The effort began 30 years ago. Therefore, we need a simple past.

A is the best.
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An effort to control the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil’s in  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Feb 2016, 20:34
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(A) to control the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil’s interior cities, begun almost thirty years ago, - Correct - to control is the correct idiom. "begun almost thirty years ago" modifies the previous clause. An effort.........has been partially successful.........

(B) begun almost thirty years ago for controlling the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil’s interior cities, - Incorrect - Requires a comma before begun + Idiom error

(C) begun for controlling the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil’s interior cities almost thirty years ago, - Incorrect - Same as above

(D) at controlling the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil’s interior cities begun almost thirty years ago, - Incorrect - Idiom error

(E) that has begun almost thirty years ago to control the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil’s interior cities, - Incorrect - Usage of 'has begun' causes a tense error. Present perfect tense is used here and it indicates an action which began in the past and continues in the present. But according to the original sentence, the effort was completed and it has been partially successful till now. Also A appears to be more concise and direct than E.

IMO answer is A.
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Re: An effort to control the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil’s in  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Feb 2016, 22:05
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carcass wrote:
An effort to control the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil’s interior cities, begun almost thirty years ago, has been partially successful, despite the setback of a major drought and the interruption of aid during an extended economic crisis.

(A) to control the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil’s interior cities, begun almost thirty years ago,

(B) begun almost thirty years ago for controlling the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil’s interior cities,

(C) begun for controlling the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil’s interior cities almost thirty years ago,

(D) at controlling the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil’s interior cities begun almost thirty years ago,

(E) that has begun almost thirty years ago to control the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil’s interior cities,


Subject-An effort
Verb- has been
Object-partially successful
Despite .... - Dependent clause

Only option that does not have an action/working verb is A
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Re: An effort to control the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil’s in  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Feb 2016, 02:44
Vyshak wrote:
(A) to control the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil’s interior cities, begun almost thirty years ago, - Correct - to control is the correct idiom. "begun almost thirty years ago" modifies the previous clause. An effort.........has been partially successful.........

(B) begun almost thirty years ago for controlling the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil’s interior cities, - Incorrect - Requires a comma before begun + Idiom error

(C) begun for controlling the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil’s interior cities almost thirty years ago, - Incorrect - Same as above

(D) at controlling the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil’s interior cities begun almost thirty years ago, - Incorrect - Idiom error

(E) that has begun almost thirty years ago to control the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil’s interior cities, - Incorrect - Usage of 'has begun' causes a tense error. Present perfect tense is used here and it indicates an action which began in the past and continues in the present. But according to the original sentence, the effort was completed and it has been partially successful till now. Also A appears to be more concise and direct than E.

IMO answer is A.




Can you elaborate as to why B is wrong ??
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Re: An effort to control the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil’s in  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Feb 2016, 05:27
arjunperiyasamys wrote:
Vyshak wrote:
(A) to control the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil’s interior cities, begun almost thirty years ago, - Correct - to control is the correct idiom. "begun almost thirty years ago" modifies the previous clause. An effort.........has been partially successful.........

(B) begun almost thirty years ago for controlling the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil’s interior cities, - Incorrect - Requires a comma before begun + Idiom error

(C) begun for controlling the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil’s interior cities almost thirty years ago, - Incorrect - Same as above

(D) at controlling the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil’s interior cities begun almost thirty years ago, - Incorrect - Idiom error

(E) that has begun almost thirty years ago to control the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil’s interior cities, - Incorrect - Usage of 'has begun' causes a tense error. Present perfect tense is used here and it indicates an action which began in the past and continues in the present. But according to the original sentence, the effort was completed and it has been partially successful till now. Also A appears to be more concise and direct than E.

IMO answer is A.





Can you elaborate as to why B is wrong ??



Because is wordy and because it seems that the cities had success and not the control.

Hope this helps
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Re: An effort to control the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil’s in  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Feb 2016, 11:16
carcass wrote:
An effort to control the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil’s interior cities, begun almost thirty years ago, has been partially successful, despite the setback of a major drought and the interruption of aid during an extended economic crisis.

