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# Colorless diamonds can command high prices as gemstones. A type of les

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Colorless diamonds can command high prices as gemstones. A type of les  [#permalink]

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04 Jul 2015, 00:53
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65% (hard)

Question Stats:

64% (02:10) correct 36% (02:27) wrong based on 1814 sessions

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Colorless diamonds can command high prices as gemstones. A type of less valuable diamonds can be treated to remove all color. Only sophisticated tests can distinguish such treated diamonds from naturally colorless ones. However, only 2 percent of diamonds mined are of the colored type that can be successfully treated, and many of those are of insufficient quality to make the treatment worthwhile. Surely, therefore, the vast majority of colorless diamonds sold by jewelers are naturally colorless.

A serious flaw in the reasoning of the argument is that

(A) comparisons between the price diamonds command as gemstones and their value for other uses are omitted

(B) information about the rarity of treated diamonds is not combined with information about the rarity of naturally colorless, gemstone diamonds

(C) the possibility that colored diamonds might be used as gemstones, even without having been treated, is ignored

(D) the currently available method for making colorless diamonds from colored ones is treated as though it were the only possible method for doing so

(E) the difficulty that a customer of a jeweler would have in distinguishing a naturally colorless diamond from treated one is not taken into account
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Re: Colorless diamonds can command high prices as gemstones. A type of les  [#permalink]

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21 Apr 2017, 13:09
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Top Contributor
2
Quote:
Colorless diamonds can command high prices as gemstones. A type of less valuable diamonds can be treated to remove all color. Only sophisticated tests can distinguish such treated diamonds from naturally colorless ones. However, only 2 percent of diamonds mined are of the colored type that can be successfully treated, and many of those are of insufficient quality to make the treatment worthwhile. Surely, therefore, the vast majority of colorless diamonds sold by jewelers are naturally colorless.

A serious flaw in the reasoning of the argument is that

(A) comparisons between the price diamonds command as gemstones and their value for other uses are omitted
(B) information about the rarity of treated diamonds is not combined with information about the rarity of naturally colorless, gemstone diamonds
(C) the possibility that colored diamonds might be used as gemstones, even without having been treated, is ignored
(D) the currently available method for making colorless diamonds from colored ones is treated as though it were the only possible method for doing so
(E) the difficulty that a customer of a jeweler would have in distinguishing a naturally colorless diamond from treated one is not taken into account

Best place to start here is with the conclusion. We're trying to find the "serious flaw" in this thing:

Quote:
Surely, therefore, the vast majority of colorless diamonds sold by jewelers are naturally colorless.

Great. And here's the key piece of evidence that supports the conclusion above:

Quote:
However, only 2 percent of diamonds mined are of the colored type that can be successfully treated, and many of those are of insufficient quality to make the treatment worthwhile.

In short, we're trying to figure out why there might be a disconnect between two statements: 1) only 2% of diamonds are of the colored type that can be successfully treated, and 2) the vast majority of colorless diamonds sold by jewelers are naturally colorless.

So why are (D) and (E) wrong? (D) essentially indulges a hypothetical, suggesting that in the future, there may be other methods for "making colorless diamonds from colored ones." That's completely irrelevant to the conclusion, which is concerned solely with the diamonds currently sold by jewelers. Future technologies do nothing to weaken that conclusion.

(E) is concerned with the difficulty of distinguishing a naturally colorless diamond from a treated one. But this is completely irrelevant to the question: we're concerned with figuring out why the conclusion ("the vast majority of colorless diamonds sold by jewelers are naturally colorless") might be flawed given the key premise (only 2% of diamonds mined could be treated). Sure, it can be hard to tell the difference between treated and naturally colorless diamonds -- but (E) does nothing to tell us why that conclusion might be wrong. If the treatable colored diamonds are indeed scarce, the conclusion could easily still hold -- regardless of how hard it is to recognize a treated diamond.

I hope this helps!
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Re: Colorless diamonds can command high prices as gemstones. A type of les  [#permalink]

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06 Jul 2015, 09:25
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Hello,

Here goes brief analysis of this complex argument.

Premise 1: Colorless diamonds same as gemstones in terms of price

Premise 2: A type of cheap diamonds can be converted into colorless diamonds

Premise 3: only 2 percent of diamonds mined are suitable to be converted to into colorless diamonds

Conclusion: Based on premise 03, the vast majority of colorless diamonds sold by jewelers are naturally colorless

Question asks for flaw in argument?

