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Bihar is India’s poorest state, with an annual per capita income of

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Bihar is India’s poorest state, with an annual per capita income of  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 26 Sep 2018, 06:36
3
10
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

Difficulty:

  15% (low)

Question Stats:

69% (00:35) correct 31% (00:43) wrong based on 647 sessions

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Bihar is India’s poorest state, with an annual per capita income of $111, lower than in the most impoverished countries of the world.

(A) lower than in
(B) lower than that of
(C) and lower than that of
(D) which is lower than in
(E) which is lower than it is in

why D is wrong here? please explain

https://www.nytimes.com/1987/04/27/world/india-s-corner-of-mystery-bihar-s-poor-and-lawless.html

This is Bihar, a state of 80 million people that represents the other face of India, a country that has made overall economic gains in recent years. Desperately poor and struggling under barriers of caste, Bihar ranks at the bottom of all the country's indexes of handicaps. It is a state that cannot feed itself, with an annual per capita income of $111, lower than in the poorest countries of the world. Corruption and Lawlessness

Originally posted by ugimba on 27 Mar 2009, 06:27.
Last edited by hazelnut on 26 Sep 2018, 06:36, edited 3 times in total.
OA and Spoiler added
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Re: Bihar is India’s poorest state, with an annual per capita income of  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Jun 2012, 07:11
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Hi All,

The discussion regarding the reference of “which” in answer choices D and E has prompted me to explain what “which” is modifying in these two choices. Yes, these two choices are incorrect choices, alright. But the information, I feel, is vital and can be usefully applied for GMAT problems related to “relative pronoun” clauses.

This is the sentence with answer choice D:

Bihar is India’s poorest state, with an annual per capita income of $111, which is lower than in the most impoverished countries of the world.

According to the general rule, relative pronouns modify the immediate preceding noun. However, in some cases, these pronouns can also refer to a slightly far away noun. This modification completely depends on the context of the sentence.
In this sentence, “which” refers to “annual per capita income of $111” and not only “$111”, the immediate preceding noun. This is so because the prepositional phrase “of $111” cannot be placed anywhere else in the sentence. This phrase only makes sense after “annual per capita income”. So now, we have a big noun phrase here “annual per capita income of $111”, and hence “which” modifies the head of this noun phrase that is “annual per capita income”.

Same is applicable to the sentence with choice E also.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
Shraddha
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Re: Bihar is India’s poorest state, with an annual per capita income of  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Jul 2010, 05:58
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Bihar is India’s poorest state, with an annual per capita income of $111, lower than in the most impoverished countries of the world.
(A) lower than in
You would only compare two prepositional phrases when you are comparing something to itself.

Correct: Sue reads more at night than in the day. (The sentence compares the two time periods.)

Incorrect: Sue reads more than at night. (There is a second time period but no first time period to complete the comparison.)

In A, there is no first prepositional phrase to complete the comparison ending with "...than in the most impoverished countries..."


(B) lower than that of
A tip regarding comparisons!

To compare something to itself, use "it" or "they".
Ex. The legs of chair A are more wobbly than they were yesterday.

To compare one thing to another, use "that" or "those".
Ex. The legs of chair A are more wobbly than those of chair B.


Thus, in the problem above, we want to compare one per-capita income to another. Any time you want to compare one thing to another you must use 'that'/'those'.

(C) and lower than that of

Tip: [,and] connects two independent clauses!

Ex. I eat steak [,and] my brother eats fish.

There is no full subject+verb after the 'and' in C.

(D) which is lower than in
Same problem as A.

(E) which is lower than it is in
See B.
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Re: Bihar is India’s poorest state, with an annual per capita income of  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Mar 2009, 06:32
2
ugimba wrote:
177. Bihar is India’s poorest state, with an annual per capita income of $111, lower than in the most impoverished countries of the world.
(A) lower than in
(B) lower than that of
(C) and lower than that of
(D) which is lower than in
(E) which is lower than it is in

why D is wrong here? please explain



It is B (OA), Which cannot be used here, which will allways follows what it refers to (here which does not refer to income of $111).
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Re: Bihar is India’s poorest state, with an annual per capita income of  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Jun 2012, 00:40
SaraiGMAXonline wrote:
Bihar is India’s poorest state, with an annual per capita income of $111, lower than in the most impoverished countries of the world.
(A) lower than in
You would only compare two prepositional phrases when you are comparing something to itself.

