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By the sixteenth century, the Incas of South America ruled an empire t

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By the sixteenth century, the Incas of South America ruled an empire t [#permalink]

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Question 1
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

Question Stats:

70% (01:39) correct 30% (01:47) wrong based on 182

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Question 2
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

Question Stats:

52% (00:22) correct 48% (00:20) wrong based on 186

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Question 3
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

Question Stats:

71% (00:25) correct 29% (00:24) wrong based on 174

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Question 4
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

Question Stats:

66% (01:06) correct 34% (01:31) wrong based on 170

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By the sixteenth century, the Incas of South America ruled an empire that extended along the Pacific coast and Andean highlands from what is now Ecuador to central Chile. While most of the Incas were self-sufficient agriculturists, the inhabitants of the highland basins above 9,000 feet were constrained by the kinds of crops they could cultivate. Whereas 95 percent of the principal Andean food crops can be cultivated below 3,000 feet, only 20 percent reproduce readily above 9,000 feet. Given this unequal resource distribution, highland Incas needed access to the products of lower, warmer climatic zones in order to enlarge the variety and quantity of their foodstuffs. In most of the preindustrial world, the problem of different resource distribution was resolved by long-distance trade networks over which the end consumer exercised little control. Although the peoples of the Andean highlands participated in such networks, they relied primarily on the maintenance of autonomous production forces in as many ecological zones as possible. The commodities produced in these zones were extracted, processed, and transported entirely by members of a single group.

This strategy of direct access to a maximum number of ecological zones by a single group is called vertical economy. Even today, one can see Andean communities maintaining use rights simultaneously to pasturelands above 12,000 feet, to potato fields in basins over 9,000 feet, and to plots of warm-land crops in regions below 6,000 feet. This strategy has two principal variations. The first is “compressed verticality,” in which a single village resides in a location that permits easy access to closely located ecological zones. Different crop zones or pasturelands are located within a few days walk of the parent community. Community members may reside temporarily in one of the lower zones to manage the extraction of products unavailable in the homeland. In the second variation, called the “vertical archipelago,” the village exploits resources in widely dispersed locations, constituting a series of independent production “islands.” In certain pre-Columbian Inca societies, groups were sent from the home territory to establish permanent satellite communities or colonies in distant tropical forests or coastal locations. There the colonists grew crops and extracted products for their own use and for transshipment back to their high-altitude compatriots. In contrast to the compressed verticality system, in this system, commodities rather than people circulated through the archipelago.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
B

1. According to the passage, which of the following is true about the pre-industrial long distance trade networks mentioned in line 22 ?

(A) They were not used extensively in most of the pre-industrial world.

(B) They were used to some extent by the people of the Andean highlands.

(C) They were not an effective means of solving the problem of different resource distribution.

(D) They necessitated the establishment of permanent satellite communities in widely dispersed locations.

(E) They were useful only for the transportation of products from warm climatic zones.


[Reveal] Spoiler:
E

2. According to the passage, the inhabitants of the Andean highlands resolved the problem of unequal resource distribution primarily in which of the following ways?

(A) Following self-sufficient agricultural practices

(B) Increasing commodity production from the ecological zones in the highland basins

(C) Increasing their reliance on long-distance trade networks

(D) Establishing satellite communities throughout the Andean highlands

(E) Establishing production forces in ecological zones beyond their parent communities


[Reveal] Spoiler:
C

3. The passage suggests that as a way of addressing the problem of different resource distribution in the preindustrial world, the practice of vertical economy differed from the use of long-distance trade networks in that vertical economy allowed

(A) commodities to reach the end consumer faster

(B) a wide variety of agricultural goods to reach the end consumer

(C) a single group to maintain control over the production process

(D) greater access to commodities from lower, warmer climatic zones

(E) greater use of self-sufficient agricultural techniques


[Reveal] Spoiler:
D

4. The passage suggests that for an Andean highland village attempting to resolve the problem of unequal resource distribution, the strategy known as compressed verticality would probably be inappropriate for which of the following situations?

(A) The village’s location is such that it is difficult for the village to participate in long-distance trade networks.

(B) The village does not have the resources to establish permanent satellite communities in production zones beyond the home community.

(C) The warm-land crop regions nearest to the village are all below 6,000 feet.

(D) The location of the village does not provide ready access to an adequate variety of ecological zones.

(E) The nearest crop production zones are located below the village, while the nearest pasturelands are located above the village.

[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #1 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #2 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #3 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #4 OA

Last edited by hazelnut on 31 Oct 2017, 08:08, edited 4 times in total.
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Re: By the sixteenth century, the Incas of South America ruled an empire t [#permalink]

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New post 24 May 2008, 15:15
I get B E C and D

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New post 25 May 2008, 15:08
4 - B
5 - E
6 - C
7 - D

What's the OA?

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New post 26 May 2008, 10:06
whats the OA??

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New post 26 May 2008, 10:42
Very sorry for late reply.

You all nailed it. OAs 4B, 5E, 6C, 7D. :cool

I took 13 Min and got ONLY 1 right. Something seriously wrong with my RC skills. :oops:

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New post 20 Feb 2009, 07:42
Excuse me! What test does the passage come from?

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Re: By the sixteenth century, the Incas of South America ruled an empire t [#permalink]

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New post 30 Jan 2013, 05:53
mymba99 wrote:
Very sorry for late reply.

You all nailed it. OAs 4B, 5E, 6C, 7D. :cool

I took 13 Min and got ONLY 1 right. Something seriously wrong with my RC skills. :oops:



same here ... got just the first one right ...

Can anyone please explain all the answers??

