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By the sixteenth century, the Incas of South America ruled an empire t

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By the sixteenth century, the Incas of South America ruled an empire t  [#permalink]

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By the sixteenth century, the Incas of South America ruled an empire that extended along the Pacific coast and Andean highlands from what is now Ecuador to central Chile. While most of the Incas were self-sufficient agriculturists, the inhabitants of the highland basins above 9,000 feet were constrained by the kinds of crops they could cultivate. Whereas 95 percent of the principal Andean food crops can be cultivated below 3,000 feet, only 20 percent reproduce readily above 9,000 feet. Given this unequal resource distribution, highland Incas needed access to the products of lower, warmer climatic zones in order to enlarge the variety and quantity of their foodstuffs. In most of the preindustrial world, the problem of different resource distribution was resolved by long-distance trade networks over which the end consumer exercised little control. Although the peoples of the Andean highlands participated in such networks, they relied primarily on the maintenance of autonomous production forces in as many ecological zones as possible. The commodities produced in these zones were extracted, processed, and transported entirely by members of a single group.

This strategy of direct access to a maximum number of ecological zones by a single group is called vertical economy. Even today, one can see Andean communities maintaining use rights simultaneously to pasturelands above 12,000 feet, to potato fields in basins over 9,000 feet, and to plots of warm-land crops in regions below 6,000 feet. This strategy has two principal variations. The first is “compressed verticality,” in which a single village resides in a location that permits easy access to closely located ecological zones. Different crop zones or pasturelands are located within a few days walk of the parent community. Community members may reside temporarily in one of the lower zones to manage the extraction of products unavailable in the homeland. In the second variation, called the “vertical archipelago,” the village exploits resources in widely dispersed locations, constituting a series of independent production “islands.” In certain pre-Columbian Inca societies, groups were sent from the home territory to establish permanent satellite communities or colonies in distant tropical forests or coastal locations. There the colonists grew crops and extracted products for their own use and for transshipment back to their high-altitude compatriots. In contrast to the compressed verticality system, in this system, commodities rather than people circulated through the archipelago.


1. According to the passage, which of the following is true about the pre-industrial long distance trade networks mentioned in line 22 ?

(A) They were not used extensively in most of the pre-industrial world.

(B) They were used to some extent by the people of the Andean highlands.

(C) They were not an effective means of solving the problem of different resource distribution.

(D) They necessitated the establishment of permanent satellite communities in widely dispersed locations.

(E) They were useful only for the transportation of products from warm climatic zones.



2. According to the passage, the inhabitants of the Andean highlands resolved the problem of unequal resource distribution primarily in which of the following ways?

(A) Following self-sufficient agricultural practices

(B) Increasing commodity production from the ecological zones in the highland basins

(C) Increasing their reliance on long-distance trade networks

(D) Establishing satellite communities throughout the Andean highlands

(E) Establishing production forces in ecological zones beyond their parent communities



3. The passage suggests that as a way of addressing the problem of different resource distribution in the preindustrial world, the practice of vertical economy differed from the use of long-distance trade networks in that vertical economy allowed

(A) commodities to reach the end consumer faster

(B) a wide variety of agricultural goods to reach the end consumer

(C) a single group to maintain control over the production process

(D) greater access to commodities from lower, warmer climatic zones

(E) greater use of self-sufficient agricultural techniques



4. The passage suggests that for an Andean highland village attempting to resolve the problem of unequal resource distribution, the strategy known as compressed verticality would probably be inappropriate for which of the following situations?

(A) The village’s location is such that it is difficult for the village to participate in long-distance trade networks.

(B) The village does not have the resources to establish permanent satellite communities in production zones beyond the home community.

(C) The warm-land crop regions nearest to the village are all below 6,000 feet.

(D) The location of the village does not provide ready access to an adequate variety of ecological zones.

(E) The nearest crop production zones are located below the village, while the nearest pasturelands are located above the village.



5. According to the passage, Inca inhabitants of the highland basins above 9,000 feet were limited by which of the following?

(A) The inability to gain access to agricultural production zones in lower, warmer climates

(B) The lack of nutritional variety offered by the principal Andean food crops

(C) The lack of opportunity to participate in long-distance agricultural trade networks

(D) The difficulty of growing an adequate variety of crops in the highland basins

(E) The difficulty of finding community members willing to reside in agricultural zones far away from the home territory



6. Which of the following best describes the function of the highlighted sentence?

(A) It provides an example of the approach to vertical economy that is most prevalent in the Andean highlands today.

(B) It illustrates what vertical economy entails, while indicating that the practice remains in use.

(C) It indicates that the practice of vertical economy is restricted to certain kinds of Andean communities.

(D) It points out the way in which the kind of vertical economy most commonly practiced today differs from that most commonly practiced in the past.

(E) It identifies why the practice of vertical economy has been so successful for certain Andean communities.


Originally posted by mymba99 on 22 May 2008, 06:21.
Last edited by u1983 on 06 Jan 2019, 09:51, edited 6 times in total.
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Re: By the sixteenth century, the Incas of South America ruled an empire t  [#permalink]

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New post 25 May 2008, 15:08
4 - B
5 - E
6 - C
7 - D

What's the OA?
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Re: By the sixteenth century, the Incas of South America ruled an empire t  [#permalink]

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New post 26 May 2008, 10:42
Very sorry for late reply.

