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# Da Vinci's vision of a flying contraption was dismissed for centuries

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Re: Da Vinci's vision of a flying contraption was dismissed for centuries [#permalink]
Bunuel wrote:
Da Vinci's vision of a flying contraption was dismissed for centuries as a pipe dream; instead, many scholars attribute several critical innovations that actually led to manned flight with its principles.

(A) was dismissed for centuries as a pipe dream; instead, many scholars attribute several critical innovations that actually led to manned flight with

(B) had been dismissed for centuries as a pipe dream, but from which, many scholars have attributed several critical innovations that actually led to manned flight to

(C) had been dismissed for centuries as a pipe dream, but from which, many scholars attribute several critical innovations that actually led to manned flight with

(D) was dismissed for centuries as a pipe dream, but many scholars attribute several critical innovations that actually led to manned flight to

(E) had been dismissed for centuries as a pipe dream; instead, many scholars have attributed several critical innovations that actually led to manned flight to

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What does the sentence tell us? That his vision was dismissed for centuries as a pipe dream. But scholars attribute many critical innovations to its principles. These innovations actually led to manned flights.

We should not use past perfect here because we don't have two actions in the past or an action before a specific point in time in the past. We don't know when his vision gained acceptance. We just know that for many centuries, his vision was dismissed as a pipe dream. Hence (B), (C) and (E) are incorrect.

The use of 'but' is correct to give the contrast - though his vision was dismissed, experts attribute (present) many innovations to the principles of his vision.
The use of 'instead' is not correct here. Something like this would have worked: His vision was dismissed for centuries; instead, people supported X's vision. The use of 'instead' must specify what was accepted when De Vinci's visions were rejected or something similar. 'Instead' gives a substitute, not a contrast. Hence (A) and (E) are incorrect.

Also, the use of 'but from which' is not correct. 'which' stands for 'his vision' so this is what the clause becomes:
From his vision, many scholars attribute several critical innovations to the vision's principles.
'his vision' is mentioned twice and that makes no sense. Hence, (B) and (C) are incorrect.