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In mountainous regions, the timberline is the highest altitude at whic

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In mountainous regions, the timberline is the highest altitude at whic  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Feb 2019, 12:32
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In mountainous regions, the timberline is the highest altitude at which trees grow. In the Rocky Mountains, the current timberline is at the altitude above which growing season temperatures remain cooler than 10 degrees centigrade. Fossilized remains of trees that grew 10,000 years ago have been found 100 meters above the current Rocky Mountain timberline. Clearly, therefore, the climate of the Rocky Mountains is cooler now than it was 10,000 years ago.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument relies?

A. In the past 10,000 years, the only trees to have grown above today's timberline are the trees whose fossilized remains been found.
B. No trees grew 10,000 years ago at altitudes higher than the ones at which fossilized tree remains have been found.
C. The fossils are not of species of trees that were able to tolerate cooler growing temperatures than are the species that currently grow near the timberline.
D. The Rocky Mountains have not eroded significantly over the past 10,000 years.
E. The climate of the Rocky Mountains has never been significantly warmer than during the lifetime of the trees whose fossilized remains have been found.

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Re: In mountainous regions, the timberline is the highest altitude at whic  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Feb 2019, 22:18
carcass wrote:
In mountainous regions, the timberline is the highest altitude at which trees grow. In the Rocky Mountains, the current timberline is at the altitude above which growing season temperatures remain cooler than 10 degrees centigrade. Fossilized remains of trees that grew 10,000 years ago have been found 100 meters above the current Rocky Mountain timberline. Clearly, therefore, the climate of the Rocky Mountains is cooler now than it was 10,000 years ago.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument relies?

A. In the past 10,000 years, the only trees to have grown above today's timberline are the trees whose fossilized remains been found.
B. No trees grew 10,000 years ago at altitudes higher than the ones at which fossilized tree remains have been found.
C. The fossils are not of species of trees that were able to tolerate cooler growing temperatures than are the species that currently grow near the timberline.
D. The Rocky Mountains have not eroded significantly over the past 10,000 years.
E. The climate of the Rocky Mountains has never been significantly warmer than during the lifetime of the trees whose fossilized remains have been found.


Conclusion: The climate of the Rocky Mountains is cooler now than it was 10,000 years ago


A. In the past 10,000 years, the only trees to have grown above today's timberline are the trees whose fossilized remains been found.
Too specific -> Out

B. No trees grew 10,000 years ago at altitudes higher than the ones at which fossilized tree remains have been found.
Let me negate this
Some tress grew 10,000 years ago at altitudes higher than the ones at which fossilized tree remains have been found.
This is open ended.

C. The fossils are not of species of trees that were able to tolerate cooler growing temperatures than are the species that currently grow near the timberline.
This actually weakens the conclusion, if they fossils were of species that were able to tolerate cooler growing temperatures, this means that it wasn't that cold as anticipated
Answer

D. The Rocky Mountains have not eroded significantly over the past 10,000 years.
Rocky Mountains -> Irrelevant to this argument

E. The climate of the Rocky Mountains has never been significantly warmer than during the lifetime of the trees whose fossilized remains have been found.
climate has been warmer(after negation), doesn't talk about the contribution of the tress in that time period.
Its more like a general statement.
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Re: In mountainous regions, the timberline is the highest altitude at whic  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Nov 2019, 15:39
KanishkM wrote:
carcass wrote:
In mountainous regions, the timberline is the highest altitude at which trees grow. In the Rocky Mountains, the current timberline is at the altitude above which growing season temperatures remain cooler than 10 degrees centigrade. Fossilized remains of trees that grew 10,000 years ago have been found 100 meters above the current Rocky Mountain timberline. Clearly, therefore, the climate of the Rocky Mountains is cooler now than it was 10,000 years ago.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument relies?

