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Ending a contentious political stalemate that frightened global

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Re: Ending a contentious political stalemate that frightened global  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Apr 2017, 06:29
VeritasPrepKarishma wrote:
emmak wrote:
Ending a contentious political stalemate that frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, has finally formed a rare coalition government that united liberals and conservatives – and included a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite ministers – to guide Italy, Europe’s third-largest economy, out of stagnation.
A)frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, has finally formed a rare coalition government that united liberals and conservatives – and included a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite ministers – to guide Italy, Europe’s
B)had frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, finally formed a rare coalition government uniting liberals and conservatives – and including a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite minister – to guide Italy, with Europe’s
C)had been frightening global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, has finally formed a rare coalition government uniting liberals and conservatives – and that include a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite minister – to guide Italy, which has Europe’s
D)had frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, finally formed a rare coalition government that united liberals and conservatives – and including a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite minister – to guide Italy, which has Europe’s
E)frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, finally formed a rare coalition government to unite liberals and conservatives – and includes a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite minister – and to guide Italy, with Europe’s



Here is the skeleton of option (A) with details removed:

Ending a stalemate that frightened leaders, Enrico has formed a rare coalition government that united ... – and included ... – to guide Italy, Europe’s third-largest economy, out of stagnation.

There are two events:
Leaders frightened
Govt formed

Since leaders were frightened before the Govt was formed, we can express the events in two ways:

Option (A) - Ending a stalemate that frightened (simple past) leaders, Enrico has formed (present perfect) a rare coalition government...
We don't know whether Enrico has just formed the Govt or did he form it some time back. There is no need to assume that he formed it some time back and hence use of present perfect may not be incorrect. But the problem with option (A) is that 'united' and 'included' use past tense. In that case, the use of present perfect for forming the Govt is incorrect. The formation of the Govt united liberals and conservatives and included women and non white ministers. Hence, 'uniting' and 'including' did not happen before the Govt was formed.

Option (B) - Ending a stalemate that had frightened (past perfect) leaders, Enrico formed (simple past) a rare coalition government...
Here, the tenses are correct. Past perfect for 'Leaders frightened' and simple past for 'Govt formed'.

As for the use of 'with'.

Italy here is referring to the country. The country has Europe's third largest economy.

Hence the use of both these is correct:
... to guide Italy, with Europe's third largest economy, out of stagnation.
... to guide Italy, which has Europe's third largest economy, out of stagnation.

Note that we could also refer to Italy, Europe's third largest economy. We could say that Italy is Europe's third largest economy as done in option (A). That is correct too. But option (A) has other errors.


According to your reasoning, with Europe's third largest economy in B and which has Europe's third largest economy in D are both correct.

We can see that the only difference in B and D are uniting in B that united in D. VeritasPrepKarishma can you please clarify why uniting in B is wrong and that united in D is right and why we use and including but not and included in B and D ?

Many thanks for you :)
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Re: Ending a contentious political stalemate that frightened global  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Apr 2017, 22:53
leanhdung wrote:
VeritasPrepKarishma wrote:
emmak wrote:
Ending a contentious political stalemate that frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, has finally formed a rare coalition government that united liberals and conservatives – and included a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite ministers – to guide Italy, Europe’s third-largest economy, out of stagnation.
A)frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, has finally formed a rare coalition government that united liberals and conservatives – and included a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite ministers – to guide Italy, Europe’s
B)had frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, finally formed a rare coalition government uniting liberals and conservatives – and including a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite minister – to guide Italy, with Europe’s
C)had been frightening global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, has finally formed a rare coalition government uniting liberals and conservatives – and that include a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite minister – to guide Italy, which has Europe’s
D)had frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, finally formed a rare coalition government that united liberals and conservatives – and including a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite minister – to guide Italy, which has Europe’s
E)frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, finally formed a rare coalition government to unite liberals and conservatives – and includes a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite minister – and to guide Italy, with Europe’s



Here is the skeleton of option (A) with details removed:

Ending a stalemate that frightened leaders, Enrico has formed a rare coalition government that united ... – and included ... – to guide Italy, Europe’s third-largest economy, out of stagnation.

There are two events:
Leaders frightened
Govt formed

Since leaders were frightened before the Govt was formed, we can express the events in two ways:

Option (A) - Ending a stalemate that frightened (simple past) leaders, Enrico has formed (present perfect) a rare coalition government...
We don't know whether Enrico has just formed the Govt or did he form it some time back. There is no need to assume that he formed it some time back and hence use of present perfect may not be incorrect. But the problem with option (A) is that 'united' and 'included' use past tense. In that case, the use of present perfect for forming the Govt is incorrect. The formation of the Govt united liberals and conservatives and included women and non white ministers. Hence, 'uniting' and 'including' did not happen before the Govt was formed.

Option (B) - Ending a stalemate that had frightened (past perfect) leaders, Enrico formed (simple past) a rare coalition government...
Here, the tenses are correct. Past perfect for 'Leaders frightened' and simple past for 'Govt formed'.