Well argument assumes that 2% of diamonds (colored diamonds that could be appropriately treated) are less in terms of demand but what if the original (i.e naturally colorless) are also less than 2% or may be very rare.

If that is the case then the argument falls apart and hence this is flaw in reasoning.

Hope it helps.

Please hit "+1 kudos" to appreciate.
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Re: Colorless diamonds can command high prices as gemstones. A type of les  [#permalink]

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09 Jul 2015, 21:09
10
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Hello Aves

Lets compare different 2% values....

2% of 100 is 2

2% of 1000 is 20

2% of 100000 is 2000

2% of 1000000 is 20000

2% of 10000000 is 200000 (2 Lakhs)

See the argument mention that diamonds that can be converted into colorless diamonds are very rare (i.e. less than 2%) so that most of the marketed diamonds must be "Naturally colorless"

What is flaw in this reasoning???

Well, if the "Naturally colorless" are itself very very rare say "much less than 2%" then can we say that most of marketed diamonds are naturally colorless...NO In this case the sellers would have incentive to convert the fake diamonds to look like "Naturally colorless"

Eg. 0.1% of 10000000 is 10000 while 2% of 10000000 is 200000 (2 Lakhs)

But on the other hand if the "Naturally colorless" are more prevalent (at least not very close to 2%), then sellers have no incentive to convert the fake diamonds to look like "Naturally colorless" because naturally colorless diamonds are available abundantly.

Please remember never correlates less/high percentages with less/high quantities (unless you have sufficient evidence to do so) on GMAT critical reasoning and it both of these are mentioned in a argument chances are that test would like to test our understanding of percentages vs. actual quantity.

Let me know, if you have any specific doubts.

Hope it helps!!!

Please hit kudos if you like this post.
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Re: Colorless diamonds can command high prices as gemstones. A type of les  [#permalink]

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26 Sep 2015, 08:01
Hi,

Thanks for the specific explanation for the correct answer.

As per the Official Guide, still am not sure the explanation for wrong answers, as understanding the individual options would help POE to get the correct answer.
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Re: Colorless diamonds can command high prices as gemstones. A type of les  [#permalink]

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26 Sep 2015, 21:20
2
HelloSapient,
Conclusion:the vast majority of colorless diamonds sold by jewelers are naturally colorless.
Premise: However, only 2 percent of diamonds mined are of the colored type that can be successfully treated, and many of those are of insufficient quality to make the treatment worthwhile

Analysis :If the availability of naturally colorless diamonds is less then the colored type that can be successfully treated ,then the vast majority of the colorless diamonds ca be the treated one .

Only Answer Choice B talks about the availability of the naturally colorless diamonds with respect to the colored type.

Let me know if you have any further doubts.
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Re: Colorless diamonds can command high prices as gemstones. A type of les  [#permalink]

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03 Oct 2015, 02:09
1
Colorless diamonds can command high prices as gemstones. A type of less valuable diamonds can be treated to remove all color. Only sophisticated tests can distinguish such treated diamonds from naturally colorless ones. However, only 2 percent of diamonds mined are of the colored type that can be successfully treated, and many of those are of insufficient quality to make the treatment worthwhile. Surely, therefore, the vast majority of colorless diamonds sold by jewelers are naturally colorless.

A serious flaw in the reasoning of the argument is that

Step - 1 ( Separate the premise and conclusion, and cut the unnecessary flab )

Since only 2 percent of diamonds mined are of the colored type that can be successfully treated, and many of those are of insufficient quality to make the treatment worthwhile. (Premise)

Therefore the vast majority of colorless diamonds sold by jewelers are naturally colorless. (Conclusion)

Whatever the flaw might be, it must affect the premise/conclusion directly.

The argument says: "Since 2% of the diamonds are colored and many of them are difficult to convert into colorless, therefore majority of the colorless diamonds sold are naturally colorless."

What could be the flaw?

The flaw will be something which is obvious to the reader attempting the question. What came into your mind when you read the question? That the quantity of colored diamonds is too low and that it is too difficult to convert them into colorless one. So why bother treating colored diamonds when we are getting naturally colored diamonds in good quantity. Are we?

Whenever there is % given in the CR problem. Check if the problem assumes that low % means low quantity. (Because that is what the GMAT authors want us to think)
Whenever there is low revenue/sales given in a problem - check if the problem assumes low profit.
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Re: Colorless diamonds can command high prices as gemstones. A type of les  [#permalink]

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07 Oct 2015, 01:00
1
In Option B,

"information about the rarity of treated diamonds" points to "Only 2% treated diamonds" part in the argument.

