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Austrian psychologist Sigmund Freud, whose insights into the workings

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Austrian psychologist Sigmund Freud, whose insights into the workings  [#permalink]

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Austrian psychologist Sigmund Freud, whose insights into the workings of the human mind were instrumental in the development of modern psychoanalytical techniques, was an influence on many authors, that included James Joyce and William Faulkner, whose novels experimented with stream of consciousness.


A. were instrumental in the development of modern psychoanalytical techniques, was an influence on many authors, that included James Joyce and William Faulkner, whose novels experimented with stream of consciousness

B. were instrumental in the development of modern psychoanalytical techniques, influenced many authors, including James Joyce and William Faulkner, whose novels experimented with stream of consciousness

C. was instrumental with the development of modern psychoanalytical techniques, was influential on many authors, that included James Joyce and William Faulkner, whose novels used experiments in stream of consciousness

D. was instrumental in the development of modern psychoanalytical techniques, influenced many authors, who included James Joyce and William Faulkner, the novels of whom used stream of consciousness experimentally

E. were an instrument in the development of modern psychoanalytical techniques, was an influence on many authors, including James Joyce and William Faulkner, whose novels experimented with stream of consciousness

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Originally posted by Skyline393 on 05 Apr 2019, 03:30.
Last edited by Bunuel on 07 Apr 2019, 23:42, edited 1 time in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: Austrian psychologist Sigmund Freud, whose insights into the workings  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Apr 2019, 04:28
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A - were instrumental in the development of modern psychoanalytical techniques, was an influence on many authors, that included James Joyce and William Faulkner, whose novels experimented with stream of consciousness
",that" is wrong usage
B - were instrumental in the development of modern psychoanalytical techniques, influenced many authors, including James Joyce and William Faulkner, whose novels experimented with stream of consciousness
C - was instrumental with the development of modern psychoanalytical techniques, was influential on many authors, that included James Joyce and William Faulkner, whose novels used experiments in stream of consciousness
D - was instrumental in the development of modern psychoanalytical techniques, influenced many authors, who included James Joyce and William Faulkner, the novels of whom used stream of consciousness experimentally
E - were an instrument in the development of modern psychoanalytical techniques, was an influence on many authors, including James Joyce and William Faulkner, whose novels experimented with stream of consciousness
No verb for subject "Sigmund Freud"
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Re: Austrian psychologist Sigmund Freud, whose insights into the workings  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Apr 2019, 22:04
In correct answer B, the ed-verb "Influenced" should modify the preceding noun as per e-gmat grammar rules. What am I missing here? Can anyone help me here?

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Re: Austrian psychologist Sigmund Freud, whose insights into the workings  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Apr 2019, 22:06
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muditdadwal wrote:
In correct answer B, the ed-verb "Influenced" should modify the preceding noun as per e-gmat grammar rules. What am I missing here? Can anyone help me here?

Posted from my mobile device


Influenced is the main verb, if it modifies preceding noun as you said, then this sentence is lacking main verb.
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Austrian psychologist Sigmund Freud, whose insights into the workings  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Apr 2019, 22:54
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Skyline393 wrote:
B) Austrian psychologist Sigmund Freud, whose insights into the workings of the human mind were instrumental in the development of modern psychoanalytical techniques, influenced many authors, including James Joyce and William Faulkner, whose novels experimented with stream of consciousness.

muditdadwal wrote:
In correct answer B, the ed-verb "Influenced" should modify the preceding noun as per e-gmat grammar rules. What am I missing here? Can anyone help me here?

muditdadwal , influenced is a simple past tense verb, not a past participle verbED.

The simple past tense and the past participle of "influence" are identical.

"Influenced" does not have to modify anything. "Influenced" must merely agree with the subject.

Commas do not always indicate that words after the commas are modifiers.

Strip the sentence.

Austrian psychologist Sigmund Freud, whose insights into the workings of the human mind were instrumental in the development of modern psychoanalytical techniques, influenced many authors, including James Joyce and William Faulkner, whose novels experimented with stream of consciousness.

Freud ... influenced many authors.

That rendition is the core of the sentence. The verb is "influenced."

Non-essential modifiers.

Commas that set off relative clauses such as
whose insights... and
whose novels experimented with...
signal NON-essential information that can be removed without changing the core meaning of the sentence. Remove the information as I did.

"Including" also introduces non-essential information. Including is an exception to the present participle (verbING) rules: "including" is always followed by a noun or noun phrase; does not have to modify the preceding clause or immediately preceding noun; and is best thought of as such as, for example, or as well as. (In this case it means for example or such as.)
Remove the "including..." phrase.

When simple past and verbED (the past participle) are identical

-- beware of commas, which do not always signal that the word following a comma is a modifier

-- in this case, the simple past tense verb influenced is preceded by a comma, but it is a verb, not a modifier (not a verbED).

-- when we see a verb that ends in ED, check the subject: is the subject the doer of the action indicated by the verb-word that ends with "ED"? If the answer is yes, then the word at issue is a verb, not a participle.

