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Math Expert V
Joined: 02 Sep 2009
Posts: 60622
In a group of 10 people, the median height is 70 inches, the average  [#permalink]

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Difficulty:   65% (hard)

Question Stats: 45% (01:44) correct 55% (01:20) wrong based on 55 sessions

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In a group of 10 people, the median height is 70 inches, the average (arithmetic mean) height is 70.5 inches, and the range of the heights is 12 inches. If an additional person who is 74 inches tall joins the group, which of the three statistics must change?

A. Average only
B. Median only
C. Range only
D. Average and median
E. Average and range

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Senior Manager  G
Joined: 16 Feb 2015
Posts: 259
Location: United States
Concentration: Finance, Operations
Re: In a group of 10 people, the median height is 70 inches, the average  [#permalink]

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Bunuel wrote:
In a group of 10 people, the median height is 70 inches, the average (arithmetic mean) height is 70.5 inches, and the range of the heights is 12 inches. If an additional person who is 74 inches tall joins the group, which of the three statistics must change?

A. Average only
B. Median only
C. Range only
D. Average and median
E. Average and range

Explanation:

Median for 10 people = 70
Means 2 person in the middle is having average = 70
So it can be same height also, i.e. 70, 70 or more values
as another person with Height 74 is added in a group of 10 people, so Median will be 6th person in the group when the height is in ascending.
So it can be or cannot be changed.

The average must be changed.

Range, Highest - lowest in Height, will not be affected.

IMO-A
Intern  B
Joined: 26 Nov 2019
Posts: 2
Location: Sweden
Concentration: Finance, Accounting
GMAT 1: 660 Q40 V40 GPA: 3.6
Re: In a group of 10 people, the median height is 70 inches, the average  [#permalink]

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This is my reasoning, please correct me if I am wrong! In a set of a odd number of integers the median will always be an integers as the middle number will be an integer, hence the median can not stay the same if it started out as a rational (70,5). The average must change unless the added number happens to correspond to the current average, in this question that is NOT the case, as such the average needs to change. As no alternative includes all three alternatives we need not consider the range. The range only has to change if the extreme values changes, in this case we do not have any information that regarding the extreme values thus we can not with certainty say that the range has changes.
Target Test Prep Representative V
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Re: In a group of 10 people, the median height is 70 inches, the average  [#permalink]

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2
Bunuel wrote:
In a group of 10 people, the median height is 70 inches, the average (arithmetic mean) height is 70.5 inches, and the range of the heights is 12 inches. If an additional person who is 74 inches tall joins the group, which of the three statistics must change?

A. Average only
B. Median only
C. Range only
D. Average and median
E. Average and range

Since the additional person’s height (74 in.) is not the same as the average height (70.5 in.), the new average height must differ from the original average height.

The original median height is the average height of the 5th and 6th tallest people, and the new median height is the height of the 6th tallest person. However, if the 5th and 6th tallest people have the same height, the new median height will be the same as the original median height.

If the additional person is not taller than the tallest person or shorter than the shortest person in the group of 10 people (i.e., his or her height is somewhere in the middle of the pack), the range will not change.

Thus, the only statistic that must change is the average.

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Manager  G
Joined: 20 Aug 2017
Posts: 104
Re: In a group of 10 people, the median height is 70 inches, the average  [#permalink]

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Since mean and median are different, so we know that this is NOT an evenly spaced set.

There are 10 people

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

Now, we know that the range is 12 so the smallest term is X and the largest term is X+12.

Median = $$\frac{a_5 + a_6}{2} = 70$$

=$$a_5 + a_6 = 140$$

We take $$a_5$$ and $$a_6$$ as close as possible so we get $$a_5 = a_6 = 70$$

Our set as of now looks like

_ _ _ _ 70 70 _ _ _ _

When 74 is added the median changes from $$\frac{a_5 + a_6}{2}$$ to $$a_6 = 70$$

The median remains the same, but since a new term is added , which is far away from 70.5 , the average will change. We need to check if the range changes or not because if (smallest integer < 74 < greatest integer), then the range remains same else the range changes as well.

We are given that the average = 70.5 so Sum = 705 $$(70.5 \times 10)$$

Now we need to take 2 integers such that there is a difference of 12 between the two. Let's take the two integers as 64 and 76.

Till here, our set looks like

64 _ _ _ 70 70 _ _ _ 76

Let's maximize the value of 76 so that our set looks like

64 _ _ _ 70 70 76 76 76 76

We need to fill the 3 gaps and the remaining sum is $$705 - 76 \times 4 - 140 - 64 = 197$$
We will distribute 197 in the remaining three gaps such that each number is less than 69.

64 65 65 67 70 70 76 76 76 76

Now, if we add 74 to this set, the updated set becomes

64 65 65 67 70 70 74 76 76 76 76

The median, range remains same but the average changes.

Now, is it possible to take a number outside the range.

What if our set is

61 _ _ _ 70 70 _ _ _ 73

In this case is it possible to reach the sum 705? Let's check, we maximize the values so that our set looks like

61 70 70 70 70 70 73 73 73 73

The sum of this set becomes 703 so we need 2 extra and the way to do that is changing our smallest integer to 62 and largest integer as 74.
Now, when we add another 74 to the list the range will not change.

Hence, only the average changes.

OA, A

Bunuel wrote:
In a group of 10 people, the median height is 70 inches, the average (arithmetic mean) height is 70.5 inches, and the range of the heights is 12 inches. If an additional person who is 74 inches tall joins the group, which of the three statistics must change?

A. Average only
B. Median only
C. Range only
D. Average and median
E. Average and range
Senior Manager  G
Joined: 31 Jan 2019
Posts: 277
Location: Switzerland
Concentration: General Management
GPA: 3.9
In a group of 10 people, the median height is 70 inches, the average  [#permalink]

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In a group of 10 people, the median height is 70 inches, the average (arithmetic mean) height is 70.5 inches, and the range of the heights is 12 inches. If an additional person who is 74 inches tall joins the group, which of the three statistics must change?

Statistic question

Let's go in order.
The median does not necessarily changes as element 6 and element 7 could be identical.
The average must change since the new element introduced is higher than the original average.
Lastly, the range could also not chance as the highest element possible is higher than 74.

POE:

A. Average only
B. Median only
C. Range only
D. Average and median
E. Average and range[/quote]
Intern  B
Joined: 19 Nov 2018
Posts: 4
Location: Italy
Schools: IESE '22
Re: In a group of 10 people, the median height is 70 inches, the average  [#permalink]

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why the 5th and 6th terms cannot be 69 and 71 inches? Re: In a group of 10 people, the median height is 70 inches, the average   [#permalink] 06 Jan 2020, 15:07
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