"information about the rarity of naturally colorless" directly/indirectly points to the "Vast Majority" part in conclusion.

Without info on the actual Qty of naturally colorless diamonds one cannot decide on the "Vastness".

Wish I understood this type of word play in the first read. These kind of problems always get me.
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Re: Colorless diamonds can command high prices as gemstones. A type of les  [#permalink]

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29 Jan 2017, 12:54

It is assumed that 2% of treated diamonds is smaller than the number of current natural diamond. So, without knowing the number of current diamonds, the argument seems in flaw.
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Re: Colorless diamonds can command high prices as gemstones. A type of les  [#permalink]

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16 Feb 2017, 19:53
3
Hope the attached explanation makes sense
Attachments

Diamonds.PNG [ 9.82 KiB | Viewed 9067 times ]

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Re: Colorless diamonds can command high prices as gemstones. A type of les  [#permalink]

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18 Apr 2017, 01:12
GMATNinja & GMATNinjaTwo Could you help to explain why E could NOT be the answer choice? The 2% fake diamond is confusing.
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Re: Colorless diamonds can command high prices as gemstones. A type of les  [#permalink]

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18 Apr 2017, 07:27
WillGetIt wrote:
Colorless diamonds can command high prices as gemstones. A type of less valuable diamonds can be treated to remove all color. Only sophisticated tests can distinguish such treated diamonds from naturally colorless ones. However, only 2 percent of diamonds mined are of the colored type that can be successfully treated, and many of those are of insufficient quality to make the treatment worthwhile. Surely, therefore, the vast majority of colorless diamonds sold by jewelers are naturally colorless.

A serious flaw in the reasoning of the argument is that

(A) comparisons between the price diamonds command as gemstones and their value for other uses are omitted
(B) information about the rarity of treated diamonds is not combined with information about the rarity of naturally colorless, gemstone diamonds
(C) the possibility that colored diamonds might be used as gemstones, even without having been treated, is ignored
(D) the currently available method for making colorless diamonds from colored ones is treated as though it were the only possible method for doing so
(E) the difficulty that a customer of a jeweler would have in distinguishing a naturally colorless diamond from treated one is not taken into account

"Please hit +1 Kudos if you like this post"

mikemcgarry Regarding D " the currently available method for making colorless diamonds from colored ones is treated as though it were the only possible method for doing so"
I thought along the lines that if there are other tests not mentioned in the argument which can actually make more Diamonds Colorless Resulting in killing the argument..
I understand now that it is a % vs Absolute Number Qs but how to eliminate D???
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Re: Colorless diamonds can command high prices as gemstones. A type of les  [#permalink]

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21 Apr 2017, 23:07
GMATNinja wrote:
Quote:
Colorless diamonds can command high prices as gemstones. A type of less valuable diamonds can be treated to remove all color. Only sophisticated tests can distinguish such treated diamonds from naturally colorless ones. However, only 2 percent of diamonds mined are of the colored type that can be successfully treated, and many of those are of insufficient quality to make the treatment worthwhile. Surely, therefore, the vast majority of colorless diamonds sold by jewelers are naturally colorless.

A serious flaw in the reasoning of the argument is that

(A) comparisons between the price diamonds command as gemstones and their value for other uses are omitted
(B) information about the rarity of treated diamonds is not combined with information about the rarity of naturally colorless, gemstone diamonds
(C) the possibility that colored diamonds might be used as gemstones, even without having been treated, is ignored
(D) the currently available method for making colorless diamonds from colored ones is treated as though it were the only possible method for doing so
(E) the difficulty that a customer of a jeweler would have in distinguishing a naturally colorless diamond from treated one is not taken into account

Best place to start here is with the conclusion. We're trying to find the "serious flaw" in this thing:

Quote:
Surely, therefore, the vast majority of colorless diamonds sold by jewelers are naturally colorless.

Great. And here's the key piece of evidence that supports the conclusion above:

Quote:
However, only 2 percent of diamonds mined are of the colored type that can be successfully treated, and many of those are of insufficient quality to make the treatment worthwhile.

In short, we're trying to figure out why there might be a disconnect between two statements: 1) only 2% of diamonds are of the colored type that can be successfully treated, and 2) the vast majority of colorless diamonds sold by jewelers are naturally colorless.

So why are (D) and (E) wrong? (D) essentially indulges a hypothetical, suggesting that in the future, there may be other methods for "making colorless diamonds from colored ones." That's completely irrelevant to the conclusion, which is concerned solely with the diamonds currently sold by jewelers. Future technologies do nothing to weaken that conclusion.

