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Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required

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Re: Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Oct 2014, 08:56
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a13ssandra wrote:
Can someone please explain why B is correct. Isn't it wordy and unidiomatic.

I chose A


Dear a13ssandra,

Even I thought that choice B is wrong and unidiomatic, but alas, that's how 700 level question trick us.

Here's the reason:

Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required to survive in the electronics industry, an industry marked by rapid innovation and volatile demand, such firms tend to be very large.

If you give heed to "Such Firms", you would realize that it has no reference to any type of "firms", but since the word Such is used, it means that, there should be a reference to firms, and that should precede Such Firms .

Only answer choices B & E include reference to Firm.

But E is about Firm's Survival and not firm, moreover, a phrase such as, for firms' survival is unidiomatic and unacceptable in GMAT.

So B is the answer.

Hope that helps you.
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Re: Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Feb 2015, 13:25
I have one example that may undermine the logic for answering this question as option B.
In Manhattan SC book, it is specifically mentioned that the usage of 'required' is wrong in the following sentence

She requires of her friend to do work.

Now Isn't the structure of the sentence at hand similar to the structure of the above sentence?
Please explain this.... :(
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Re: Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Mar 2015, 00:11
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No, the problem above is different. In the SC, we are talking about the expenditures that are required of firms. Why are these expenditures required? To survive.

In the sentence you cited, "she" requires something of her friend, but she doesn't require it in order to work. In other words, she is not doing the working. Since the idea being expressed here is much simpler, we should use a simpler form: "She requires her friend to work."
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Re: Advanced SC: Because of the enormous research and development  [#permalink]

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New post 01 May 2015, 02:19
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The subject of the main clause (such firms) presumes a prior reference to the firms in question. Furthermore,
the logical subject of to survive and the logical complement of required should be made explicit. All three
demands are met by B, the best choice. Choices A, C, and D, with no reference to the firms in question, meet
none of these demands. In choice E, the illogical and awkward use of a prepositional phrase (for firms' survival)
buries the needed initial reference to firms in a possessive modifier.
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Re: Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Feb 2016, 08:04
og explanation said that "such firm" need "firm" not "firms'".

but og explanation sometime is INCORRECT.

required for something
is not idiomatic
I think.

do you agree with me ?
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Re: Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Feb 2016, 17:21
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thangvietnam wrote:
og explanation said that "such firm" need "firm" not "firms'".

but og explanation sometime is INCORRECT.

required for something
is not idiomatic
I think.

do you agree with me ?


Hi thangvietnam,

Let us recollect the pronoun rule: A possessive noun is not a good antecedent of a pronoun. e.g.,

The teacher is rechecking John's research thesis to determine whether he has used his original idea.

John's is not a good antecedent for he because of the above rule.

Please note that the word such combined with a noun is used to refer to an antecedent mentioned previously. The antecedent in this case also should preferably not be in possessive. For this reason the possessive firms' is a poor antecedent of such firms.

Is this explanation satisfactory?
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Re: Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Mar 2017, 01:52
Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required to survive in the electronics industry, an industry marked by rapid innovation and volatile demand, such firms tend to be very large.

'Such firms' need a reference in the sentence. hence, only B fits in here.
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Re: Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Nov 2018, 16:43
Logic + Modifiers

A, C, and D can be eliminated because they give a meaning that “enormous research and development expenditures” are required of the ‘industry’. The correct meaning is that such enormous expenditures are required of firms to survive in the electronics industry.
E is wrong because it also fails to convey the meaning effectively.
B is the best choice.
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Re: Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Apr 2019, 00:16
mikemcgarry wrote:
fameatop wrote:
As far as i know, the correct idiom structure is "require + noun + to", but still i am not able to understand how option B is correct answer.

Dear Fame,
The correct idiom for the active use of the verb is -----require + [noun] + [infinitive] ----
ACTIVE FORM: Firms require enormous research and development expenditures to survive.
This sentence is NOT using the verb "to require" in its active form. Instead, it is using the past participle form, "required", as a participle modifying the noun phrase "enormous research and development expenditures." The rules for the past participle follow the rules for the passive use of the verb. For many verb, the subject in the active form would become the object of the preposition "by" in the passive form ----
I read the book. ----> The book was read by me.
Idiomatically, the preposition "by" sounds unnatural with the passive verb "required" in this particular construction. Because the former subject, here "firms", is now essentially the subject of an infinitive phrase, it must take the preposition "for" --- the preposition "for" is the preposition we use to denote the subject of an infinitive or infinitive phrase.
I want for the teacher to help you.
For a homerun hitter to hit over .300 is a notable achievement.
The lawyer argued that it was not a crime for a policemen to use deadly force in an ambiguous situation
.
When we change the active form above to passive form, the former direct object, "enormous research and development expenditures" becomes the subject (that always happens in a change from active to passive), and because we still have an infinitive phrase, the former subject, "firms", becomes the object of the preposition "for", becoming the subject of that infinitive phrase:
ACTIVE FORM: Firms require enormous research and development expenditures to survive.
PASSIVE FORM: Enormous research and development expenditures are required for firms to survive.
Now, we are ready to consider the sentence in this question. The past participle, "required", follows the rules & structures of the passive form of the verb "are required."
Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required for firms to survive in the electronics industry, an industry marked by rapid innovation and volatile demand, such firms tend to be very large.
That's (B), the OA version of the sentence.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)


Sir, is it a typo error ? In option B ' OF FIRMS' instead of ' Required FOR FARMS to survive' as suggested by you.
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Re: Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Apr 2019, 00:35
Hi Dipesh, it's not a typo; this is a perfectly valid usage.
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Re: Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required   [#permalink] 30 Apr 2019, 00:35

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