You all nailed it. OAs 4B, 5E, 6C, 7D. :cool

I took 13 Min and got ONLY 1 right. Something seriously wrong with my RC skills. :oops:
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Re: By the sixteenth century, the Incas of South America ruled an empire t  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Feb 2009, 07:42
Excuse me! What test does the passage come from?
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New post 30 Jan 2013, 05:53
mymba99 wrote:
Very sorry for late reply.

You all nailed it. OAs 4B, 5E, 6C, 7D. :cool

I took 13 Min and got ONLY 1 right. Something seriously wrong with my RC skills. :oops:



same here ... got just the first one right ...

Can anyone please explain all the answers??
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New post 21 Mar 2015, 02:03
Difficult passage. Answered two incorrectly.
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Re: By the sixteenth century, the Incas of South America ruled an empire t  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Jul 2015, 23:25
11mins. :(
Goofed up in second question, which spoiled my timing. Can be done in < 9-mins.
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Re: By the sixteenth century, the Incas of South America ruled an empire t  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Nov 2015, 10:31
Can anyone explain answer of 5th question...

Q5:
According to the passage, the inhabitants of the Andean highlands resolved the problem
of unequal resource distribution primarily in which of the following ways?

A. Following self-sufficient agricultural practices
B. Increasing commodity production from the ecological zones in the highland basins
C. Increasing their reliance on long-distance trade networks
D. Establishing satellite communities throughout the Andean highlands
E. Establishing production forces in ecological zones beyond their parent communities
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Re: By the sixteenth century, the Incas of South America ruled an empire t  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Jul 2016, 23:34
2
Difficult passage , took 3 mins 30 seconds to read and 10 mins to answer . All correct though i wasn't sure about second answer :?

Key Takeaways from the passage
-The author talks about sustainability models used by the Incas
- He then discusses multiple strategies used by the Incan people

1.
“by long-distance trade networks over which the end consumer exercised little control. Although the
peoples of the Andean highlands participated in such networks‖
Option (B) is a clear word justification of the above and is hence the right answer choice.

2.
“they relied primarily on the maintenance of autonomous production forces in as many ecological zones
as possible‖
Option (E) is a clear word justification of the above excerpt and is hence the right answer.

3.
The passage suggests…
“The commodities produced in these zones were extracted, processed, and transported entirely by
members of a single group.
This strategy of direct access to a maximum number of ecological zones by a single group is called
vertical economy.‖
Option (C ) is the correct answer as it is a clear word justification of the above.

4.
The passage suggests…
“The first is ―"compressed verticality" , in which a single village resides in a location that permits easy
access to closely located ecological zones‖
Hence if the village did not have easy access to ecological zones, then ―"compressed verticality" would
be inappropriate. Hence option (D) is the right answer choice.
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Re: By the sixteenth century, the Incas of South America ruled an empire t  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Aug 2016, 20:01
I am not sure whether the sentences below have typos or some grammatical structures that I struggle to understand.

1. Even today, one can see Andean communities maintaining use rights simultaneously to pasturelands above 12,000 feet, to potato fields in basins over 9,000 feet, and to plots of warm-land crops in regions below 6,000 feet.

I think "use rights" does not comply with the grammar rules in this sentence or I am missing something.

2. In contrast to the compressed verticality system, in this system, commodities rather than people circulated through the archipelago.

Problem with logic. I am trying to picture how commodities rather than people circulate through the archipelago and cannot make a clear sense out of it. In both systems, compressed in archipelago, the crops were grown with a purpose to transport them back to the parent community. I cannot make any logical explanation of why the argument draws analogy between commodities and people. For this reason, I don't understand the meaning behind this sentence.

Will appreciate any help.
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New post Updated on: 30 Nov 2018, 04:14
2
AndreiGMAT wrote:
I am not sure whether the sentences below have typos or some grammatical structures that I struggle to understand.

1. Even today, one can see Andean communities maintaining use rights simultaneously to pasturelands above 12,000 feet, to potato fields in basins over 9,000 feet, and to plots of warm-land crops in regions below 6,000 feet.

I think "use rights" does not comply with the grammar rules in this sentence or I am missing something.

2. In contrast to the compressed verticality system, in this system, commodities rather than people circulated through the archipelago.

Problem with logic. I am trying to picture how commodities rather than people circulate through the archipelago and cannot make a clear sense out of it. In both systems, compressed in archipelago, the crops were grown with a purpose to transport them back to the parent community. I cannot make any logical explanation of why the argument draws analogy between commodities and people. For this reason, I don't understand the meaning behind this sentence.

Will appreciate any help.


Since RC passages are excerpts from article by various authors who can coin any new term to suit their ideas, be ready to see many new conjugate words and weird terms that do not generally exist in other form in english. The rule in RC is to understand whatever crap is thrown at you ... whether the words make sense or no sense. Its your duty to assimilate the passage, convert it into simple english or a infographic chart and then start answering the questions. If you get too caught up in the sentence composition or deducing the "CORRECT" idea behind a unfamiliar word , then you will suffer greatly. RC is like ice skating.. once you are on the ring.. keep moving and balancing.

