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# Contamination is the unintended presence of harmful substances or orga

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Senior RC Moderator
Status: Preparing GMAT
Joined: 02 Nov 2016
Posts: 2199
Location: Pakistan
GPA: 3.39
Contamination is the unintended presence of harmful substances or orga  [#permalink]

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13 Dec 2018, 13:08
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Question 1
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34% (03:18) correct 66% (03:09) wrong

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Question 2
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based on 41 sessions

70% (00:59) correct 30% (01:51) wrong

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Question 3
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based on 42 sessions

58% (01:39) correct 42% (01:10) wrong

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Contamination is the unintended presence of harmful substances or organisms in food. While it is true that recent scientific advances have resulted in safer foods, better methods of preservation, and improved storage practices, it is still necessary to guard against the practices that can increase the likelihood of food contamination. Because food-borne illness poses a potentially serious threat to public health, preventing contamination of safe food needs to be a prime objective of every food service manager. Furthermore, a food service manager must possess accurate information on the different hazards associated with the contamination of food in the event that a food-borne illness crisis does arise. A full understanding of the biological, chemical, and physical hazards allows the food service manager to implement the control measures necessary to minimize the health risks associated with food and, thus, to decrease the possibility of contamination. The most serious risk associated with food is the biological hazard. Biological hazards are dangers to food from pathogenic (disease-causing) microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi, and from toxins that occur in certain plants and fish. When biological hazards result in food-borne illnesses, these illnesses are generally classified as either infections or intoxications. A food-borne infection is a disease that results from eating food containing living harmful microorganisms. One of the most frequently reported diseases of this type is salmonellosis, which results from the consumption of food contaminated with live pathogenic Salmonella. The other major form of biologically induced food-borne illness is intoxication, which results when toxins, or poisons, from bacterial or mold growth are present in ingested food and cause illness in the host (the human body). These toxins are generally odorless and tasteless and are capable of causing disease even after the microorganisms have been killed. Staphylococcus food intoxication is one of the most common types of foodborne illness reported in the United States.

1. Which of the following best expresses the main idea of the passage?

A) Despite recent scientific advances, food-borne illness continues to present a serious risk to public health.
B) Although chemical and physical hazards can cause a food-borne illness, biological hazards pose the most serious risk of food contamination.
C) Knowledge of contamination sources is essential for a food service manager to safely operate a food establishment.
D) Biological, chemical, and physical hazards represent the main sources of food contamination.
E) The illnesses caused by the contamination of food by biological hazards take the form of either a food-borne infection or a food-borne intoxication.

2. The author of the passage would most likely agree that a food service manager’s comprehension of the nature of potential food hazards is

A) crucial to the safety of a food service operation.
B) necessarily limited due to the complexity of contamination sources.
C) the primary factor in an employer’s decision to hire that manager.
D) utilized exclusively for the prevention of food-borne illness.
E) vitally important but nearly impossible to attain.

3. According to the passage, pathogenic microorganisms

A) are the most common form of biological hazard.
B) can only trigger a food-borne illness when alive.
C) are toxins that occur in certain plants and fish.
D) include life forms such as bacteria and parasites.
E) are difficult to detect because they are odorless and tasteless.

94

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Joined: 15 Feb 2018
Posts: 242
Re: Contamination is the unintended presence of harmful substances or orga  [#permalink]

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13 Dec 2018, 21:34
2
1. Which of the following best expresses the main idea of the passage?
A) Despite recent scientific advances, food-borne illness continues to present a serious risk to public health.
This is basically the second sentence and it seems familiar due to this. The rest of the passage does not focus on the scientific advances though. It's not a terrible answer, so compare it to others
B) Although chemical and physical hazards can cause a food-borne illness, biological hazards pose the most serious risk of food contamination.
Again, this is what is stated in a single sentence (about halfway through), but it doesn't explain the passage contention. First half explains something else, then the relevant sentence, then the rest explaining biological. it doesn't spend any substantial number of words on chemical and physical hazards. A is better
C) Knowledge of contamination sources is essential for a food service manager to safely operate a food establishment.
This is better. This sentence explains the linkages between the sections of the passage better. Starts with a background on contamination. "Because food borne" through to "possibility of contamination" are all about the food service manager, and then the remainder is an explainer of why the worst contamination, biological, is so bad. C
D) Biological, chemical, and physical hazards represent the main sources of food contamination.
Refer to A and B. Same deal. Single sentence, but doesn't explain the whole section on food managers. C
E) The illnesses caused by the contamination of food by biological hazards take the form of either a food-borne infection or a food-borne intoxication.
As above