As for the use of 'with'.

Italy here is referring to the country. The country has Europe's third largest economy.

Hence the use of both these is correct:
... to guide Italy, with Europe's third largest economy, out of stagnation.
... to guide Italy, which has Europe's third largest economy, out of stagnation.

Note that we could also refer to Italy, Europe's third largest economy. We could say that Italy is Europe's third largest economy as done in option (A). That is correct too. But option (A) has other errors.


According to your reasoning, with Europe's third largest economy in B and which has Europe's third largest economy in D are both correct.

We can see that the only difference in B and D are uniting in B that united in D. VeritasPrepKarishma can you please clarify why uniting in B is wrong and that united in D is right and why we use and including but not and included in B and D ?

Many thanks for you :)



Note that (B) is the correct option. Here is why:

(B) Ending a contentious political stalemate that had frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, finally formed a rare coalition government uniting liberals and conservatives – and including a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite minister – to guide Italy, with Europe’s third-largest economy, out of stagnation.

(D) Ending a contentious political stalemate that had frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, finally formed a rare coalition government that united liberals and conservatives – and including a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite minister – to guide Italy, which has Europe’s third-largest economy, out of stagnation.

The problem is not with "united" vs "uniting". The issue is that with "uniting", "including" works as happens in option (B).
... formed a ... government uniting A and including B...
The govt united and included and hence they are parallel.

But (D) gives you
... formed a ... government that united A and including B...
They need to be in parallel. "including" does not work with "united". You need "included" in that case.
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Re: Ending a contentious political stalemate that frightened global  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Apr 2017, 08:11
Ending a contentious political stalemate that frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, has finally formed a rare coalition government that united liberals and conservatives – and included a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite ministers – to guide Italy, Europe’s third-largest economy, out of stagnation.

A)frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, has finally formed a rare coalition government that united liberals and conservatives – and included a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite ministers – to guide Italy, Europe’s
present perfect out

B)had frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, finally formed a rare coalition government uniting liberals and conservatives – and including a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite minister – to guide Italy, with Europe’s

Enrico Letta finally formed a government to guide Italy out of stagnation. This is the structure of B, correct.

C)had been frightening global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, has finally formed a rare coalition government uniting liberals and conservatives – and that include a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite minister – to guide Italy, which has Europe’s


D)had frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, finally formed a rare coalition government that united liberals and conservatives – and including a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite minister – to guide Italy, which has Europe’s

E)frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, finally formed a rare coalition government to unite liberals and conservatives – and includes a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite minister – and to guide Italy, with Europe’s
Option E changes the meaning. To unite and to guide Italy become two things, where in option A formed a government to guide.
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Re: Ending a contentious political stalemate that frightened global  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jun 2018, 02:27
(A) frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, has finally formed a rare coalition government that united liberals and conservatives—and included a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite ministers—to guide Italy, Europe’s - correct choice.

(B) had frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, finally formed a rare coalition government uniting liberals and conservatives—and including a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite minister—to guide Italy, ((with)) Europe’s - makes no sense.

(C) had been frightening global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, has finally formed a rare coalition government uniting liberals and conservatives—and that include a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite minister —to guide ((Italy, which has)) Europe’s - again makes no sense. Incorrect.

(D) had frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, finally formed a rare coalition government that united liberals and conservatives—and including a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite minister—to guide ((Italy, which has)) Europe’s - same as C.

(E) frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, finally formed a rare coalition government to unite liberals and conservatives—and includes a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite minister—and to guide Italy, ((with)) Europe’s - same as B.

A is the right choice.


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Re: Ending a contentious political stalemate that frightened global  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Jul 2018, 10:09
Quote:
Ending a contentious political stalemate that frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, has finally formed a rare coalition government that united liberals and conservatives—and included a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite ministers—to guide Italy, Europe’s third-largest economy, out of stagnation.

(A) frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, has finally formed a rare coalition government that united liberals and conservatives—and included a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite ministers—to guide Italy, Europe’s

(B) had frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, finally formed a rare coalition government uniting liberals and conservatives—and including a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite minister—to guide Italy, with Europe’s

(C) had been frightening global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, has finally formed a rare coalition government uniting liberals and conservatives—and that include a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite minister —to guide Italy, which has Europe’s

(D) had frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, finally formed a rare coalition government that united liberals and conservatives—and including a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite minister—to guide Italy, which has Europe’s

(E) frightened global business leaders, the new Italian Prime Minister, Enrico Letta, finally formed a rare coalition government to unite liberals and conservatives—and includes a record number of women and Italy’s first nonwhite minister—and to guide Italy, with Europe’s


Approach -

1) Eliminate A - present perfect with past is incorrect.
2) Eliminate C and D - use of has is not correct.
3)Eliminate - past tense with present is incorrect
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Re: Ending a contentious political stalemate that frightened global &nbs [#permalink] 06 Jul 2018, 10:09

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