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Historian: One traditional childrearing practice in the nineteenth cen

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Historian: One traditional childrearing practice in the nineteenth cen  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Jul 2018, 03:31
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Historian: One traditional childrearing practice in the nineteenth century was to make a child who misbehaved sit alone outside. Anyone passing by would conclude that the child had misbehaved. Nowadays, many child psychologists would disapprove of this practice because they believe that such practices damage the child’s self-esteem and that damage to children’s self-esteem makes them less confident as adults. However, no one disagrees that adults raised under that traditional practice were, on average, as confident as adults not so raised.

Which one of the following can be properly inferred from the historian’s statements?


(A) The beliefs of many present-day child psychologists about the consequences of loss of self-esteem are incorrect.

(B) Some of the most confident adults, as well as some of the least confident adults, were raised under the traditional practice in question.

(C) With the traditional childrearing practice, passersby did not always make correct inferences about children’s behavior by observing them outdoors.

(D) The most confident adults are those who developed the highest level of self-esteem in childhood.

(E) If children’s loss of self-esteem makes them less confident as adults, then the traditional childrearing practice in question did not tend to cause significant loss of self-esteem.

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Historian: One traditional childrearing practice in the nineteenth cen  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Jul 2018, 22:29
A) The beliefs of many present-day child psychologists about the consequences of loss of self-esteem are incorrect. -Nothing in the passage makes us to infer that.

(B) Some of the most confident adults, as well as some of the least confident adults, were raised under the traditional practice in question. -Correct choice IMO.The confident kids would have been raised under the practice but did not experience that firsthand ,that is did not misbehave.

(C) With the traditional childrearing practice, passersby did not always make correct inferences about children’s behavior by observing them outdoors.-Irrelevant

(D) The most confident adults are those who developed the highest level of self-esteem in childhood.-on average they are as confident as others,so eliminated

(E) If children’s loss of self-esteem makes them less confident as adults, then the traditional childrearing practice in question did not tend to cause significant loss of self-esteem.-Negates the psychologists view,eliminate.
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Re: Historian: One traditional childrearing practice in the nineteenth cen  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jul 2018, 02:07
IMO C.
reasoning:no one disagrees that adults raised under that traditional practice were, on average, as confident as adults not so raised.
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Historian: One traditional childrearing practice in the nineteenth cen  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jul 2018, 02:50
IMO E:

(A) The beliefs of many present-day child psychologists about the consequences of loss of self-esteem are incorrect. <- too extreme, they may be correct (we'll come back to this choice later). There might have been other factors which compensated for the lost self-esteem and hence these kids had similar confidence compared to other kids.

(B) Some of the most confident adults, as well as some of the least confident adults, were raised under the traditional practice in question. <- well, not necessary (MOST and LEAST confident kids were raised under this practice is not known)

(C) With the traditional childrearing practice, passersby did not always make correct inferences about children’s behavior by observing them outdoors. <- we have no way to support this

(D) The most confident adults are those who developed the highest level of self-esteem in childhood. <- again, most self-esteem might not necessarily be equal to most confidence

(E) If children’s loss of self-esteem makes them less confident as adults, then the traditional childrearing practice in question did not tend to cause significant loss of self-esteem. <- tone-wise similar; also
Quote:
"However, no one disagrees that adults raised under that traditional practice were, on average, as confident as adults not so raised."
<- this fits in well with this option. If loss of self-esteem did result in low confidence, but given the conclusion that these children had similar confidence, we can infer they did not lose self-esteem by being punished.

Answer: E
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Re: Historian: One traditional childrearing practice in the nineteenth cen  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Jul 2018, 01:16
Bunuel wrote:
Historian: One traditional childrearing practice in the nineteenth century was to make a child who misbehaved sit alone outside. Anyone passing by would conclude that the child had misbehaved. Nowadays, many child psychologists would disapprove of this practice because they believe that such practices damage the child’s self-esteem and that damage to children’s self-esteem makes them less confident as adults. However, no one disagrees that adults raised under that traditional practice were, on average, as confident as adults not so raised.

Which one of the following can be properly inferred from the historian’s statements?


(A) The beliefs of many present-day child psychologists about the consequences of loss of self-esteem are incorrect.

(B) Some of the most confident adults, as well as some of the least confident adults, were raised under the traditional practice in question.

(C) With the traditional childrearing practice, passersby did not always make correct inferences about children’s behavior by observing them outdoors.

(D) The most confident adults are those who developed the highest level of self-esteem in childhood.

(E) If children’s loss of self-esteem makes them less confident as adults, then the traditional childrearing practice in question did not tend to cause significant loss of self-esteem.


Bunuel, Do we have OE for this question?
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Re: Historian: One traditional childrearing practice in the nineteenth cen  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jan 2019, 13:30
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Offical Explanation -


It’s agreed that adults raised under the practice of punishing a child by sitting him alone outdoors showed no less confidence than adults not so raised—this, despite the feeling among child psychologists that that punishment causes damage to self-esteem, which in turn leads to less confidence. Let’s go through the choices as you doubtless did, in order, looking for that which must be true based on this text.
(A) goes too far. The author stops short of drawing the categorical conclusion that the child psychologists are wrong.
(B)—the last sentence talks about average levels of confidence, not (as (B) does) the extremes.
(C) distorts a most tangential aspect of the paragraph, namely the passersby observing a punished child. That it’s tangential doesn’t make (C) wrong; it’s just that the author is concerned with the effects of the punishment, not its meaning to observers.
(D) commits the classic error of negating an if thens terms without flipping the terms. That lower self-esteem leads to less confidence doesn’t mean
that high self-esteem leads to high confidence. The correct formulation would be: “NOT less confidence leads to NOT lower self-esteem.”
(E) is all that’s left, and its conditional nature makes it easier to accept as true than the others. It distinguishes between the general tendency (of lower self-esteem leading to lower adult confidence)
and the particular behavior, which (E) properly cites as an exception to that tendency. (E) readily follows from the text.
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Re: Historian: One traditional childrearing practice in the nineteenth cen   [#permalink] 17 Jan 2019, 13:30
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