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# In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the motion

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Director
Status: Verbal Forum Moderator
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In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the motion  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 27 Jun 2015, 07:40
1
In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the motion of each planet in the solar system results from the combined gravitational pull of the Sun and of all the other planets, each contributing according to their mass and distance from the others.

A. of all the other planets, each contributing according to their
B. of all the other planets, with each of them contributing according to their
C. all the other planets, each of which contributing according to its
D. all the other planets, each contributing according to its
E. all the other planets, each of which contribute according to their

__________________________________________________________________

Option C is incorrect, but I am trying to dig deeper into this option.

This option is debated on various forums -
C. all the other planets, each of which contributing according to its

Some Author says that which must be followed by a verb and contributing is participial not verb, but my questions if instead of this Option C would have used a bonafide verb then would this option be true? Because in that case it will be case of run on sentence. IC, IC. I belive even then this would a wrong option because of structure - IC, IC.

IC: Independent Clause

_______________________________________________

N.B. Official explanation : The use of the participle contributing makes this ungrammatical
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Originally posted by honchos on 27 Jun 2015, 02:21.
Last edited by honchos on 27 Jun 2015, 07:40, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the motion  [#permalink]

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27 Jun 2015, 03:52
1
honchos wrote:
In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the motion of each planet in the solar system results from the combined gravitational pull of the Sun and of all the other planets, each contributing according to their mass and distance from the others.

A. of all the other planets, each contributing according to their
B. of all the other planets, with each of them contributing according to their
C. all the other planets, each of which contributing according to its
D. all the other planets, each contributing according to its
E. all the other planets, each of which contribute according to their

__________________________________________________________________

Option C is incorrect, but I am trying to dig deeper into this option.

This option is debated on various forums -
C. all the other planets, each of which contributing according to its

Some Author says that which must be followed by a verb and contributing is participial not verb, but my questions if instead of this Option C would have used a bonafide verb then would this option be true? Because in that case it will be case of run on sentence. IC, DC. I belive even then this would a wrong option because of structure - IC, DC.

IC: Independent Clause
DC: Dependent Clause

_______________________________________________

N.B. Official explanation : The use of the participle contributing makes this ungrammatical

In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the motion of each planet in the solar system results from the combined gravitational pull of the Sun and of all the other planets, each contributing according to their mass and distance from the others.

A. of all the other planets, each contributing according to their
B. of all the other planets, with each of them contributing according to their
C. all the other planets, each of which contributing according to its
D. all the other planets, each contributing according to its - OA
E. all the other planets, each of which contribute according to their

In option C, 'which' should be followed by a verb. This is missing in option C and therefore, it is incorrect. This is correctly pointed by 'honchos'

But, this will not make ' each of which contributing according to its mass and distance from the others ' a dependent clause. I don't see a ' subordinator' here that can make a clause dependent.

According to me, it is a modifier

If any expert can comment further.
Magoosh GMAT Instructor
Joined: 28 Dec 2011
Posts: 4666
Re: In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the motion  [#permalink]

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01 Jul 2015, 10:34
3
1
honchos wrote:
In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the motion of each planet in the solar system results from the combined gravitational pull of the Sun and of all the other planets, each contributing according to their mass and distance from the others.

A. of all the other planets, each contributing according to their
B. of all the other planets, with each of them contributing according to their
C. all the other planets, each of which contributing according to its
D. all the other planets, each contributing according to its
E. all the other planets, each of which contribute according to their

Option C is incorrect, but I am trying to dig deeper into this option.

This option is debated on various forums -
C. all the other planets, each of which contributing according to its

Some Author says that which must be followed by a verb and contributing is participial not verb, but my questions if instead of this Option C would have used a bonafide verb then would this option be true? Because in that case it will be case of run on sentence. IC, IC. I believe even then this would a wrong option because of structure - IC, IC.

Dear honchos,

I'm happy to respond. First of all, I will request that, when you post a question, you always cite the source. I had to do a bit of searching on the web to determine that this is a GMATPrep question. It's a courtesy to provide that information when you post the question.