The core of the sentence, as above:
Freud ... influenced many authors.

Subject: Freud
Verb, simple past tense: influenced
Direct objects of the verb: many authors

Hope that helps.
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Re: Austrian psychologist Sigmund Freud, whose insights into the workings  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Apr 2019, 12:26
generis GMATNinja

Can you help me understand the usage of "whose" in the options?

According to me, "whose" is referring to "many authors" and not to "William Faulkner"
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Re: Austrian psychologist Sigmund Freud, whose insights into the workings  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Apr 2019, 18:17
generis wrote:
"Including" also introduces non-essential information. Including is an exception to the present participle (verbING) rules: "including" is always followed by a noun or noun phrase; does not have to modify the preceding clause or noun; and is best thought of as such as, for example, or as well as. (In this case it means for example or such as.)


Hi, Can you please help me with any example where including is not modifying preceding clause or noun. ?
IMO, including always modifies preceding noun but not preceding clause.

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Re: Austrian psychologist Sigmund Freud, whose insights into the workings  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Apr 2019, 19:51
pikolo2510 wrote:
generis GMATNinja

Can you help me understand the usage of "whose" in the options?

According to me, "whose" is referring to "many authors" and not to "William Faulkner"

pikolo2510 , hmm. I am trying to figure out what underlies your reasoning.
Why would whose books "reach backwards" over the nearest logical nouns, namely, Joyce and Faulkner?
Why would that phrase reach back to "many authors"?

Whose can modify two nouns and whose modifies the nearest logical nouns

Whose is a possessive relative pronoun that refers to books written by Joyce and Faulkner.

Yes, the only truly essential information after the verb is "many authors."
The punctuation tells us so, and when we strip the sentence, as I did here,
our core sentence is Freud influenced many authors.

But nonessential information still follows the rules of grammar.

Whose modifies the books of Joyce and Faulkner.
Whose books, preceded by a comma, and modifying nonessential information, is itself nonessential.

• Although COMMA + INCLUDING introduces nonessential information . . .
"Nonessential" does not mean "not able to be modified."

We do not say,
"Okay, Joyce and Faulkner are set off by an including phrase with commas,
indicating that the information is nonessential.
That information could be removed without altering the core meaning.
Because that nonessential information could be removed, whatever follows
must refer to the information that cannot be removed: many authors." No. Three is no such rule.

Does the material I wrote in quotation marks capture the way you were reasoning?

As is the case with all relative pronouns, the noun that whose modifies should be as close as possible to whose.

In this case, whose refers to both Joyce and Faulkner — in particular,
to the novels that they wrote, the novels that "belonged" to them.

Perhaps I misunderstand you. If so, please either help me understand what I am missing
or explain why you believe that whose modifies "many authors" and tag me. :)
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Re: Austrian psychologist Sigmund Freud, whose insights into the workings  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Apr 2019, 19:56
pikolo2510 wrote:
generis GMATNinja

Can you help me understand the usage of "whose" in the options?

According to me, "whose" is referring to "many authors" and not to "William Faulkner"
This is something that has to be done by meaning (we can't tell whether the whose points to many authors or to William Faulkner by applying a "rule"). For example, let's take a look at the official question that this question is based on:

Bluegrass musician Bill Monroe, whose repertory, views on musical collaboration, and vocal style influenced generations of bluegrass artists, also inspired many musicians, including Elvis Presley and Jerry Garcia, whose music differed significantly from his own.

What you say makes a lot of sense:

BM, a Bluegrass musician, who influenced generations of bluegrass musicians, also influenced many musicians (including X and Y) who were not bluegrass musicians.

If we limit the whose to X and Y, the sentence loses its intended meaning.

generis wrote:
Perhaps I misunderstand you. If so, please either help me understand what I am missing
or explain why you believe that whose modifies "many authors" and tag me. :)
The official question does a better job of providing support for the meaning call. :)
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Re: Austrian psychologist Sigmund Freud, whose insights into the workings  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Apr 2019, 19:58
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anvesh004 wrote:
Hi, Can you please help me with any example where including is not modifying preceding clause or noun. ?
Here is a quick sentence in which the including is placed towards the end:
1. All the hospital rooms were decontaminated after the outbreak, including 101A.

This is the same as:
2. All the hospital rooms, including 101A, were decontaminated after the outbreak.

We can come up with situations in which (2) would be better than (1).
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Re: Austrian psychologist Sigmund Freud, whose insights into the workings  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Apr 2019, 23:40
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anvesh004 wrote:
Hi, Can you please help me with any example where including is not modifying preceding clause or noun. ?
IMO, including always modifies preceding noun but not preceding clause.

Hi Anvesh, Ajitesh has already given couple of examples.

Here's an official example:

The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large animals, rather than mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including three wooden spears that archaeologists believe to be about 400,000 years old.

As is evident, including is modifying tools (though preceding noun is Germany).