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Re: By the sixteenth century, the Incas of South America ruled an empire t [#permalink]

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New post 21 Mar 2015, 02:03
Difficult passage. Answered two incorrectly.
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Re: By the sixteenth century, the Incas of South America ruled an empire t [#permalink]

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New post 01 Jul 2015, 23:25
11mins. :(
Goofed up in second question, which spoiled my timing. Can be done in < 9-mins.
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Re: By the sixteenth century, the Incas of South America ruled an empire t [#permalink]

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New post 14 Nov 2015, 10:31
Can anyone explain answer of 5th question...

Q5:
According to the passage, the inhabitants of the Andean highlands resolved the problem
of unequal resource distribution primarily in which of the following ways?

A. Following self-sufficient agricultural practices
B. Increasing commodity production from the ecological zones in the highland basins
C. Increasing their reliance on long-distance trade networks
D. Establishing satellite communities throughout the Andean highlands
E. Establishing production forces in ecological zones beyond their parent communities

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New post 27 Jul 2016, 23:34
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Difficult passage , took 3 mins 30 seconds to read and 10 mins to answer . All correct though i wasn't sure about second answer :?

Key Takeaways from the passage
-The author talks about sustainability models used by the Incas
- He then discusses multiple strategies used by the Incan people

1.
“by long-distance trade networks over which the end consumer exercised little control. Although the
peoples of the Andean highlands participated in such networks‖
Option (B) is a clear word justification of the above and is hence the right answer choice.

2.
“they relied primarily on the maintenance of autonomous production forces in as many ecological zones
as possible‖
Option (E) is a clear word justification of the above excerpt and is hence the right answer.

3.
The passage suggests…
“The commodities produced in these zones were extracted, processed, and transported entirely by
members of a single group.
This strategy of direct access to a maximum number of ecological zones by a single group is called
vertical economy.‖
Option (C ) is the correct answer as it is a clear word justification of the above.

4.
The passage suggests…
“The first is ―"compressed verticality" , in which a single village resides in a location that permits easy
access to closely located ecological zones‖
Hence if the village did not have easy access to ecological zones, then ―"compressed verticality" would
be inappropriate. Hence option (D) is the right answer choice.
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Re: By the sixteenth century, the Incas of South America ruled an empire t [#permalink]

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New post 04 Aug 2016, 20:01
I am not sure whether the sentences below have typos or some grammatical structures that I struggle to understand.

1. Even today, one can see Andean communities maintaining use rights simultaneously to pasturelands above 12,000 feet, to potato fields in basins over 9,000 feet, and to plots of warm-land crops in regions below 6,000 feet.

I think "use rights" does not comply with the grammar rules in this sentence or I am missing something.

2. In contrast to the compressed verticality system, in this system, commodities rather than people circulated through the archipelago.

Problem with logic. I am trying to picture how commodities rather than people circulate through the archipelago and cannot make a clear sense out of it. In both systems, compressed in archipelago, the crops were grown with a purpose to transport them back to the parent community. I cannot make any logical explanation of why the argument draws analogy between commodities and people. For this reason, I don't understand the meaning behind this sentence.

Will appreciate any help.
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Re: By the sixteenth century, the Incas of South America ruled an empire t [#permalink]

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New post 05 Aug 2016, 01:12
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AndreiGMAT wrote:
I am not sure whether the sentences below have typos or some grammatical structures that I struggle to understand.

1. Even today, one can see Andean communities maintaining use rights simultaneously to pasturelands above 12,000 feet, to potato fields in basins over 9,000 feet, and to plots of warm-land crops in regions below 6,000 feet.

I think "use rights" does not comply with the grammar rules in this sentence or I am missing something.

2. In contrast to the compressed verticality system, in this system, commodities rather than people circulated through the archipelago.

Problem with logic. I am trying to picture how commodities rather than people circulate through the archipelago and cannot make a clear sense out of it. In both systems, compressed in archipelago, the crops were grown with a purpose to transport them back to the parent community. I cannot make any logical explanation of why the argument draws analogy between commodities and people. For this reason, I don't understand the meaning behind this sentence.

Will appreciate any help.


Since RC passages are excerpts from article by various authors who can coin any new term to suit their ideas, be ready to see many new conjugate words and weird terms that do not generally exist in other form in english. The rule in RC is to understand whatever crap is thrown at you ... whether the words make sense or no sense. Its your duty to assimilate the passage, convert it into simple english or a infographic chart and then start answering the questions. If you get too caught up in the sentence composition or deducing the "CORRECT" idea behind a unfamiliar word , then you will suffer greatly. RC is like ice skating.. once you are on the ring.. keep moving and balancing.
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Re: By the sixteenth century, the Incas of South America ruled an empire t [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jul 2017, 05:35
anyone please explain question no 5 ?

its very tough in this passage !

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Re: By the sixteenth century, the Incas of South America ruled an empire t [#permalink]

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New post 13 Oct 2017, 03:23
Q5:

According to the passage, the inhabitants of the Andean highlands resolved the problem
of unequal resource distribution primarily in which of the following ways?

A. Following self-sufficient agricultural practices
B. Increasing commodity production from the ecological zones in the highland basins
C. Increasing their reliance on long-distance trade networks
D. Establishing satellite communities throughout the Andean highlands
E. Establishing production forces in ecological zones beyond their parent communities

Below lines in passage talk about same thing,

Although the peoples of the Andean highlands participated in such networks, (option C - but its secondary NOT primary)
they relied primarily on the maintenance of autonomous production forces in as many ecological zones as possible.

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Re: By the sixteenth century, the Incas of South America ruled an empire t   [#permalink] 13 Oct 2017, 03:23
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