This question gets into what MGMAT likes to call "Subgroup Modifiers." First of all, a few grammar basics. I will adopt your abbreviations:
IC = independent clause
DC = dependent clause or subordinate clause
As you know, if a sentence has IC, IC, it's run-on: it needs a conjunction to join IC's.
You seem confused on the IC/DC distinction. A DC begins with either a subordinate conjunction or a relative pronoun/adverb. The principal subordinate conjunctions follow the "ON A WHITE BUS" pattern, discussed here:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/top-six-gm ... orrection/
Most of the relative pronouns & adverbs double as interrogative words: who, what, which, why, when, where, why, whose, whom. The word "that", among its many other uses, is also a relative pronoun.
When "that" or "which" or "who" or etc. is followed by a verb, that is a bonafide DC. On the one hand, a DC is a totally legitimate clause and needs a subject and a full verb: a participle is not going to do. On the other hand, the structure IC DC is NOT a run-on sentence. The relative pronoun "that" or "which" or "who" acts as the subject of the DC.
Now, in the "subgroup modifier" case, we still have a bonafide DC. Here, we get constructions such as
some of which
most of which
many of which
none of which
each of which
, etc.
This is a sophisticated structure, and even though the "which" is hidden in the prepositional phrase, it still begins a full bonafide DC. That's what we would have if we changed the participle in (C) to a full verb.

C. all the other planets, each of which contributing according to its = a classic GMAT SC mistake pattern!! [relative pronoun] + [participle] --- this is 100% wrong and people always fall for it! Once again, "which" is a relative pronoun and begins a DC, and like any clause, a DC demands a full verb, not a participle.
C2. all the other planets, each of which contributes according to its = perfectly correct
D. all the other planets, each contributing according to its = perfectly correct

These issues get even a little more complicated with absolute phrases. See question #2 at:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2013/absolute-p ... -the-gmat/

Does all this make sense?
Mike
_________________

Mike McGarry
Magoosh Test Prep

Education is not the filling of a pail, but the lighting of a fire. — William Butler Yeats (1865 – 1939)

Director
Status: Verbal Forum Moderator
Joined: 17 Apr 2013
Posts: 532
Location: India
GMAT 1: 710 Q50 V36
GMAT 2: 750 Q51 V41
GMAT 3: 790 Q51 V49
GPA: 3.3
Re: In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the motion  [#permalink]

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01 Jul 2015, 11:04
mikemcgarry wrote:
honchos wrote:
In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the motion of each planet in the solar system results from the combined gravitational pull of the Sun and of all the other planets, each contributing according to their mass and distance from the others.

A. of all the other planets, each contributing according to their
B. of all the other planets, with each of them contributing according to their
C. all the other planets, each of which contributing according to its
D. all the other planets, each contributing according to its
E. all the other planets, each of which contribute according to their

Option C is incorrect, but I am trying to dig deeper into this option.

This option is debated on various forums -
C. all the other planets, each of which contributing according to its

Some Author says that which must be followed by a verb and contributing is participial not verb, but my questions if instead of this Option C would have used a bonafide verb then would this option be true? Because in that case it will be case of run on sentence. IC, IC. I believe even then this would a wrong option because of structure - IC, IC.

Dear honchos,

I'm happy to respond. First of all, I will request that, when you post a question, you always cite the source. I had to do a bit of searching on the web to determine that this is a GMATPrep question. It's a courtesy to provide that information when you post the question.

This question gets into what MGMAT likes to call "Subgroup Modifiers." First of all, a few grammar basics. I will adopt your abbreviations:
IC = independent clause
DC = dependent clause or subordinate clause
As you know, if a sentence has IC, IC, it's run-on: it needs a conjunction to join IC's.
You seem confused on the IC/DC distinction. A DC begins with either a subordinate conjunction or a relative pronoun/adverb. The principal subordinate conjunctions follow the "ON A WHITE BUS" pattern, discussed here:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/top-six-gm ... orrection/
Most of the relative pronouns & adverbs double as interrogative words: who, what, which, why, when, where, why, whose, whom. The word "that", among its many other uses, is also a relative pronoun.
When "that" or "which" or "who" or etc. is followed by a verb, that is a bonafide DC. On the one hand, a DC is a totally legitimate clause and needs a subject and a full verb: a participle is not going to do. On the other hand, the structure IC DC is NOT a run-on sentence. The relative pronoun "that" or "which" or "who" acts as the subject of the DC.
Now, in the "subgroup modifier" case, we still have a bonafide DC. Here, we get constructions such as
some of which
most of which
many of which
none of which
each of which
, etc.
This is a sophisticated structure, and even though the "which" is hidden in the prepositional phrase, it still begins a full bonafide DC. That's what we would have if we changed the participle in (C) to a full verb.

