If a society encourages freedom of thought and expression, : GMAT Critical Reasoning (CR)
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# If a society encourages freedom of thought and expression,

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If a society encourages freedom of thought and expression, [#permalink]

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19 Aug 2004, 11:26
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24. If a society encourages freedom of thought and expression, then, during the time when it does so, creativity will flourish in that society. In the United States creativity flourished, during the eighteenth century. It is clear, therefore, that freedom of thought was encouraged in the United States during the eighteenth century.

An error of reasoning of the same kind as one contained in the passage is present in each of the following arguments EXCEPT:

(A) According to the airline industry, airfares have to rise if air travel is to be made safer; since airfares were just raised, we can rest assured that air travel will therefore become safer.

(B) We can conclude that the Hillside police department has improved its efficiency, because crime rates are down in Hillside, and it is an established fact that crime rates go down when police departments increase their efficiency.

(C) People who are really interested in the preservation of wildlife obviously do not go hunting for big game; since Gerda has never gone hunting for big game and intends never gone hunting for big game and intends never to do so. it is clear that she is really interested in the preservation of wildlife.

(D) If the contents of a bottle are safe to drink, the bottle will not be marked "position" so, since the bottle is not marked "poison", its contents will be safe to drink.

(E) None of the so-called Western democracies is really democratic, because, for a country to be democratic, the opinion of each of its citizens must have a meaningful effect on government, and in none of these countries does each citizen's opinion have such an effect.

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19 Aug 2004, 11:50
B is the only exception - others seem to agree the logic, IF A then B, when B then A is the cause.
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19 Aug 2004, 13:03
The argument pushes forth a premise.

A -> B

and assumes B to conlude A. this is invalid

in E, None of the so-called Western democracies is really democratic, because, for a country to be democratic, the opinion of each of its citizens must have a meaningful effect on government, and in none of these countries does each citizen's opinion have such an effect.

Democratic -> opinon of all

and says NOT option hence NOT democratic.

E. is actually valid, and is not a flawed argument.

E
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19 Aug 2004, 18:21
(B) it is. The rest of the choices follows the logic. Although on surface (B) looks like it is going along with the same logic, but if you read carefully, it says 'its an established fact'.
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20 Aug 2004, 07:20
B is not the answer. Give it another shot, remember its a except question.
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20 Aug 2004, 08:35
Bhai wrote:
A?

You are right Bhai. I totally did not see the EXCEPT question . A's reasoning is If A then B, since A then B. This is opposite to all other answers which are If A then B, since B then A
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Paul

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21 Aug 2004, 16:17
good question
I also missed (poor attentiveness will kill ya) that this is an except question at first. A seems to be the only when to go against the flow established in the original statement by saying: a leads to b
if a then must be b
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21 Aug 2004, 22:57
Geethu wrote:
SigEpUCI wrote:
The argument pushes forth a premise.

A -> B

and assumes B to conlude A. this is invalid

in E, None of the so-called Western democracies is really democratic, because, for a country to be democratic, the opinion of each of its citizens must have a meaningful effect on government, and in none of these countries does each citizen's opinion have such an effect.

Democratic -> opinon of all

and says NOT option hence NOT democratic.

E. is actually valid, and is not a flawed argument.

E

Was struggling betwen D and E and chose D.
But after reading these explanations, SigEpUCI seems right.
=> Other answer choices including question stem seem to say
"Statement 1: A causes B. Statement 2: Since B has happened, A should've happened"
[B happens to be negative in C and D, but is maintained negative in both Statement1 and Statement2]

=> Only E says
"Statement 1: A causes B. Statement 2: Since A did NOT happen, B did not happen"
21 Aug 2004, 22:57
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