(A) to control the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil’s interior cities, begun almost thirty years ago,

(B) begun almost thirty years ago for controlling the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil’s interior cities,

(C) begun for controlling the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil’s interior cities almost thirty years ago,

(D) at controlling the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil’s interior cities begun almost thirty years ago,

(E) that has begun almost thirty years ago to control the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil’s interior cities,


I feel Option A is wrong-we can't use begun as simple past. The simple past form is began.
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Re: An effort to control the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil’s in  [#permalink]

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New post 06 May 2017, 04:25
KS15 wrote:
carcass wrote:
An effort to control the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil’s interior cities, begun almost thirty years ago, has been partially successful, despite the setback of a major drought and the interruption of aid during an extended economic crisis.

(A) to control the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil’s interior cities, begun almost thirty years ago,

(B) begun almost thirty years ago for controlling the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil’s interior cities,

(C) begun for controlling the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil’s interior cities almost thirty years ago,

(D) at controlling the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil’s interior cities begun almost thirty years ago,

(E) that has begun almost thirty years ago to control the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil’s interior cities,


I feel Option A is wrong-we can't use begun as simple past. The simple past form is began.


The "begun" used here is not used as a verb but as a Verb-ed modifier. So the third from (begun) is correct.
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Re: An effort to control the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil’s in  [#permalink]

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New post 06 May 2017, 11:32
carcass wrote:
An effort to control the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil’s interior cities, begun almost thirty years ago, has been partially successful, despite the setback of a major drought and the interruption of aid during an extended economic crisis.

(A) to control the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil’s interior cities, begun almost thirty years ago,

(B) begun almost thirty years ago for controlling the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil’s interior cities,

(C) begun for controlling the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil’s interior cities almost thirty years ago,

(D) at controlling the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil’s interior cities begun almost thirty years ago,

(E) that has begun almost thirty years ago to control the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil’s interior cities,



Many people have written that there is some idiomatic error in option B, could someone please elaborate what is the idiom here and how to identify the same.
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Re: An effort to control the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil’s in  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Jun 2017, 07:01
IIMC wrote:
carcass wrote:
An effort to control the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil’s interior cities, begun almost thirty years ago, has been partially successful, despite the setback of a major drought and the interruption of aid during an extended economic crisis.

(A) to control the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil’s interior cities, begun almost thirty years ago,

(B) begun almost thirty years ago for controlling the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil’s interior cities,

(C) begun for controlling the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil’s interior cities almost thirty years ago,

(D) at controlling the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil’s interior cities begun almost thirty years ago,

(E) that has begun almost thirty years ago to control the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil’s interior cities,



Many people have written that there is some idiomatic error in option B, could someone please elaborate what is the idiom here and how to identify the same.


effort to control is better than effort for controlling.
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New post 10 Jun 2017, 08:52
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An effort to control the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil’s interior cities, begun almost thirty years ago, has been partially successful, despite the setback of a major drought and the interruption of aid during an extended economic crisis.

(A) to control the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil’s interior cities, begun almost thirty years ago,

(B) begun almost thirty years ago for controlling the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil’s interior cities,

(C) begun for controlling the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil’s interior cities almost thirty years ago,

(D) at controlling the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil’s interior cities begun almost thirty years ago,

(E) that has begun almost thirty years ago to control the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil’s interior cities,

This is a classic case how a substantive noun or noun phrase acting as the subject is never separated by a comma from its predicate, particularly the verb. within a sentence.

Except in A, which has a modifier element that is cocooned between two commas, in all other choices the subjects are separated from their verbs namely,- has been partially successful - by a comma. That is a substantial reason why choices B through E can be dismissed in just one sleight, notwithstanding of course other errors in those four choices.

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Re: An effort to control the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil’s inte  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Feb 2018, 05:25
please explain i think A has modifier error began 30 years ago must come after effort in coma isn't it please explain. thankyou
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Re: An effort to control the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil’s inte  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Feb 2018, 06:11
rishabhmishra wrote:
please explain i think A has modifier error began 30 years ago must come after effort in coma isn't it please explain. thankyou


No, it is OK. Sometimes an important modifier (in Manhattan guide, mentioned as "mission critical" modifier) may fall between a modifier and the noun it refers. In such case, the separated modifier refers to the noun and the "mission critical" modifier as a whole.

Here "to control the crippling poverty in Brazil's interior cities" is a "mission critical" modifier, and the separated modifier "begun almost 30 years ago" refers to the part "An effort to control the crippling poverty in Brazil's interior cities" as a whole.
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