(E) is concerned with the difficulty of distinguishing a naturally colorless diamond from a treated one. But this is completely irrelevant to the question: we're concerned with figuring out why the conclusion ("the vast majority of colorless diamonds sold by jewelers are naturally colorless") might be flawed given the key premise (only 2% of diamonds mined could be treated). Sure, it can be hard to tell the difference between treated and naturally colorless diamonds -- but (E) does nothing to tell us why that conclusion might be wrong. If the treatable colored diamonds are indeed scarce, the conclusion could easily still hold -- regardless of how hard it is to recognize a treated diamond.

I hope this helps!

GMATNinja in D how come you came with the logic that the methods are in future?? I thought there were alternative methods already in place not mentioned in the premisE which may be much better??
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Re: Colorless diamonds can command high prices as gemstones. A type of les  [#permalink]

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22 Apr 2017, 18:57
3
deependra1234,
Quote:
GMATNinja in D how come you came with the logic that the methods are in future?? I thought there were alternative methods already in place not mentioned in the premisE which may be much better??

Notice that choice D specifically refers to "the currently available method for making colorless diamonds":
Quote:
(D) the currently available method for making colorless diamonds from colored ones is treated as though it were the only possible method for doing so

Thus, choice D does not imply, as you put it, that there are "alternative methods already in place"; rather, it suggests that in addition to the currently available method, there might be other possible methods that are NOT currently available (for example, a method that should work in theory but has never been put into practice). Since those alternative methods are not currently available, they have no impact on the author's argument, which deals with the diamonds currently sold by jewelers. Those alternative methods could only impact future scenarios (ie once those methods become available).

I hope that helps!
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Re: Colorless diamonds can command high prices as gemstones. A type of les  [#permalink]

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23 Apr 2017, 13:22
GMATNinjaTwo wrote:
deependra1234,
Quote:
GMATNinja in D how come you came with the logic that the methods are in future?? I thought there were alternative methods already in place not mentioned in the premisE which may be much better??

Notice that choice D specifically refers to "the currently available method for making colorless diamonds":
Quote:
(D) the currently available method for making colorless diamonds from colored ones is treated as though it were the only possible method for doing so

Thus, choice D does not imply, as you put it, that there are "alternative methods already in place"; rather, it suggests that in addition to the currently available method, there might be other possible methods that are NOT currently available (for example, a method that should work in theory but has never been put into practice). Since those alternative methods are not currently available, they have no impact on the author's argument, which deals with the diamonds currently sold by jewelers. Those alternative methods could only impact future scenarios (ie once those methods become available).

I hope that helps!

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Re: Colorless diamonds can command high prices as gemstones. A type of les  [#permalink]

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23 Aug 2017, 04:08
B is correct - Argument does not work if naturally colorless diamonds are rarer than treated diamonds, as they may be for all we can tell from the information provided
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Re: Colorless diamonds can command high prices as gemstones. A type of les  [#permalink]

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03 Mar 2018, 10:00
Colorless diamonds can command high prices as gemstones. A type of less valuable diamonds can be treated to remove all color. Only sophisticated tests can distinguish such treated diamonds from naturally colorless ones. However, only 2 percent of diamonds mined are of the colored type that can be successfully treated, and many of those are of insufficient quality to make the treatment worthwhile. Surely, therefore, the vast majority of colorless diamonds sold by jewelers are naturally colorless.

A serious flaw in the reasoning of the argument is that

(A) comparisons between the price diamonds command as gemstones and their value for other uses are omitted --Price comparison is out of scope
(B) information about the rarity of treated diamonds is not combined with information about the rarity of naturally colorless, gemstone diamonds --Correct because if the colorless diamond is even rarer then the argument will go for a toss
(C) the possibility that colored diamonds might be used as gemstones, even without having been treated, is ignored --gemstones are out of scope
(D) the currently available method for making colorless diamonds from colored ones is treated as though it were the only possible method for doing so --methods are out of scope
(E) the difficulty that a customer of a jeweler would have in distinguishing a naturally colorless diamond from treated one is not taken into account --difficulty that a customer might have is out of scope
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Re: Colorless diamonds can command high prices as gemstones. A type of les  [#permalink]

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14 Mar 2018, 01:59
GMATNinjaTwo wrote:
Notice that choice D specifically refers to "the currently available method for making colorless diamonds":
Quote:
(D) the currently available method for making colorless diamonds from colored ones is treated as though it were the only possible method for doing so

Thus, choice D does not imply, as you put it, that there are "alternative methods already in place"; rather, it suggests that in addition to the currently available method, there might be other possible methods that are NOT currently available (for example, a method that should work in theory but has never been put into practice). Since those alternative methods are not currently available, they have no impact on the author's argument, which deals with the diamonds currently sold by jewelers. Those alternative methods could only impact future scenarios (ie once those methods become available).