Correct: Sue reads more at night than in the day. (The sentence compares the two time periods.)

Incorrect: Sue reads more than at night. (There is a second time period but no first time period to complete the comparison.)

In A, there is no first prepositional phrase to complete the comparison ending with "...than in the most impoverished countries..."


(B) lower than that of
A tip regarding comparisons!

To compare something to itself, use "it" or "they".
Ex. The legs of chair A are more wobbly than they were yesterday.

To compare one thing to another, use "that" or "those".
Ex. The legs of chair A are more wobbly than those of chair B.


Thus, in the problem above, we want to compare one per-capita income to another. Any time you want to compare one thing to another you must use 'that'/'those'.

(C) and lower than that of

Tip: [,and] connects two independent clauses!

Ex. I eat steak [,and] my brother eats fish.

There is no full subject+verb after the 'and' in C.

(D) which is lower than in
Same problem as A.

(E) which is lower than it is in
See B.




Will it be fine if we write the sentence in the following way :-


Annual per capita income income of Bihar,which is India's poorest state , is lower than in the most impoverished countries of the world.
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Re: Bihar is India’s poorest state, with an annual per capita income of  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Jun 2012, 06:51
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arunmehta89 wrote:
Will it be fine if we write the sentence in the following way :-


Annual per capita income income of Bihar,which is India's poorest state , is lower than in the most impoverished countries of the world.


Hi there,
Annual per capita income of Bihar, which is India's poorest state, is lower than in the most impoverished countries of the world.

I’m afraid this sentence is not correct. It has the same error as in the original sentence. The comparison is not clear here. This sentence fails to convey what we are comparing the annual per capita income of Bihar with. After “lower than” we have “in the most impoverished countries” but what in these impoverished countries are we comparing the per capita income of Bihar with? This is not mentioned in the sentence.

The correct version of the sentence will be:

Annual per capita income of Bihar, which is India's poorest state, is lower than that of the most impoverished countries of the world.

We can also write the sentence by replacing “that of” with the “annual per capita income”.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
Shraddha
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Re: Bihar is India’s poorest state, with an annual per capita income of  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Sep 2018, 20:37
https://youtu.be/5-nuFjDlQGs
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Re: Bihar is India’s poorest state, with an annual per capita income of  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Sep 2018, 02:54
ugimba wrote:
Bihar is India’s poorest state, with an annual per capita income of $111, lower than in the most impoverished countries of the world.

(A) lower than in
(B) lower than that of
(C) and lower than that of
(D) which is lower than in
(E) which is lower than it is in

why D is wrong here? please explain


look at choice A. understanding why choice A is wrong is basic point inhere.

choice A means
annual per capital income of 111, lower that this capital income in the most impoverished countries.
so, it is not logic

a pattern similar to that of choice A but correct is

the capital income is higher in vietnam than in any other countries.
this is correct. if you want to use "in other countries" we have to have element parallel to this phrase, such as "in my country". in comparison and elipsis pattern, the key is to find out a parallel pattern

once you realize the parallel pattern, you realize the elements compared and realize the illogic point.

once again. the key is to find out paralel pattern.
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Re: Bihar is India’s poorest state, with an annual per capita income of  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Sep 2018, 03:30
in elipsis and comparision problem, the key is to find out the parallel pattern.
in elipsis and comparision problem, there are 2 cases, the 2 elements are compared or 2 contexts which are represented by prepositional phrase are compared.
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the capital income in this country is higher than in other contries.
we need to find out 2 elements or 2 contexts.

to find out paralel pattern to find out 2 element or 2 contexts is key to success inhere.

yes.
try to find out paralel pattern to find out 2 element or 2 contexts.
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Re: Bihar is India’s poorest state, with an annual per capita income of &nbs [#permalink] 26 Sep 2018, 03:30
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