C. all the other planets, each of which contributing according to its = a classic GMAT SC mistake pattern!! [relative pronoun] + [participle] --- this is 100% wrong and people always fall for it! Once again, "which" is a relative pronoun and begins a DC, and like any clause, a DC demands a full verb, not a participle.
C2. all the other planets, each of which contributes according to its = perfectly correct
D. all the other planets, each contributing according to its = perfectly correct

These issues get even a little more complicated with absolute phrases. See question #2 at:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2013/absolute-p ... -the-gmat/

Does all this make sense?
Mike

Thank you so much this is a Killer Line - When "that" or "which" or "who" or etc. is followed by a verb,

In future if i post any doubt I will make sure that I mention the question source. Thank you once again. All this is going to my Notebook.
_________________

Like my post Send me a Kudos It is a Good manner.
My Debrief: http://gmatclub.com/forum/how-to-score-750-and-750-i-moved-from-710-to-189016.html

Current Student
Joined: 28 Nov 2014
Posts: 887
Concentration: Strategy
Schools: Fisher '19 (M)
GPA: 3.71
In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the motion  [#permalink]

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01 Jul 2015, 11:27
mikemcgarry wrote:
honchos wrote:
In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the motion of each planet in the solar system results from the combined gravitational pull of the Sun and of all the other planets, each contributing according to their mass and distance from the others.

A. of all the other planets, each contributing according to their
B. of all the other planets, with each of them contributing according to their
C. all the other planets, each of which contributing according to its
D. all the other planets, each contributing according to its
E. all the other planets, each of which contribute according to their

Option C is incorrect, but I am trying to dig deeper into this option.

This option is debated on various forums -
C. all the other planets, each of which contributing according to its

Some Author says that which must be followed by a verb and contributing is participial not verb, but my questions if instead of this Option C would have used a bonafide verb then would this option be true? Because in that case it will be case of run on sentence. IC, IC. I believe even then this would a wrong option because of structure - IC, IC.

Dear honchos,

I'm happy to respond. First of all, I will request that, when you post a question, you always cite the source. I had to do a bit of searching on the web to determine that this is a GMATPrep question. It's a courtesy to provide that information when you post the question.

This question gets into what MGMAT likes to call "Subgroup Modifiers." First of all, a few grammar basics. I will adopt your abbreviations:
IC = independent clause
DC = dependent clause or subordinate clause
As you know, if a sentence has IC, IC, it's run-on: it needs a conjunction to join IC's.
You seem confused on the IC/DC distinction. A DC begins with either a subordinate conjunction or a relative pronoun/adverb. The principal subordinate conjunctions follow the "ON A WHITE BUS" pattern, discussed here:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/top-six-gm ... orrection/
Most of the relative pronouns & adverbs double as interrogative words: who, what, which, why, when, where, why, whose, whom. The word "that", among its many other uses, is also a relative pronoun.
When "that" or "which" or "who" or etc. is followed by a verb, that is a bonafide DC. On the one hand, a DC is a totally legitimate clause and needs a subject and a full verb: a participle is not going to do. On the other hand, the structure IC DC is NOT a run-on sentence. The relative pronoun "that" or "which" or "who" acts as the subject of the DC.
Now, in the "subgroup modifier" case, we still have a bonafide DC. Here, we get constructions such as
some of which
most of which
many of which
none of which
each of which
, etc.
This is a sophisticated structure, and even though the "which" is hidden in the prepositional phrase, it still begins a full bonafide DC. That's what we would have if we changed the participle in (C) to a full verb.

C. all the other planets, each of which contributing according to its = a classic GMAT SC mistake pattern!! [relative pronoun] + [participle] --- this is 100% wrong and people always fall for it! Once again, "which" is a relative pronoun and begins a DC, and like any clause, a DC demands a full verb, not a participle.
C2. all the other planets, each of which contributes according to its = perfectly correct
D. all the other planets, each contributing according to its = perfectly correct

These issues get even a little more complicated with absolute phrases. See question #2 at:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2013/absolute-p ... -the-gmat/

Does all this make sense?
Mike

Thank You Mr. Mike (@mikemcgarry) for the prompt response

I have a question. I agree that this is a case of Sub Group Modifier and the construction followed in choice C is a classic trap.

I'd like to ask you a question here. The construction followed if I substitute a verb in choice is a IC, DC and not a IC DC.

Option C: all the other planets , each of which contributes according to its

You said IC DC is perfectly acceptable but I see that the cases here is IC, DC

Please if you can help me with this.

Thanks!
Magoosh GMAT Instructor
Joined: 28 Dec 2011
Posts: 4666
Re: In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the motion  [#permalink]

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01 Jul 2015, 16:43
anewbeginning wrote:
Thank You Mr. Mike (@mikemcgarry) for the prompt response

I have a question. I agree that this is a case of Sub Group Modifier and the construction followed in choice C is a classic trap.

