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Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required

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Re: Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Oct 2014, 08:56
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a13ssandra wrote:
Can someone please explain why B is correct. Isn't it wordy and unidiomatic.

I chose A


Dear a13ssandra,

Even I thought that choice B is wrong and unidiomatic, but alas, that's how 700 level question trick us.

Here's the reason:

Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required to survive in the electronics industry, an industry marked by rapid innovation and volatile demand, such firms tend to be very large.

If you give heed to "Such Firms", you would realize that it has no reference to any type of "firms", but since the word Such is used, it means that, there should be a reference to firms, and that should precede Such Firms .

Only answer choices B & E include reference to Firm.

But E is about Firm's Survival and not firm, moreover, a phrase such as, for firms' survival is unidiomatic and unacceptable in GMAT.

So B is the answer.

Hope that helps you.
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Re: Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Feb 2015, 13:25
I have one example that may undermine the logic for answering this question as option B.
In Manhattan SC book, it is specifically mentioned that the usage of 'required' is wrong in the following sentence

She requires of her friend to do work.

Now Isn't the structure of the sentence at hand similar to the structure of the above sentence?
Please explain this.... :(
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Re: Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Mar 2015, 00:11
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No, the problem above is different. In the SC, we are talking about the expenditures that are required of firms. Why are these expenditures required? To survive.

In the sentence you cited, "she" requires something of her friend, but she doesn't require it in order to work. In other words, she is not doing the working. Since the idea being expressed here is much simpler, we should use a simpler form: "She requires her friend to work."
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Re: Advanced SC: Because of the enormous research and development  [#permalink]

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New post 01 May 2015, 02:19
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The subject of the main clause (such firms) presumes a prior reference to the firms in question. Furthermore,
the logical subject of to survive and the logical complement of required should be made explicit. All three
demands are met by B, the best choice. Choices A, C, and D, with no reference to the firms in question, meet
none of these demands. In choice E, the illogical and awkward use of a prepositional phrase (for firms' survival)
buries the needed initial reference to firms in a possessive modifier.
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Re: Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Feb 2016, 08:04
og explanation said that "such firm" need "firm" not "firms'".

but og explanation sometime is INCORRECT.

required for something
is not idiomatic
I think.

do you agree with me ?
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Re: Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Feb 2016, 17:21
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thangvietnam wrote:
og explanation said that "such firm" need "firm" not "firms'".

but og explanation sometime is INCORRECT.

required for something
is not idiomatic
I think.

do you agree with me ?


Hi thangvietnam,

Let us recollect the pronoun rule: A possessive noun is not a good antecedent of a pronoun. e.g.,

The teacher is rechecking John's research thesis to determine whether he has used his original idea.

John's is not a good antecedent for he because of the above rule.

Please note that the word such combined with a noun is used to refer to an antecedent mentioned previously. The antecedent in this case also should preferably not be in possessive. For this reason the possessive firms' is a poor antecedent of such firms.

Is this explanation satisfactory?
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Re: Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Mar 2017, 01:52
Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required to survive in the electronics industry, an industry marked by rapid innovation and volatile demand, such firms tend to be very large.

'Such firms' need a reference in the sentence. hence, only B fits in here.
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Re: Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Nov 2018, 16:43
Logic + Modifiers

A, C, and D can be eliminated because they give a meaning that “enormous research and development expenditures” are required of the ‘industry’. The correct meaning is that such enormous expenditures are required of firms to survive in the electronics industry.
E is wrong because it also fails to convey the meaning effectively.
B is the best choice.
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Re: Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Apr 2019, 00:16
mikemcgarry wrote:
fameatop wrote:
As far as i know, the correct idiom structure is "require + noun + to", but still i am not able to understand how option B is correct answer.

Dear Fame,
The correct idiom for the active use of the verb is -----require + [noun] + [infinitive] ----
ACTIVE FORM: Firms require enormous research and development expenditures to survive.
This sentence is NOT using the verb "to require" in its active form. Instead, it is using the past participle form, "required", as a participle modifying the noun phrase "enormous research and development expenditures." The rules for the past participle follow the rules for the passive use of the verb. For many verb, the subject in the active form would become the object of the preposition "by" in the passive form ----
I read the book. ----> The book was read by me.
Idiomatically, the preposition "by" sounds unnatural with the passive verb "required" in this particular construction. Because the former subject, here "firms", is now essentially the subject of an infinitive phrase, it must take the preposition "for" --- the preposition "for" is the preposition we use to denote the subject of an infinitive or infinitive phrase.
I want for the teacher to help you.
For a homerun hitter to hit over .300 is a notable achievement.
The lawyer argued that it was not a crime for a policemen to use deadly force in an ambiguous situation
.
When we change the active form above to passive form, the former direct object, "enormous research and development expenditures" becomes the subject (that always happens in a change from active to passive), and because we still have an infinitive phrase, the former subject, "firms", becomes the object of the preposition "for", becoming the subject of that infinitive phrase:
ACTIVE FORM: Firms require enormous research and development expenditures to survive.
PASSIVE FORM: Enormous research and development expenditures are required for firms to survive.
Now, we are ready to consider the sentence in this question. The past participle, "required", follows the rules & structures of the passive form of the verb "are required."
Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required for firms to survive in the electronics industry, an industry marked by rapid innovation and volatile demand, such firms tend to be very large.
That's (B), the OA version of the sentence.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)


