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During and immediately after the California gold rush, the

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During and immediately after the California gold rush, the  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Oct 2005, 11:20
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During and immediately after the California gold rush, the way for a merchant to generate the most profit was to move a limited amount of scarce goods to San Francisco as quickly as possible, rather than to carry larger loads more slowly, determining the design of the clipper ship.

A) to carry larger loads more slowly, determining
B) to carry larger loads more slowly, a situation that determined
C) carry larger loads more slowly, which determined
D) slowly carry larger loads which determined
E) carrying larger loads more slowly, and this was a situation in determining

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Re: During and immediately after the California gold rush, the  [#permalink]

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New post 04 May 2013, 23:29
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One thing about the verb+ing modifiers is that, they rather describe not a single factor but the gist of several factors. Let’s take this example; what factors are determining the shape of the ships? The factors are: 1. there was a gold rush in San F. Some goods were scarce; if some could give the consumers those goods, they would pay any price and the trader can make huge profits. For this the trader has to take a light ship with optimal cargo that can dart like a hare to the destination rather than crawl like a tortoise carrying a huge load. All these factors collectively determined the shape of the ships. How to express all these in one stroke? Using the ing participle is a good way of doing that. But the problem in using the present participle is that it is a timeless expression. When we say determining, we can mean determining in the past, now and even in the future. But the clippers ships are a thing of the past. We have no clippers ships presently. The ships died their natural death after the advent of steamer ships. So an expression that point out the past nature of the phenomena, will espouse the meaning better, given the context. That is the reason, I prefer B over A.
C and D are dropped because of the ‘which’ touch rule problem, while the demonstrative pronoun ‘this’ has no appropriate antecedent in E

Incidentally, I see no run - on either in A or in B, What follow the comma are modifiers in both cases, whether determining or a situation. Determining is an adverbial modifier and a situation is an appositive modifier. There are no two ICs in the sentences to render them run-on each other)
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Re: During and immediately after the California gold rush  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Sep 2012, 06:50
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Here is my thought process:
1. "Rather than" calls for parallelism, which I think got us to the two answers presented.
2. determining (ing) can be used to modify a clause, a noun or a verb. And here, it is used to modify the preceding clause (preceding is a ing form that modifies the noun "clause" :D). But this can only be done if the preceding clause can convert into a noun phrase and function as a the subject of the verb.
Boys at this bar are stupid, causing girls to leave = The stupidity of the boys at this bar has caused girls to leave.

I do not think we can do the conversion here. Since the meaning of the original sentence is "the best way to generate profit ......... rather than ....." determined the design of the ship.

Thus I think B is a better answer.
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New post 23 Oct 2005, 12:57
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It is B.

here comparison is between to move a limited amount ....... rather than to carry

only A and B does the comparison correctly. To move can not determine the design. However, the situation can determine the desingn.
So B it is.
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Re: During and immediately after the California gold rush,  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Apr 2013, 15:16
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Here are my 2 cents...

(A)to carry larger loads more slowly ,determining ==> Determining is participial which modifying the previous clause. Makes no sense
(B)to carry larger loads more slowly,a situation that determined ==> Correct - reason ...'to carry' is parallel to 'to move' --> "a situation" clearly stating the situation discussed in the previous claus.
(C)carry larger loads more slowly ,which determined ==> Parallelism error .. "to carry" needs to parallel to "to move"
(D)slowly carry larger loads which determined ==> Parallelism error.. "to carry" needs to parallel to "to move"
(E)carrying loads more slowly ,and this was a situation in determining ==> Parallelism error.. "to carry" needs to parallel to "to move"
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Re: During and immediately after the California gold rush,  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Apr 2013, 19:28
I have also got stuck b/w A & B. The first part of sentence finishes correctly with 'to carry larger loads more slowly' as it is parallel with the first part.

A) determining the design of the clipper ship' is a second clause. What is wrong in this? This is mentioned in context with 'the way for a merchant to generate the most profit'
B) 'a situation that determined the design of the clipper ship'. I am okay with this as well.

Can anyone put light over this?
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Re: During and immediately after the California gold rush,  [#permalink]

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New post 03 May 2013, 00:01
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umeshpatil wrote:
I have also got stuck b/w A & B. The first part of sentence finishes correctly with 'to carry larger loads more slowly' as it is parallel with the first part.

A) determining the design of the clipper ship' is a second clause. What is wrong in this? This is mentioned in context with 'the way for a merchant to generate the most profit'
B) 'a situation that determined the design of the clipper ship'. I am okay with this as well.

Can anyone put light over this?


A is wrong because "determining" seems to modify the subject "the way" of the previous sentence. But "the way" didn't determine the design of the clipper ship. "a situation" in B is more clear.

