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Re: As a result of Benito Mussolini's rise to power ... [#permalink]
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IMO A

(A) Italian forces were defeated by the British, who then relocated Eritrian industry and -- Correct --

(B)the British, who defeated Italian forces, who then relocated Eritrian industry and which --incorrect-- The british,modifier,who then relocated .. --

(C) Italian forces were defeated by the British, who relocated Eritrian industry and which -- Incorrect -- and which, seems which is referring back to industry..

(D) the British relocated Eritrean industry, who defeated Italian forces, and who -- incorrect -- seems industry defeated the italian forces...

(E) the British relocated Eritrean industry, defeating Italian forces, and -- incorrect -- means by relocating the industry the british defeated the Italian forces..
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Re: As a result of Benito Mussolini's rise to power ... [#permalink]
Expert Reply
This is a great example of how incorrect modifiers change the meaning of the sentence. Modifying the wrong word/phrase leads to illogical meaning - i.e. industry defeating the Italian forces.

Get good at modifiers and you'll improve your ability to answer meaning-based questions.

KW
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Re: As a result of Benito Mussolini's rise to power ... [#permalink]
mikemcgarry wrote:
Dear avohden,
I'm happy to help with this. :-)

As a result of Benito Mussolini's rise to power, Eritreans were demoted to menial positions in the public sector in 1938; soon after, Italian forces were defeated by the British, who then relocated Eritrian industry and dismantled part of the railroad.
Notice, there are no obvious mistakes with the original prompt sentence. That, in an of itself, is notable.

(A) Italian forces were defeated by the British, who then relocated Eritrian industry and
No obvious mistakes. This is a promising choice.

(B) the British, who defeated Italian forces, who then relocated Eritrian industry and which
In this choice, after the semi-colon, the subject "the British" has no bonafide main verb, only modifiers. This commits the famous "missing verb" mistake. See:
https://gmat.magoosh.com/lessons/914-the ... rb-mistake
This one is clearly incorrect.

(C) Italian forces were defeated by the British, who relocated Eritrian industry and which
This is awkward phrasing, and it's unclear why we refer to the British (people) by both "who" and "which" --- something's funky about having two different relative pronouns in parallel for the same object. This one would never be correct on the real GMAT, so we can count it as incorrect.

(D) the British relocated Eritrean industry, who defeated Italian forces, and who
Hmm. This makes it sound as if the "Eritrean industry" defeated the Italians. That substantially changes the meaning to something that is historically false. This is incorrect.

(E) the British relocated Eritrean industry, defeating Italian forces, and
This one is funny. The participial phrase "defeating Italian forces" can modify the subject or the entire phrase, but what's funny is that if I say P did X, doing Y, then it implies an essential logical relationship between actions X & Y, as if by doing X, one also in the same stroke accomplished Y, or as if Y were an accessory action that supported the main action X. Neither one of these fits the logic of what we are trying to communicate here. Defeating the Italians was the big action, and relocating Eritrian industry was, by comparison, a footnote, a detail that followed this big action. The phrasing in (E) does not make that clear at all. Choice (E) must be incorrect.

The answer is clearly (A). This is a very interesting question ---- interesting and subtle mistakes that clearly eliminate each of the other four answer choices.

Mike :-)



Hi Mike,

Isn't WHO in (A) creating an ambiguity?
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Re: As a result of Benito Mussolini's rise to power ... [#permalink]
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believer700 wrote:
Hi Mike,

Isn't WHO in (A) creating an ambiguity?

Dear believer700

I'm happy to respond. :-) The short answer: no. The reason: the modifier touch rule. Here's the relevant section of (A):

. . . Italian forces were defeated by the British, who then relocated Eritrian industry and . . .

The word "who" begins a relative clause, which is a kind of noun-modifying clause. It "touches" "the British," and this makes it overwhelmingly clear and unambiguous that this noun-modifying clause targets "the British." No ambiguity at all.

In general, if there are several nouns in a sentence, and after the final noun there's a comma and a "who ..." clause, then 99.9% of the time that "who" clause is modifying the final noun before the comma.

If there's no noun before the comma, or if there's a noun followed by a vital noun modifier, then there could be some space between the target noun and the noun-modifying clause.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: As a result of Benito Mussolini's rise to power ... [#permalink]
avohden wrote:
As a result of Benito Mussolini's rise to power, Eritreans were demoted to menial positions in the public sector in 1938; soon after, Italian forces were defeated by the British, who then relocated Eritrian industry and dismantled part of the railroad.

(A) Italian forces were defeated by the British, who then relocated Eritrian industry and
(B) the British, who defeated Italian forces, who then relocated Eritrian industry and which
(C) Italian forces were defeated by the British, who relocated Eritrian industry and which
(D) the British relocated Eritrean industry, who defeated Italian forces, and who
(E) the British relocated Eritrean industry, defeating Italian forces, and


GH-12.20.12 - OE to follow


The intent of the sentence begins after the ";".

British defeated the Italian forces, They even relocated and dismantled part of the railroad

Only A matches this intent.

(B) the British, who defeated Italian forces, who then relocated Eritrian industry and which
Not the correct intent, Italian forces did not relocate

(C) Italian forces were defeated by the British, who relocated Eritrian industry and which
which ??

(D) the British relocated Eritrean industry, who defeated Italian forces, and who
Not the correct intent,Eritrean industry did not defeat the Italian forces.

(E) the British relocated Eritrean industry, defeating Italian forces, and
Not the correct intent,Eritrean industry is still not defeating the Italian forces
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Re: As a result of Benito Mussolini's rise to power ... [#permalink]
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Re: As a result of Benito Mussolini's rise to power ... [#permalink]
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