A. In the past 10,000 years, the only trees to have grown above today's timberline are the trees whose fossilized remains been found.
B. No trees grew 10,000 years ago at altitudes higher than the ones at which fossilized tree remains have been found.
C. The fossils are not of species of trees that were able to tolerate cooler growing temperatures than are the species that currently grow near the timberline.
D. The Rocky Mountains have not eroded significantly over the past 10,000 years.
E. The climate of the Rocky Mountains has never been significantly warmer than during the lifetime of the trees whose fossilized remains have been found.


Conclusion: The climate of the Rocky Mountains is cooler now than it was 10,000 years ago


A. In the past 10,000 years, the only trees to have grown above today's timberline are the trees whose fossilized remains been found.
Too specific -> Out

B. No trees grew 10,000 years ago at altitudes higher than the ones at which fossilized tree remains have been found.
Let me negate this
Some tress grew 10,000 years ago at altitudes higher than the ones at which fossilized tree remains have been found.
This is open ended.

C. The fossils are not of species of trees that were able to tolerate cooler growing temperatures than are the species that currently grow near the timberline.
This actually weakens the conclusion, if they fossils were of species that were able to tolerate cooler growing temperatures, this means that it wasn't that cold as anticipated
Answer

D. The Rocky Mountains have not eroded significantly over the past 10,000 years.
Rocky Mountains -> Irrelevant to this argument

E. The climate of the Rocky Mountains has never been significantly warmer than during the lifetime of the trees whose fossilized remains have been found.
climate has been warmer(after negation), doesn't talk about the contribution of the tress in that time period.
Its more like a general statement.


but the passage tells us about rocky mountains---so why it irrelevant only for that word?
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Re: In mountainous regions, the timberline is the highest altitude at whic  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Nov 2019, 19:15
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carcass wrote:
In mountainous regions, the timberline is the highest altitude at which trees grow. In the Rocky Mountains, the current timberline is at the altitude above which growing season temperatures remain cooler than 10 degrees centigrade. Fossilized remains of trees that grew 10,000 years ago have been found 100 meters above the current Rocky Mountain timberline. Clearly, therefore, the climate of the Rocky Mountains is cooler now than it was 10,000 years ago.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument relies?

A. In the past 10,000 years, the only trees to have grown above today's timberline are the trees whose fossilized remains been found.
B. No trees grew 10,000 years ago at altitudes higher than the ones at which fossilized tree remains have been found.
C. The fossils are not of species of trees that were able to tolerate cooler growing temperatures than are the species that currently grow near the timberline.
D. The Rocky Mountains have not eroded significantly over the past 10,000 years.
E. The climate of the Rocky Mountains has never been significantly warmer than during the lifetime of the trees whose fossilized remains have been found.


Correct answer: C

A: Incorrect. The trees whose fossilized remains have been found need not be the only trees that had grown above today's timberline, since their existence alone is sufficient to advance the argument that the climate has cooled.
B: Incorrect. Similarly to (A), it is not material whether some trees grew at altitudes higher than the ones whose fossilized remains have been found. The existence of their fossilized remains alone suggests that the climate has cooled.
C: Correct. If the species of trees growing near the timberline 10,000 years ago could tolerate cooler temperatures, then the conclusion follows that they could have grown at higher altitudes at a climate temperature equal to the one today. In other words, a change in species, not a change in temperature, would have caused the reduction in the height of the timberline.
D: Incorrect. (D) is irrelevant: Accepting that the Rocky Mountains have eroded over the past 10,000 years, such erosion could have caused a cooling of the climate in the Rocky Mountains. Erosion of the Rocky Mountains is endogenous to any change in the climate.
E: Incorrect. (E) is irrelevant. Whether the Rocky Mountains' climate has ever been warmer is not material in order to determine that the presence of fossilized remains of trees that had grown above the current timberline is evidence that the climate has since cooled (as today's timberline is lower).
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Re: In mountainous regions, the timberline is the highest altitude at whic   [#permalink] 20 Nov 2019, 19:15
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