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# Geologists believe that the Bering land bridge, over which

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Director
Joined: 29 Oct 2004
Posts: 801
Geologists believe that the Bering land bridge, over which  [#permalink]

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01 Feb 2005, 07:30
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90% (00:30) correct 10% (00:00) wrong based on 83 sessions

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Geologists believe that the Bering land bridge, over which human beings are thought to have first entered the Americans, disappeared about 14,000 years ago when massive glaciers melted and caused the sea level to rise several hundred feet worldwide.
(A) are thought to have first entered
(B) were thought first to enter
(C) were thought at first to enter
(D) are thought of as first entering
(E) were thought to first enter
VP
Joined: 30 Sep 2004
Posts: 1439
Location: Germany

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01 Feb 2005, 09:02
A) !

were thought is incorrect => eliminate B,C and E

b/w A) and D) i choose A), cause D) sounds awkward
Director
Joined: 29 Oct 2004
Posts: 801

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01 Feb 2005, 09:54
Seems that everyone got this right.
Now my question is: why "to have first entered", and why not just "to first enter"
By saying "to have first entered", it seems like they still "enter" from past to present since this is present perfect.
SVP
Joined: 03 Jan 2005
Posts: 2142

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01 Feb 2005, 10:10
(A)

to enter would mean they enter through there all the time, while what we want to say is that they have done it in the past.
Director
Joined: 27 Dec 2004
Posts: 859

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01 Feb 2005, 11:20
(A)..

Keep them coming qhoc0010, you seem to have a pool of real GMAT-like questions. I can see what's being testedf from most of the questions you are posting.
Senior Manager
Joined: 30 Dec 2004
Posts: 288
Location: California

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01 Feb 2005, 11:22
I think A as well....correct tense (believe...are)
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Intern
Joined: 29 Oct 2004
Posts: 6

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01 Feb 2005, 21:02
Because you need a past verb tense (entered). They did the action in the past, therefore, A is the only viable answer.
Director
Joined: 29 Oct 2004
Posts: 801

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01 Feb 2005, 21:33
OK, so there is something I don't get fundamentally.

So when you say: to have v-ed
That means the action was in the past and it already stopped, correct?

"to have v-ed" differs from "present perfect" bcause "present perfect" means the action is happening from past to present, correct?
SVP
Joined: 03 Jan 2005
Posts: 2142

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02 Feb 2005, 00:44
My understanding is that present perfect sometimes is about a continued action, but other times is about things that have been done in the past.

For example:

I've always loved maths.
(I still love it)

I've been to ShenZhen twice.
(I may not be there right now.)
Director
Joined: 29 Oct 2004
Posts: 801

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02 Feb 2005, 01:55
Yeah, I got what you are saying. As a matter of fact, that was what I learned in school too. GMAT changed my thought about the use of present perfect a little bit. So far, every SC question with present perfect refers that the action was from past to present.
GMAT Club Legend
Joined: 15 Dec 2003
Posts: 4200

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02 Feb 2005, 06:29
1
Present perfect tense is about actions done in the past and stretch to the present but it is also about actions that ended in the past, period. I agree with Honghu's explanation and I will refer you to this link explaining present perfect: http://www.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/tens ... erfect.htm
Look and scroll down the top right box.
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Intern
Joined: 30 Aug 2017
Posts: 15
Re: Geologists believe that the Bering land bridge, over which  [#permalink]

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08 Oct 2017, 22:04
Dear Expert

kindly tell the correct concept. How OA is right and others wrong ?
Manhattan Prep Instructor
Joined: 22 Mar 2011
Posts: 1319
Re: Geologists believe that the Bering land bridge, over which  [#permalink]

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31 Oct 2017, 14:19
3
harikrushna Kotadiya One way to think of this is that geologists are describing our current beliefs, so "are" is more appropriate than "were." From there, we can eliminate D because we're not just say "we think of them this way." We actually think that this happened, and it happened in the past.

However, all the "were" choices are wrong for other reasons, too. Both B and C seem to be applying "first" to "thought." This would mean that this is what we thought at first, when what we want to say is that we think this is where people entered first. Also, all three (B, C, E) seem to place "enter" and "thought" at the same time. In other words, people thought that humans were currently entering the Americas over the land bridge! This doesn't make sense.

The complex phrase "are thought to have entered" in A is needed to convey the complex relationship of events. It means we currently think something. What do we think? That humans first entered over the Bering Land Bridge before it disappeared 14,000 years ago. We could avoid some of this awkwardness if we had a subject--in other words, if we specified who was doing the thinking! Then we could say something like "Scientists think that humans first entered the Americas over the Bering Land Bridge, which they believe disappeared 14,000 years ago."
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Re: Geologists believe that the Bering land bridge, over which &nbs [#permalink] 31 Oct 2017, 14:19
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# Geologists believe that the Bering land bridge, over which

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