Hussain15 wrote:
In a village of 100 households, 75 have at least one DVD player, 80 have at least one cell phone, and 55 have at least one MP3 player. If x and y are respectively the greatest and lowest possible number of households that have all three of these devices, x – y is:
A. 65
B. 55
C. 45
D. 35
E. 25
A more algebraic approach:
If we denote by \(N_2\) the number of households with exactly two types of devices, and by \(N_3\) the number of those with all three types, than we can write the following equation:
\(100=75+80+55-N_2-2N_3,\) from which we get that \(N_2+2N_3=110.\)
Households with exactly two types of devices we counted twice, so we have to subtract them once. Households with exactly three types of devices we counted three times, therefore we have to remove them twice.
Maximum for \(N_3\) is 55, in which case \(N_2=0\), meaning there are no households with exactly two types of devices, but only either with just one type or all three of them. Everybody who has an MP3 player, also has a DVD player and a cell phone.
In order to determine the minimum number of households with exactly three types of devices, let's take a look at the possible combinations of two devices. If \(N_3\) is minimum, there should be households with exactly two types of devices but not three.
All types of devices, but also those having exactly two types, explicitly DVD players and Cell Phones - If \(N_{DC}\) is the number of households that have exactly these two types of devices, then \(N_{DC}+N_3\geq75+80-100=55\).
All types of devices, but also those having exactly two types, explicitly DVD players and MP3 players - If \(N_{DM}\) is the number of households that have exactly these two types of devices, then \(N_{DM}+N_3\geq75+55-100=30\).
All types of devices, but also those having exactly two types, explicitly Cell phone and MP3 players - If \(N_{CM}\) is the number of households that have exactly these two types of devices, then \(N_{CM}+N_3\geq80+55-100=35\).
Adding the above three inequalities, we obtain that \(N_{DC}+N_{DM}+N_{CM}+3N_3\geq120.\) Since \(N_{DC}+N_{DM}+N_{CM}=N_2\), we get that \(N_2+3N_3\geq120.\) Taking into account that \(N_2+2N_3=110\), we obtain \(110+N_3\geq{120}\) or \(N_3\geq{10}.\)
\(55-10=45\)
Answer C
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