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# Because of the enormous research and development

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Director
Joined: 03 Aug 2012
Posts: 894
Concentration: General Management, General Management
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Because of the enormous research and development [#permalink]

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29 Dec 2012, 22:21
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65% (hard)

Question Stats:

41% (08:26) correct 59% (00:50) wrong based on 146 sessions

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55. Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required to survive in the electronics industry, an industry marked by rapid innovation and volatile demand, such firms tend to be very large.

(A) to survive
(B) of firms to survive
(C) for surviving
(D) for survival
(E) for firms’ survival

Source: Brutal SC
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: Because of the enormous research and development expenditure [#permalink]

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29 Dec 2012, 23:14
IMO is A, but I'm not sure that B is incorrect.
I'm pretty sure that C it's wrong because after require I need an infinitive such as to survive. It's like: Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required IN ORDER TO SURVIVE...
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Re: Because of the enormous research and development expenditure [#permalink]

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30 Dec 2012, 08:19
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The subject of the last clause "Such firms tend to be very large", should be acted upon by the starting line "Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required".
But in the sentence, it is not so. The "firms" are not being acted upon. So, to correct it, you need to go for option B. That is the only choice where it makes correct sense.
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Re: Because of the enormous research and development expenditure [#permalink]

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30 Dec 2012, 17:06
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A – last part of the sentence refers to a firms. We need to find a sentence where “firms” is clearly stated. Eliminate
B – Keep
C – No reference to firms. Eliminate
D – same as C
E – keep "firms' survival" is possesive and "such firms" can't refer back to it.
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Re: Because of the enormous research and development expenditure [#permalink]

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31 Dec 2012, 12:36
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targetgmatchotu wrote:
55. Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required to survive in the electronics industry, an industry marked by rapid innovation and volatile demand, such firms tend to be very large.

(A) to survive
(B) of firms to survive
(C) for surviving
(D) for survival
(E) for firms’ survival

Source: Brutal SC

Infinitives are used to state purpose, and so this construction is a must here. And so A stands out. I am not sure why B is an OA here.
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Re: Because of the enormous research and development [#permalink]

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22 Oct 2013, 19:08
The sentence appears to be flipped. The subject comes last. If you forget the modifying clause of "an industry marked by rapid innovation and volatile demand" and focus on the remaining part of the sentence its easier to parse the sentence.

Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required to survive in the electronics industry, an industry marked by rapid innovation and volatile demand,such firms tend to be very large.

Take the subject part of the sentence. "such firms tend to be very large." .... "Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required to survive in the electronics industry,".

Because is a Subordinating Conjunctions. A subordinating conjunction introduces a dependent clause and indicates the nature of the relationship among the independent clause(s) and the dependent clause(s). The most common subordinating conjunctions are "after," "although," "as," "because," "before," "how," "if," "once," "since," "than," "that," "though," "till," "until," "when," "where," "whether," and "while."

"such firms tend to be very large" is a complete independent clause. An independent clause (or main clause) is a clause that can stand by itself, also known as a simple sentence. An independent clause contains a subject and a predicate; it makes sense by itself. When "because" is added the dependent clause also has to make sense and also must have a subject. The sentence as written does not have subject. B & E are the only answer choice that introduce a subject in the dependent clause. But B has the more appropriate preposition of "of" instead of "for".
Director
Status: 1,750 Q's attempted and counting
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Re: Because of the enormous research and development [#permalink]

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27 Oct 2013, 10:24
Hi - Just wanted to point out that there was some thoughtful discussion regarding this question at the following post.
http://gmatclub.com/forum/because-of-the-enormous-research-and-development-68880.html
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Re: Because of the enormous research and development [#permalink]

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01 Aug 2016, 13:43
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

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Re: Because of the enormous research and development   [#permalink] 01 Aug 2016, 13:43
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