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses application of including, its application and examples. If you or someone is interested, PM me your email-id; I can mail the corresponding section.
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New post 08 Apr 2019, 02:09
EducationAisle wrote:
Hi Anvesh, Ajitesh has already given couple of examples.

Here's an official example:

The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large animals, rather than mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including three wooden spears that archaeologists believe to be about 400,000 years old.

As is evident, including is modifying tools (though preceding noun is Germany).

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses application of including, its application and examples. If you or someone is interested, PM me your email-id; I can mail the corresponding section.


AjiteshArun wrote:
Here is a quick sentence in which the including is placed towards the end:
1. All the hospital rooms were decontaminated after the outbreak, including 101A.

This is the same as:
2. All the hospital rooms, including 101A, were decontaminated after the outbreak.

We can come up with situations in which (2) would be better than (1).


Thanks both for clearing my misconception with good examples. EducationAisle, I will PM for detailed application of this.
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Re: Austrian psychologist Sigmund Freud, whose insights into the workings  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Apr 2019, 08:10
Can someone please explain why option E is incorrect?
I eliminated it because of
were
Quote:
an instrument
in the development of modern psychoanalytical techniques, was an influence on many authors, including James Joyce and William Faulkner, whose novels experimented with stream of consciousness
Quote:
not whose novels experimented with stream of consciousness


Am I missing something here?

Thanks in advance.
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Re: Austrian psychologist Sigmund Freud, whose insights into the workings  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Apr 2019, 09:11
anvesh004 wrote:
A - were instrumental in the development of modern psychoanalytical techniques, was an influence on many authors, that included James Joyce and William Faulkner, whose novels experimented with stream of consciousness
",that" is wrong usage
B - were instrumental in the development of modern psychoanalytical techniques, influenced many authors, including James Joyce and William Faulkner, whose novels experimented with stream of consciousness
C - was instrumental with the development of modern psychoanalytical techniques, was influential on many authors, that included James Joyce and William Faulkner, whose novels used experiments in stream of consciousness
D - was instrumental in the development of modern psychoanalytical techniques, influenced many authors, who included James Joyce and William Faulkner, the novels of whom used stream of consciousness experimentally
E - were an instrument in the development of modern psychoanalytical techniques, was an influence on many authors, including James Joyce and William Faulkner, whose novels experimented with stream of consciousness
No verb for subject "Sigmund Freud"


Can someone help me understand why "Freud .... was an influence" is not a valid subject verb pair.
Subject Freud
Verb was
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Re: Austrian psychologist Sigmund Freud, whose insights into the workings  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Apr 2019, 10:08
AMAN_9608 wrote:
anvesh004 wrote:
A - were instrumental in the development of modern psychoanalytical techniques, was an influence on many authors, that included James Joyce and William Faulkner, whose novels experimented with stream of consciousness
",that" is wrong usage
B - were instrumental in the development of modern psychoanalytical techniques, influenced many authors, including James Joyce and William Faulkner, whose novels experimented with stream of consciousness
C - was instrumental with the development of modern psychoanalytical techniques, was influential on many authors, that included James Joyce and William Faulkner, whose novels used experiments in stream of consciousness
D - was instrumental in the development of modern psychoanalytical techniques, influenced many authors, who included James Joyce and William Faulkner, the novels of whom used stream of consciousness experimentally
E - were an instrument in the development of modern psychoanalytical techniques, was an influence on many authors, including James Joyce and William Faulkner, whose novels experimented with stream of consciousness
No verb for subject "Sigmund Freud"


Can someone help me understand why "Freud .... was an influence" is not a valid subject verb pair.
Subject Freud
Verb was



Hi Aman,
It seems i didn't mention the error correctly.
I have eliminated E because of "..insights were an instrument.."
Coming to Sub-Verb pair, yes there is no error.
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Re: Austrian psychologist Sigmund Freud, whose insights into the workings  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Apr 2019, 11:18
Quote:
"Okay, Joyce and Faulkner are set off by an including phrase with commas,
indicating that the information is nonessential.
That information could be removed without altering the core meaning.
Because that nonessential information could be removed, whatever follows
must refer to the information that cannot be removed: many authors."


generis - The above was my exact reasoning and this is what confuses me most of the times

As AjiteshArun pointed out, looks like we will have to go by meaning to determine if it jumps over the non-essential modifier or not

Thanks for the detailed explanation
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Re: Austrian psychologist Sigmund Freud, whose insights into the workings  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Apr 2019, 20:13
Hital wrote:
Can someone please explain why option E is incorrect?
I eliminated it because of
were
Quote:
an instrument
You took the right call.

Were instrumental is correct because instrumental is the right word here (we're trying to say that X was important for the "achieving" of Y). When instrument is used in a similar way, it is followed by of or for, but not in.

He portrayed diplomacy as an instrument of peace.
He portrayed diplomacy as an instrument for bringing peace to the region.

He portrayed diplomacy as an instrument in bringing peace to the region.
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Re: Austrian psychologist Sigmund Freud, whose insights into the workings   [#permalink] 08 Apr 2019, 20:13
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