1) In this case the author used the word "use right" ==> it actually means the "(Legaly binding or socially acceptable) rights for using the land". The author simply converted the whole definition into "use right" . Another term that would have made it more easy to understand would be "User's RIght"

2) It is perfectly common and correct to use the word "circulate" for both commodities and people. It is a common practise in parties for the host to say I am going to circulate- Which means he is going to talk to other people in the party to see if they are comfortable or not.
In this passage since Andean have "use right" at different altitudes (pasturelands for castles over 12,000 feet, potato fields over 9,000 feet, and crops in regions below 6,000 feet) therefore they would move to these altitudes depending upon the season of the year. ANDEAN PEOPLE WOULD CIRCULATE. And they would also move the products (crops, potato and grazing grass) from these places to their parent community (Mentioned in the passage). Therefore using "circulate" for crop is also correct. In this context "Circulate" simply means "transporting the goods" from various altitudes to the Parent community.

Hope it is clear now
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Originally posted by LogicGuru1 on 05 Aug 2016, 01:12.
Last edited by LogicGuru1 on 30 Nov 2018, 04:14, edited 3 times in total.
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New post 07 Jul 2017, 05:35
anyone please explain question no 5 ?

its very tough in this passage !
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New post 13 Oct 2017, 03:23
Q5:

According to the passage, the inhabitants of the Andean highlands resolved the problem
of unequal resource distribution primarily in which of the following ways?

A. Following self-sufficient agricultural practices
B. Increasing commodity production from the ecological zones in the highland basins
C. Increasing their reliance on long-distance trade networks
D. Establishing satellite communities throughout the Andean highlands
E. Establishing production forces in ecological zones beyond their parent communities

Below lines in passage talk about same thing,

Although the peoples of the Andean highlands participated in such networks, (option C - but its secondary NOT primary)
they relied primarily on the maintenance of autonomous production forces in as many ecological zones as possible.
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Re: By the sixteenth century, the Incas of South America ruled an empire t  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Jan 2018, 20:18
VijayShanker wrote:
Q5:

According to the passage, the inhabitants of the Andean highlands resolved the problem
of unequal resource distribution primarily in which of the following ways?

A. Following self-sufficient agricultural practices
B. Increasing commodity production from the ecological zones in the highland basins
C. Increasing their reliance on long-distance trade networks
D. Establishing satellite communities throughout the Andean highlands
E. Establishing production forces in ecological zones beyond their parent communities

Below lines in passage talk about same thing,

Although the peoples of the Andean highlands participated in such networks, (option C - but its secondary NOT primary)
they relied primarily on the maintenance of autonomous production forces in [color=#ffff00]as many ecological zones as possible[/color].


Nice explanation VijayShanker
How does maintenance of autonomous production forces in as many ecological zones as possible means that they are establishing ecological zones beyond their parent communities I mean they can form them around their parent community also, we have just assumed that to form many communities they have to go far beyond their parent communities .?
Please clear this doubt

Thank You in Advance
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New post 13 Jan 2018, 21:46
nice RC.
7.41 minutes-1 incorrect sadly due to silly mistake.
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Re: By the sixteenth century, the Incas of South America ruled an empire t  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Oct 2018, 01:30
1
7:10.
4/4.
Can someone confirm the level of this passage?
700+ or 750+?
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Re: By the sixteenth century, the Incas of South America ruled an empire t  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Nov 2018, 00:43
11 minutes. 3 correct. Tough passage.


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New post 10 Nov 2018, 02:28
4/4 on 7:10 minutes, the passage is not as hard as you think if you take some more time (4 minutes) to read it thoroughly.
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New post 06 Jan 2019, 03:09
HI workout, u1983, broall

Can you pls add the below questions to the passage. Also Tag As GMATPrep EP2

5) According to the passage, Inca inhabitants of the highland basins above 9,000 feet were limited by which of the following?

A) The inability to gain access to agricultural production zones in lower, warmer climates
B) The lack of nutritional variety offered by the principal Andean food crops
C) The lack of opportunity to participate in long-distance agricultural trade networks
D) The difficulty of growing an adequate variety of crops in the highland basins
E) The difficulty of finding community members willing to reside in agricultural zones far away from the home territory



6) Which of the following best describes the function of the highlighted sentence?

A) It provides an example of the approach to vertical economy that is most prevalent in the Andean highlands today.
B) It illustrates what vertical economy entails, while indicating that the practice remains in use.
C) It indicates that the practice of vertical economy is restricted to certain kinds of Andean communities.
D) It points out the way in which the kind of vertical economy most commonly practiced today differs from that most commonly practiced in the past.
E) It identifies why the practice of vertical economy has been so successful for certain Andean communities.


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Re: By the sixteenth century, the Incas of South America ruled an empire t  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Jan 2019, 09:54
Hello NandishSS ... thanks a bunch for your input. We have completed the addition.
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