Sir, is it a typo error ? In option B ' OF FIRMS' instead of ' Required FOR FARMS to survive' as suggested by you.
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Re: Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Apr 2019, 00:35
Hi Dipesh, it's not a typo; this is a perfectly valid usage.
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Re: Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jul 2019, 13:08
alpha_plus_gamma wrote:
ssandeepan wrote:
Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required to survive in the electronics industry, an industry marked by rapid innovation and volatile demand, such firms tend to be very large.
(A) to survive
(B) of firms to survive
(C) for surviving
(D) for survival
(E) for firms’ survival


The last part of the sentence uses "such firms" which will need an antecedent in the earlier sentence.

So A,C, D are out.

"firms' survival" is possesive and "such firms" can't refer back to it.

Thus B

But such firms are not a pronoun so why it requires a clear antecedent?
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Re: Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Nov 2019, 10:09
mikemcgarry wrote:
stunn3r wrote:
Hi Mike,

in the following :

Despite protests from some waste-disposal companies, state health officials have ordered the levels of bacteria in seawater at popular beaches to be measured and that the results be published.

(A) the levels of bacteria in seawater at popular beaches to be measured and that the results be
(B) that seawater at popular beaches should be measured for their levels of bacteria, with the results being
(C) the measure of levels of bacteria in seawater at popular beaches and the results to be
(D) seawater measured at popular beaches for levels of bacteria, with their results
(E) that the levels of bacteria in seawater at popular beaches be measured and the results

ordered is in participle for still we follow the subjunctive rule ... I know it has to do something with "order" being a command subjunctive and "require" is just a punk which can be anything, take "that" after it, take "to+verb" after it and in the quoted explanation of yours I got to know it dont need these too, it can be a participle and can get rid of TOs and THATs

show me light mike ...

Dear stunn3r,
I would like to help, but to some extent I am having trouble following your question.

In the quoted SC problem, in which OA = (E), "ordered" is not a participle. No, "have ordered" is a full-fledged verb --- in fact, it's the main verb of the whole sentence! If we put the verb in its present participle form, "ordering", then the present participle is active, so this could still take a "that"-clause with a subjunctive.
The senator ordering that the teenagers be charged with a felony will be censured by his peers..
The past participle, "ordered", is passive, so it would modify an order or command, not the person giving it, and thus we couldn't fit a "that"-clause into that structure.
The moratorium on judicial appointments, ordered by the Supreme Court, is likely to extend through the summer.
If we used "ordering" as an gerund, it would take the same structure
In ordering that the banks remain closed, the governor drew the ire of the populace.
As a general rule, any verb keeps all its associated idioms in all of its forms --- not only all tenses, but all verbals (infinitives, participles, gerunds). Many times, the same idiom remains even when we change from the verb form to the noun or adjective form of the same root word
A differs from B.
A, different from B, ...


The verb "require" can take a couple different idioms, but let us not cast aspersions on it. This variety is precisely what allows for creative expression in a variety of forms. Creative expression is one of the many ways in which you can impress others with your intelligence through writing. That's a good thing!! :-) The verb "require" keeps its idioms in its various forms.
The judge required the striking workers to return to work.
The judge required that the striking workers return to work.
The striking workers were required to return to work.
The judge requiring that the striking workers return to work was passed over for appointment to a Federal Court.
In requiring that the striking workers return to work, the judge alienated the unions.
In requiring the striking workers to return to work, the judge alienated the unions.
To require that striking workers return to work is not within the powers of a county judge.
To require striking workers to return to work is not within the powers of a county judge.
(slightly awkward, only because of all the to's)
A return to their jobs, required of the workers in court, financially helped the individual workers but broke the spirit of the union.
All of these are correct sentences.

Does all this answer your question?
Mike :-)



As per my understanding from various sources

in the case of passive form we normally use require + infinitive, but in the case of active form we use the subjunctive form, which is require +that+ simple form of verb.

The judge required the striking workers to return to work.
The judge required that the striking workers return to work.

After seeing those statements, i am confused regarding the usage of require.

Can you please explain this part in detail.
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New post 30 Nov 2019, 15:47
mahi816 In the cases you're citing, "required" is the verb. In this sentence, "required" is an adjective modifying "expenditures." To get the idea, we could replace "required of firms" with "needed by firms":

Because of the enormous expenditures needed (by firms) to survive in this industry, such firms tend to be very large.
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