2. The author of the passage would most likely agree that a food service manager’s comprehension of the nature of potential food hazards is
A) crucial to the safety of a food service operation.
Absolutely. The latter half explains the seriousness of the contamination. Scientific advances haven't eliminated the needs for comprehension: "it is still necessary to guard against the practices that can increase the likelihood of food contamination"
B) necessarily limited due to the complexity of contamination sources.
"A full understanding of the biological, chemical, and physical hazards allows the food service manager to implement the control measures necessary to minimize the health risks associated with food and, thus, to decrease the possibility of contamination" - this sentence doesn't end with 'but the food service manager has no chance at a full understanding'. A/b]
C) the primary factor in an employer’s decision to hire that manager.
[b]This isn't stated in the passage, but it very well could be. It is not as strongly supported as A

D) utilized exclusively for the prevention of food-borne illness.
Not stated, not supported. Still A
E) vitally important but nearly impossible to attain.
This is basically saying the same thing as B, so it has the same weakness. A

3. According to the passage, pathogenic microorganisms

A) are the most common form of biological hazard.
We should be looking at the last 3rd of the passage. Nowhere in there does it talk about relative frequency[b]
B) can only trigger a food-borne illness when alive.
[b]This is a trick, as there is the sentence "A food-borne infection is a disease that results from eating food containing living harmful microorganisms" which limits 'infection' to eating 'living'. The reader should look further to "The other major form of biologically induced food-borne illness is intoxication, which results when toxins, or poisons, from bacterial or mold growth are present in ingested food and cause illness in the host" which indicates that the pathogenic microorganism can create toxins, die, and create a food born illness

C) are toxins that occur in certain plants and fish.
Misreading. Be careful of the sentence "Biological hazards are dangers to food from pathogenic (disease-causing) microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi, and from toxins that occur in certain plants and fish". 'Biological hazards are...from pathogenic microorganisms...and toxins', so they are both subsets of biological hazards, not toxins being a subset of pathogenic microorganisms.
D) include life forms such as bacteria and parasites.
Yes. "from pathogenic (disease-causing) microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi" D
E) are difficult to detect because they are odorless and tasteless.
We distinguished between pathogenic microorganisms and toxins above. "These toxins are generally odorless and tasteless" does not refer to the pathogenic microorganisms. D
##### General Discussion
Manager
Joined: 04 Oct 2017
Posts: 78
Contamination is the unintended presence of harmful substances or orga  [#permalink]

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26 Jan 2019, 05:02
Contamination is the unintended presence of harmful substances or organisms in food. While it is true that recent scientific advances have resulted in safer foods, better methods of preservation, and improved storage practices, it is still necessary to guard against the practices that can increase the likelihood of food contamination. Because food-borne illness poses a potentially serious threat to public health, preventing contamination of safe food needs to be a prime objective of every food service manager. Furthermore, a food service manager must possess accurate information on the different hazards associated with the contamination of food in the event that a food-borne illness crisis does arise. A full understanding of the biological, chemical, and physical hazards allows the food service manager to implement the control measures necessary to minimize the health risks associated with food and, thus, to decrease the possibility of contamination. The most serious risk associated with food is the biological hazard. Biological hazards are dangers to food from pathogenic (disease-causing) microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi, and from toxins that occur in certain plants and fish. When biological hazards result in food-borne illnesses, these illnesses are generally classified as either infections or intoxications. A food-borne infection is a disease that results from eating food containing living harmful microorganisms. One of the most frequently reported diseases of this type is salmonellosis, which results from the consumption of food contaminated with live pathogenic Salmonella. The other major form of biologically induced food-borne illness is intoxication, which results when toxins, or poisons, from bacterial or mold growth are present in ingested food and cause illness in the host (the human body). These toxins are generally odorless and tasteless and are capable of causing disease even after the microorganisms have been killed. Staphylococcus food intoxication is one of the most common types of foodborne illness reported in the United States.
1. Which of the following best expresses the main idea of the passage?

A) Despite recent scientific advances, food-borne illness continues to present a serious risk to public health.
B) Although chemical and physical hazards can cause a food-borne illness, biological hazards pose the most serious risk of food contamination.
C) Knowledge of contamination sources is essential for a food service manager to safely operate a food establishment.
D) Biological, chemical, and physical hazards represent the main sources of food contamination.
E) The illnesses caused by the contamination of food by biological hazards take the form of either a food-borne infection or a food-borne intoxication.

2. The author of the passage would most likely agree that a food service manager’s comprehension of the nature of potential food hazards is

A) crucial to the safety of a food service operation.
B) necessarily limited due to the complexity of contamination sources.
C) the primary factor in an employer’s decision to hire that manager.
D) utilized exclusively for the prevention of food-borne illness.
E) vitally important but nearly impossible to attain.

