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Re: Beginning in the mid-nineteenth century, discussion about the possibil [#permalink]
Bunuel
Please clarify this doubt.

Take this analogous statement.
It took the strength of Jack and the ingenuity of Jill to carry the machine up the hill. From this can we say that Jack was responsible for carrying the machine up the hill? In my view, yes.

As in option D, it isn't saying that William Wallace was alone responsible for debunking the myth. He can be responsible even if he was a tiny contributor.
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Re: Beginning in the mid-nineteenth century, discussion about the possibil [#permalink]
vishalgaurav4444 wrote:
Bunuel
Please clarify this doubt.

Take this analogous statement.
It took the strength of Jack and the ingenuity of Jill to carry the machine up the hill. From this can we say that Jack was responsible for carrying the machine up the hill? In my view, yes.

As in option D, it isn't saying that William Wallace was alone responsible for debunking the myth. He can be responsible even if he was a tiny contributor.

William Wallace Campbell and OTHER SCIENTISTS with more powerful telescopes debunked the myth. this doesn't mean only William Wallace was responsible.

HTHs.
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Re: Beginning in the mid-nineteenth century, discussion about the possibil [#permalink]
I was confused between C and E and unfortunately ended up selecting C. I believe C too holds water . Am I wrong?

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Re: Beginning in the mid-nineteenth century, discussion about the possibil [#permalink]
Bunuel wrote:
Bunuel wrote:
Beginning in the mid-nineteenth century, discussion about the possibility of life on Mars developed in earnest. From his research, English scientist William Whewell observed that Mars might have a geophysical landscape similar to that of Earth, complete with bodies of water, land masses, and possibly even intelligent life forms similar to humans. Scientists had already determined that Mars experienced days that spanned virtually the same length of hours as on Earth but with seasons that were approximately double the length due to Mars’s axial tilt in combination with its highly elongated orbit. In the late nineteenth century, scientists noticed what appeared to be canals on Mars’s landscape, and some even suggested that these canals were created by earlier civilizations. It took the research of American astronomer William Wallace Campbell in 1894 and the work of scientists with more powerful telescopes in the early twentieth century to debunk the canal-theory with the discovery that the atmosphere of Mars is entirely devoid of water and oxygen.

The passage above strictly implies which of the following about the speculation the canals on Mars?


(A) All life forms, whether human or otherwise, must have water and oxygen in order to survive.

(B) The scientists who believed that earlier civilizations had built canals on Mars also believed that the civilizations were composed of alien life forms completely unlike human beings.

(C) The canals on the surface of Mars have some other substance than water flowing through them.

(D) William Wallace Campbell is responsible for debunking the myth about canals and earlier civilizations on Mars.

(E) As there is no water or oxygen within the atmosphere of Mars, the canals had been mistaken for some other feature on Mars’s landscape.


OFFICIAL EXPLANATION



Overview:

Questions reference a passage that discusses the early research about the possibility of life on Mars. The passage begins by explaining that scientists have been considering this topic “in earnest” since the middle of the nineteenth century. The English scientist William Whewell claimed that Mars might have a similar landscape to Earth. Additionally, scientists discovered that Mars has days just over 24-hours long, although the seasons are twice as long as seasons on Earth given the axial tilt in combination with the elongation of the orbit of Mars. Late nineteenth-century scientists observed that there appeared to be canals on the planet, and there was argument about previous civilizations. But the later work of scientists with more powerful telescopes discovered that Mars has no water or oxygen in its atmosphere.

Question asks the student to select the answer choice that is strictly implied within the statements about canals on Mars, so the student needs to review each answer choice carefully and compare each one to the statements in the passage. The correct answer choice will be an inference, but this inference will only utilize the information provided in the passage and will not assume more than the passage can explain.

The Correct Answer:

E Answer choice (E) offers a clear link between the fourth and fifth sentences of the passage. The author of the passage notes that some scientists claimed to see canals on the surface of Mars and argued for the presence of intelligent life, while later scientists discovered that there was no water or oxygen in the atmosphere of Mars. From this, the student may deduce that the discovery of the lacking elements in Mars’s atmosphere made it impossible for earlier civilizations to exist there. Therefore, the “canals” must have been confused with some other feature on the landscape of Mars, and answer choice (E) is correct. (Note: This is also historically true. Stronger telescopes revealed that what were assumed to be canals did not actually exist on the surface of Mars.)

The Incorrect Answers:

A The passage is not entirely clear about who was believed to have inhabited the “earlier civilizations” rumored to have lived on Mars, but the author does imply that the earlier civilizations would have required water and oxygen, and the belief about the life was related to “intelligent life forms.” From this, the student may infer that earlier civilizations with intelligent beings (similar to humans, if not actually humans) were likely believed to have been on Mars, and the author is proving this theory incorrect with the discovery of the lacking elements in Mars’s atmosphere. The student cannot infer from the information in this passage alone, however, that all life forms require water and oxygen. Answer choice (A) infers more than the passage is focused on implying, so it is incorrect.

B As indicated in answer choice (A), the author of the passage seems to be implying that the previous inhabitants on the surface of Mars were believed to be human or similar to human beings in their intelligent ability to develop civilizations (that included canals). Answer choice (B), therefore, is also incorrect.

C The author of the passage implies strongly that the canals—as they were observed—did not even exist and were confused with another feature on the landscape of Mars. The passage notes that William Wallace and others were able to “debunk the canal theory”; as such, it cannot be inferred that there were canals at all. Answer choice (C) cannot be correct.

D The passage indicates clearly that William Wallace was but one scientist whose research indicated the canal theory to be impossible, so he alone cannot be credited with debunking it. Answer choice (D) assumes too much, so it is also incorrect.



My doubt - is 'the “canals” must have been confused with some other feature' same as 'some other feature must have been confused with "canal"
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Re: Beginning in the mid-nineteenth century, discussion about the possibil [#permalink]
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