I'd like to ask you a question here. The construction followed if I substitute a verb in choice is a IC, DC and not a IC DC.

Option C: all the other planets , each of which contributes according to its

You said IC DC is perfectly acceptable but I see that the cases here is IC, DC

Please if you can help me with this.

Thanks!

Dear anewbeginning,
I'm happy to respond to your question. Here's what I'll say:
BIG IDEA: The GMAT SC does NOT test punctuation!
It's important to appreciate this idea at a deep level. The question you are asking is never a question the GMAT would ask of you.

Now, in this case, what is the "comma" rule for the relationship between an IC and a DC? There isn't any!! It's purely contextual. One rule you may find helpful is the distinction between vital & non-vital modifiers:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/that-vs-which-on-the-gmat/
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/gmat-gramm ... modifiers/
That's important to know, but aside from that, each cases is different. The "which" clause always is separated by a comma from the main clause, so subgroup modifiers involving "which" tend to follow this same pattern. This is most certainly not emblematic for the relationship between all ICs and DCs.

My friend, the very best way to develop intuition for this is to read. Over and above any GMAT preparation, you need to read. See this blog article:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2014/how-to-imp ... bal-score/

Does all this make sense?
Mike
_________________

Mike McGarry
Magoosh Test Prep

Education is not the filling of a pail, but the lighting of a fire. — William Butler Yeats (1865 – 1939)

Current Student
Joined: 28 Nov 2014
Posts: 887
Concentration: Strategy
Schools: Fisher '19 (M)
GPA: 3.71
Re: In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the motion  [#permalink]

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04 Jul 2015, 04:22
mikemcgarry wrote:
anewbeginning wrote:
Thank You Mr. Mike (@mikemcgarry) for the prompt response

I have a question. I agree that this is a case of Sub Group Modifier and the construction followed in choice C is a classic trap.

I'd like to ask you a question here. The construction followed if I substitute a verb in choice is a IC, DC and not a IC DC.

Option C: all the other planets , each of which contributes according to its

You said IC DC is perfectly acceptable but I see that the cases here is IC, DC

Please if you can help me with this.

Thanks!

Dear anewbeginning,
I'm happy to respond to your question. Here's what I'll say:
BIG IDEA: The GMAT SC does NOT test punctuation!
It's important to appreciate this idea at a deep level. The question you are asking is never a question the GMAT would ask of you.

Now, in this case, what is the "comma" rule for the relationship between an IC and a DC? There isn't any!! It's purely contextual. One rule you may find helpful is the distinction between vital & non-vital modifiers:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/that-vs-which-on-the-gmat/
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/gmat-gramm ... modifiers/
That's important to know, but aside from that, each cases is different. The "which" clause always is separated by a comma from the main clause, so subgroup modifiers involving "which" tend to follow this same pattern. This is most certainly not emblematic for the relationship between all ICs and DCs.

My friend, the very best way to develop intuition for this is to read. Over and above any GMAT preparation, you need to read. See this blog article:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2014/how-to-imp ... bal-score/

Does all this make sense?
Mike

I see thanks Sir !
Intern
Joined: 06 Mar 2012
Posts: 19
Schools: Booth '15
In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the motion  [#permalink]

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30 Sep 2017, 18:01
mikemcgarry wrote:
honchos wrote:
In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the motion of each planet in the solar system results from the combined gravitational pull of the Sun and of all the other planets, each contributing according to their mass and distance from the others.

A. of all the other planets, each contributing according to their
B. of all the other planets, with each of them contributing according to their
C. all the other planets, each of which contributing according to its
D. all the other planets, each contributing according to its
E. all the other planets, each of which contribute according to their

Option C is incorrect, but I am trying to dig deeper into this option.

This option is debated on various forums -
C. all the other planets, each of which contributing according to its

Some Author says that which must be followed by a verb and contributing is participial not verb, but my questions if instead of this Option C would have used a bonafide verb then would this option be true? Because in that case it will be case of run on sentence. IC, IC. I believe even then this would a wrong option because of structure - IC, IC.

Dear honchos,

I'm happy to respond. First of all, I will request that, when you post a question, you always cite the source. I had to do a bit of searching on the web to determine that this is a GMATPrep question. It's a courtesy to provide that information when you post the question.