3. According to the passage, pathogenic microorganisms

A) are the most common form of biological hazard.
B) can only trigger a food-borne illness when alive.
C) are toxins that occur in certain plants and fish.
D) include life forms such as bacteria and parasites.
E) are difficult to detect because they are odorless and tasteless.

94

Hi,
Can someone explain how to eliminate option C in Q3???? I was stuck between C & D and chose C
Senior RC Moderator
Status: Preparing GMAT
Joined: 02 Nov 2016
Posts: 2199
Location: Pakistan
GPA: 3.39
Re: Contamination is the unintended presence of harmful substances or orga  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

26 Jan 2019, 05:14
1
Kezia9 wrote:
Contamination is the unintended presence of harmful substances or organisms in food. While it is true that recent scientific advances have resulted in safer foods, better methods of preservation, and improved storage practices, it is still necessary to guard against the practices that can increase the likelihood of food contamination. Because food-borne illness poses a potentially serious threat to public health, preventing contamination of safe food needs to be a prime objective of every food service manager. Furthermore, a food service manager must possess accurate information on the different hazards associated with the contamination of food in the event that a food-borne illness crisis does arise. A full understanding of the biological, chemical, and physical hazards allows the food service manager to implement the control measures necessary to minimize the health risks associated with food and, thus, to decrease the possibility of contamination. The most serious risk associated with food is the biological hazard. Biological hazards are dangers to food from pathogenic (disease-causing) microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi, and from toxins that occur in certain plants and fish. When biological hazards result in food-borne illnesses, these illnesses are generally classified as either infections or intoxications. A food-borne infection is a disease that results from eating food containing living harmful microorganisms. One of the most frequently reported diseases of this type is salmonellosis, which results from the consumption of food contaminated with live pathogenic Salmonella. The other major form of biologically induced food-borne illness is intoxication, which results when toxins, or poisons, from bacterial or mold growth are present in ingested food and cause illness in the host (the human body). These toxins are generally odorless and tasteless and are capable of causing disease even after the microorganisms have been killed. Staphylococcus food intoxication is one of the most common types of foodborne illness reported in the United States.
1. Which of the following best expresses the main idea of the passage?

A) Despite recent scientific advances, food-borne illness continues to present a serious risk to public health.
B) Although chemical and physical hazards can cause a food-borne illness, biological hazards pose the most serious risk of food contamination.
C) Knowledge of contamination sources is essential for a food service manager to safely operate a food establishment.
D) Biological, chemical, and physical hazards represent the main sources of food contamination.
E) The illnesses caused by the contamination of food by biological hazards take the form of either a food-borne infection or a food-borne intoxication.

2. The author of the passage would most likely agree that a food service manager’s comprehension of the nature of potential food hazards is

A) crucial to the safety of a food service operation.
B) necessarily limited due to the complexity of contamination sources.
C) the primary factor in an employer’s decision to hire that manager.
D) utilized exclusively for the prevention of food-borne illness.
E) vitally important but nearly impossible to attain.

3. According to the passage, pathogenic microorganisms

A) are the most common form of biological hazard.
B) can only trigger a food-borne illness when alive.
C) are toxins that occur in certain plants and fish.
D) include life forms such as bacteria and parasites.
E) are difficult to detect because they are odorless and tasteless.

94

Hi,
Can someone explain how to eliminate option C in Q3???? I was stuck between C & D and chose C

Official Explanation

The striking term pathogenic organisms that appears in the question stem is relatively easy to locate in paragraph 2. Correct choice (D) comes right with the keywords such as acting as the link between pathogenic microorganisms and bacteria and parasites. Even in a passage with lots of unfamiliar terms, it all boils down to good strategic reading. Take a look at the wrong choices. In (A), the passage doesn’t tell you what the most common form is. Nothing in paragraph 2 suggests (B), but paragraph 3 actually suggests the opposite—some microorganisms can cause disease even after being killed. A careful reading of the sentence in which “pathogenic organisms” appears shows that (C) distorts the meaning of the sentence. Toxins are not the same as pathogenic microorganisms. (E)—how hard it is to detect pathogenic organisms—is outside the scope, as only the detection of toxins is mentioned.

Hope it Helps
_________________

New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Final days of the GMAT Exam? => All GMAT Flashcards.
This Post Helps = Press +1 Kudos
Best of Luck on the GMAT!!

Re: Contamination is the unintended presence of harmful substances or orga   [#permalink] 26 Jan 2019, 05:14
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