Hope it helps.
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Re: During and immediately after the California gold rush, the  [#permalink]

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New post 05 May 2013, 00:30
Original sentence (option A) is:
During and immediately after the California gold rush, the way for a merchant to generate the most profit was to move a limited amount of scarce goods to San Francisco as quickly as possible, rather than to carry larger loads more slowly, determining the design of the clipper ship.

Here "determining" is a participle. The structure can be seen as
the way ... determining the design of the clipper ship

Problem with option A is: what is determining the design? There is no clear answer to that question! Thus, option A has modifier problem.

daagh is right to say that the option A is not a run-on sentence. To explain a little more: a run-on sentence is constructed with two (or more) independent clauses joined by a comma in stead of period or semicolon or conjunction or relational word.

To answer to a previous doubt/query: Option B is not a run-on sentence as the clauses are connected properly. Complete sentence with option B is:
During and immediately after the California gold rush, the way for a merchant to generate the most profit was to move a limited amount of scarce goods to San Francisco as quickly as possible, rather than to carry larger loads more slowly, a situation that determined the design of the clipper ship.
Here "situation" is correctly modifying the earlier phrase where the situation is described.
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Re: During and immediately after the California gold rush, the  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Mar 2015, 22:42
During and immediately after the California gold rush, the way for a merchant to generate the most profit was to move a limited amount of scarce goods to San Francisco as quickly as possible, rather than to carry larger loads more slowly, determining the design of the clipper ship.

A) to carry larger loads more slowly, determining
"the way for a merchant to . . ." cannot determine the design of ship

B) to carry larger loads more slowly, a situation that determined
the situation of seeking for fast method of carry gold determine the need to develope a ship

C) carry larger loads more slowly, which determined

D) slowly carry larger loads which determined

E) carrying larger loads more slowly, and this was a situation in determining
"Carrying" is not prarrallel with "to move a limited amount", and "this was a situation in..." is awkward
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Re: During and immediately after the California gold rush, the  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Jan 2016, 22:05
During and immediately after the California gold rush, the way for a merchant to generate the most profit was to move a limited amount of scarce goods to San Francisco as quickly as possible, rather than to carry larger loads more slowly, determining the design of the clipper ship.

C) carry larger loads more slowly, which determined..............which refers to loads incorrectly.
D) slowly carry larger loads which determined..............which refers to loads incorrectly.
E) carrying larger loads more slowly, and this was a situation in determining.............carrying is not parallel with to move phrase.

Left with A and B
A) to carry larger loads more slowly, determining
B) to carry larger loads more slowly, a situation that determined

During and immediately after the California gold rush, the way for a merchant to generate the most profit was
to move a limited amount of scarce goods to San Francisco as quickly as possible,
rather than to carry larger loads more slowly, determining the design of the clipper ship.

This seems to mean that Merchant needs to move amount to SF instead of carrying loads slowly and he carries the larger loads slowly while determining the design of clipper ship.
This does not make sense in meaning.


whereas Option B says that

During and immediately after the California gold rush, the way for a merchant to generate the most profit was
to move a limited amount of scarce goods to San Francisco as quickly as possible,
rather than to carry larger loads more slowly, a situation that determined the design of the clipper ship.

a situation here correctly refers to the need to move the goods urgently to generate profits and this situation led to the design of clipper ship.
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Re: During and immediately after the California gold rush, the  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Aug 2018, 00:42
christoph wrote:
During and immediately after the California gold rush, the way for a merchant to generate the most profit was to move a limited amount of scarce goods to San Francisco as quickly as possible, rather than to carry larger loads more slowly, determining the design of the clipper ship.

A) to carry larger loads more slowly, determining
B) to carry larger loads more slowly, a situation that determined
C) carry larger loads more slowly, which determined
D) slowly carry larger loads which determined
E) carrying larger loads more slowly, and this was a situation in determining


KAPLAN OFFICIAL EXPLANATION:



In the underlined portion of the original sentence, you've got a verb (to carry) and a participle (determining). The answer choices allow you to convert the verb into a participle (carrying) and the participle into a verb (determined). You may wonder why this matters. Well, the participle determining makes the final phrase of the sentence (determining the design of the clipper ship) into a modifier. The problem is that it's not clear what precisely this phrase modifies: Did a part of this situation (perhaps the need for speed) determine the design of the clipper ship or did the entire situation taken together? Only (B) and (E) respond to this problem so you can eliminate all the others; which in (C) and (D) doesn't provide the clarification that we need. (E), in addition to its clumsy phrasing, is grammatically incorrect. By replacing to carry with carrying, it breaks the parallel structure of the sentence (the best option was to move...rather than to carry). (B) alone survives.
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Re: During and immediately after the California gold rush, the &nbs [#permalink] 14 Aug 2018, 00:42
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