I hope that helps!

Hi mikemcgarry, GMATNinjaTwo, GMATNinja, MagooshExpert Carolyn, sayantanc2k,

(D) the currently available method for making colorless diamonds from colored ones is treated as though it werethe only possible method for doing so

the highlight words "it were" imple an subjunctive mood, in other words, D implies the currently available method is impossible only method. then, i interpretate that there are many methods except currently available methods,
so there are many ways to increase the quatity of treated diamonds, leading the argument invalid.
it is a flaw in the assumption.

Appreciate it

Have a nice day.
>_~
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Re: Colorless diamonds can command high prices as gemstones. A type of les  [#permalink]

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14 Mar 2018, 23:09
zoezhuyan wrote:
GMATNinjaTwo wrote:
Notice that choice D specifically refers to "the currently available method for making colorless diamonds":
Quote:
(D) the currently available method for making colorless diamonds from colored ones is treated as though it were the only possible method for doing so

Thus, choice D does not imply, as you put it, that there are "alternative methods already in place"; rather, it suggests that in addition to the currently available method, there might be other possible methods that are NOT currently available (for example, a method that should work in theory but has never been put into practice). Since those alternative methods are not currently available, they have no impact on the author's argument, which deals with the diamonds currently sold by jewelers. Those alternative methods could only impact future scenarios (ie once those methods become available).

I hope that helps!

Hi mikemcgarry, GMATNinjaTwo, GMATNinja, MagooshExpert Carolyn, sayantanc2k,

(D) the currently available method for making colorless diamonds from colored ones is treated as though it werethe only possible method for doing so

the highlight words "it were" imple an subjunctive mood, in other words, D implies the currently available method is impossible only method. then, i interpretate that there are many methods except currently available methods,
so there are many ways to increase the quatity of treated diamonds, leading the argument invalid.
it is a flaw in the assumption.

Appreciate it

Have a nice day.
>_~

Choice (D) distinguishes between 1) the currently available method and 2) other possible methods. The wording suggests that there is only one method currently available, even though there might be several other possible methods that are not currently used.

So, yes, there might be other possible methods, but none of those are currently available. The argument is only concerned with diamonds that are currently sold by jewelers, so we are only concerned with the currently available method.

Thus, (D) is irrelevant and can be eliminated.

I hope that helps!
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Re: Colorless diamonds can command high prices as gemstones. A type of les  [#permalink]

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15 Mar 2018, 06:45
GMATNinja wrote:
Hi mikemcgarry, GMATNinjaTwo, GMATNinja, MagooshExpert Carolyn, sayantanc2k,

(D) the currently available method for making colorless diamonds from colored ones is treated as though it werethe only possible method for doing so

the highlight words "it were" imple an subjunctive mood, in other words, D implies the currently available method is impossible only method. then, i interpretate that there are many methods except currently available methods,
so there are many ways to increase the quatity of treated diamonds, leading the argument invalid.
it is a flaw in the assumption.

Appreciate it

Have a nice day.
>_~

Choice (B) distinguishes between 1) the currently available method and 2) other possible methods. The wording suggests that there is only one method currently available, even though there might be several other possible methods that are not currently used.

So, yes, there might be other possible methods, but none of those are currently available. The argument is only concerned with diamonds that are currently sold by jewelers, so we are only concerned with the currently available method.

Thus, (D) is irrelevant and can be eliminated.

I hope that helps![/quote]

Hi GMATNinja
GMATNinja wrote:
Choice (B) distinguishes between 1) the currently available method and 2) other possible methods. The wording suggests that there is only one method currently available, even though there might be several other possible methods that are not currently used.

Would you please further explain this ?
My interpretation of B is that
the currectly available for making colorless diamonds from colored ones is treated the only possible method for doing so, as though the currently available method were the only possible method,
from the subjunctive mood in the sentence, i infer the currently available method is not the only one.

Seems i missed something, i am afraid i did not catch your clarification of B.

Have a nice day
Re: Colorless diamonds can command high prices as gemstones. A type of les &nbs [#permalink] 15 Mar 2018, 06:45

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# Colorless diamonds can command high prices as gemstones. A type of les

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