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# Fifty years ago this November, Lyndon B. Johnson

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Re: Fifty years ago this November, Lyndon B. Johnson [#permalink]
ExpertsGlobal5 wrote:
jim441 wrote:
How did you reach the conclusion that "promised" used here is a verb and not a participle?
also, what's wrong with option B

Hello jim441,

We hope this finds you well.

To answer your query, in Option B the omission of "that" before "aimed to transform" and "promised to make" leads to an incoherent meaning; the phrases "bill aimed to transform" and "bill...promised to make" simply make no logical sense.

We hope this helps.
All the best!
Experts' Global Team

In B, there is a comma, so aimed and promised (in parallel) modifies the bill. That's why I am getting confused.
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jim441 wrote:
How did you reach the conclusion that "promised" used here is a verb and not a participle?

In this case, you can notice that "promised" is preceded directly by "that". This structure would not be workable if "promised" were a participle; in that case, you'd need a "was" in front of the participle to create a proper verb.

Quote:
also, what's wrong with option B

"Aimed" in choice B is not introduced by the relative pronoun "that" (or by any other relative pronoun), so, this instance of "aimed" is a participle (= a modifier; not a verb). As a result, it's nonparallel to "promised" which, as explained above, is written as a verb.

Also, "by providing..." is not an accurate wording. The bill itself did not create work-study jobs (which were, and are, defined and staffed by each individual school), nor did it actually provide monetary loans (= the job of financial institutions, as usual).
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Fifty years ago this November, Lyndon B. Johnson [#permalink]
I thought that when we come across the law/bill, we should use simple present tense?
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Re: Fifty years ago this November, Lyndon B. Johnson [#permalink]
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louisinau wrote:
I thought that when we come across the law/bill, we should use simple present tense?

The present is the right tense for things that are true regardless of the timeframe. So, for instance, "Article IV of the U.S. Constitution states..." is in the present tense, because the Constitution still says the same stuff.

That is not, however, what's happening in this sentence.
This sentence talks about how this particular bill aimed to TRANSFORM U.S. higher education in ways that would make it MORE accessible.
Both of these things—/1/ the transformation and /2/ the increase in the general accessibility of U.S. higher education—were CHANGES that occurred at that specific point in time. In other words, they're historical events. The past tense is correct.
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Re: Fifty years ago this November, Lyndon B. Johnson [#permalink]
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jim441 wrote:
How did you reach the conclusion that "promised" used here is a verb and not a participle?
also, what's wrong with option B

jim441 - Please check my post before yours. If "promised" were a participle, it would have passive meaning. Since it has active meaning in this sentence "the bill promised to do ..." it is used as a verb. A verb-ed cannot both show an action performed by the subject (act as a verb) and add extra details about the subject (act as a modifier).
When verb-ed are used as past participle modifiers, they have a passive sense.
Re: Fifty years ago this November, Lyndon B. Johnson [#permalink]
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