This question gets into what MGMAT likes to call "Subgroup Modifiers." First of all, a few grammar basics. I will adopt your abbreviations:
IC = independent clause
DC = dependent clause or subordinate clause
As you know, if a sentence has IC, IC, it's run-on: it needs a conjunction to join IC's.
You seem confused on the IC/DC distinction. A DC begins with either a subordinate conjunction or a relative pronoun/adverb. The principal subordinate conjunctions follow the "ON A WHITE BUS" pattern, discussed here:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/top-six-gm ... orrection/
Most of the relative pronouns & adverbs double as interrogative words: who, what, which, why, when, where, why, whose, whom. The word "that", among its many other uses, is also a relative pronoun.
When "that" or "which" or "who" or etc. is followed by a verb, that is a bonafide DC. On the one hand, a DC is a totally legitimate clause and needs a subject and a full verb: a participle is not going to do. On the other hand, the structure IC DC is NOT a run-on sentence. The relative pronoun "that" or "which" or "who" acts as the subject of the DC.
Now, in the "subgroup modifier" case, we still have a bonafide DC. Here, we get constructions such as
some of which
most of which
many of which
none of which
each of which
, etc.
This is a sophisticated structure, and even though the "which" is hidden in the prepositional phrase, it still begins a full bonafide DC. That's what we would have if we changed the participle in (C) to a full verb.

C. all the other planets, each of which contributing according to its = a classic GMAT SC mistake pattern!! [relative pronoun] + [participle] --- this is 100% wrong and people always fall for it! Once again, "which" is a relative pronoun and begins a DC, and like any clause, a DC demands a full verb, not a participle.
C2. all the other planets, each of which contributes according to its = perfectly correct
D. all the other planets, each contributing according to its = perfectly correct

These issues get even a little more complicated with absolute phrases. See question #2 at:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2013/absolute-p ... -the-gmat/

Does all this make sense?
Mike

mikemcgarry:

How about E? ...each of which contribute according to their.....here 'contribute' is plural and 'their' is plural. This follows the 'sub group modifier' rule of MGMAT. The verb tense is decided by what comes after the 'of which' ....
Magoosh GMAT Instructor
Joined: 28 Dec 2011
Posts: 4666
Re: In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the motion  [#permalink]

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03 Oct 2017, 09:36
1
divyakesharwani wrote:
mikemcgarry:

How about E? ...each of which contribute according to their.....here 'contribute' is plural and 'their' is plural. This follows the 'sub group modifier' rule of MGMAT. The verb tense is decided by what comes after the 'of which' ....

Dear divyakesharwani,

I'm happy to respond.

Choice (E) is tricky--it has a subtle SVA error. With all due respect, my friend, I believe you are misinterpreting the MGMAT rules. When "which" is the object of a preposition, it can't be a subject, so some other word, often an indefinite pronoun, has to be the subject.

Here, the pronoun "each" is the subject of the verb and this pronoun is ALWAYS singular. See:
GMAT Sentence Correction: Indefinite Pronouns and Agreement

Thus, even though the plural verb and the plural pronoun after the verb agree, they both disagree with the singular subject.
(E) all the other planets, each of which contribute according to their
The correct version would be:
(E1) all the other planets, each of which contributes according to its

Does all this make sense?
Mike
_________________

Mike McGarry
Magoosh Test Prep

Education is not the filling of a pail, but the lighting of a fire. — William Butler Yeats (1865 – 1939)

Intern
Joined: 06 Mar 2012
Posts: 19
Schools: Booth '15
Re: In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the motion  [#permalink]

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03 Oct 2017, 14:42
mikemcgarry wrote:
divyakesharwani wrote:
mikemcgarry:

How about E? ...each of which contribute according to their.....here 'contribute' is plural and 'their' is plural. This follows the 'sub group modifier' rule of MGMAT. The verb tense is decided by what comes after the 'of which' ....

Dear divyakesharwani,

I'm happy to respond.

Choice (E) is tricky--it has a subtle SVA error. With all due respect, my friend, I believe you are misinterpreting the MGMAT rules. When "which" is the object of a preposition, it can't be a subject, so some other word, often an indefinite pronoun, has to be the subject.

Here, the pronoun "each" is the subject of the verb and this pronoun is ALWAYS singular. See:
GMAT Sentence Correction: Indefinite Pronouns and Agreement

Thus, even though the plural verb and the plural pronoun after the verb agree, they both disagree with the singular subject.
(E) all the other planets, each of which contribute according to their
The correct version would be:
(E1) all the other planets, each of which contributes according to its

Does all this make sense?
Mike

Hi mikemcgarry: It does. Thanks much for the help.
Re: In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the motion &nbs [#permalink] 03 Oct 2017, 14:42
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