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In the summer of 1905, twenty-five Black intellectuals met at Niagara

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In the summer of 1905, twenty-five Black intellectuals met at Niagara  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Feb 2019, 21:44
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In the summer of 1905, twenty-five Black intellectuals met at Niagara Falls.They hoped to form a national organization that would battle all forms of segregation and discrimination and also oppose Booker T. Washington’s moderate and conciliatory policy. That policy, they felt, not only endangered Blacks’ rights but also inhibited protest. Opposed by Washington and all of his powerful friends, Black and White, the Niagara movement never enlisted the active support of more than a small group of Black leaders. Young Blacks who wanted to help the Black community felt that it was not politically wise to be associated with this new organization.
Booker T. Washington advocated hard work and political passivity: he argued that Blacks should devote their energies to getting rid of political agitators in their ranks and that they should always abide by the law of the land. Believing that hard work was the highest virtue, Washington urged Blacks to learn trades, and he established schools to make that possible. He assured them that if their work were perceived as indispensable to society, they would eventually achieve all the rights of citizenship. On the other hand, Niagara movement leader W. E. B. Du Bois wrote: “We claim for ourselves every single right that belongs to a free-born American - political, civil, and social; until we get these rights we will never cease to protest and assail the ears ofAmerica.” Washington and Du Bois became national symbols of, as well as the respective leaders of, these two mainstreams of Black thought.
Du Bois and his followers did not, for a long time, seriously encroach on Washington’s influence. But increasingly these more militant leaders forced Washington to concede his position as the sole Black spokesperson to the White community. Eventually Washington had to watch his own words and deeds carefully, for he had to reckon with reactions not only from the White community but from the Black community as well. Perhaps not surprisingly, by the time of his death in 1915, Washington’s position had moved noticeably toward that of his critics.
By the year 1910 the Niagara movement had ceased to be a serviceable organization. By this time, however, the stage was set for the founding of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), which became one of the principal organizations protesting racial discrimination in the Untied States.Though small and short-lived, the Niagara movement was important. It was the first organization founded to protest the way that Blacks had been treated since Reconstruction. It brought to open conflict and wide public debate two types of Black resistance, one stressing accommodation and the other urging overt protest. The Niagara movement’s strategy of active resistance to racial discrimination was later adopted by many organizations that sought to foster equal and just treatment for all people.
1. The primary purpose of the passage is to
(A) explain the reasons for the growth and success of the Niagara movement in the first decade of the twentieth century
(B) reveal the differences between the leadership techniques of W. E.B. Du Bois and those ofBooker T. Washington in the early 1900’s
(C) show the impact of Booker T. Washington’s views on Black political movements in the twentieth century
(D) discuss the nature of the Niagara movement and its historical role in the struggle for civil rights
(E) trace the origins of the NAACP and other political organizations to the Niagara movement


2. The author’s presentation of the material includes all of the following EXCEPT
(A) chronological arrangement of events
(B) comparison and contrast
(C) direct quotation
(D) statement of cause and effect
(E) development of an extended analogy


3. According to the passage, the strategy of W.E.B. Du Bois differed from the strategy of Booker T.Washington in that the strategy of Du Bois emphasized
(A) conciliation
(B) protest
(C) neutrality
(D) compromise
(E) caution


4. Which of the following statements about the Niagara movement does the passage best support?
(A) It opposed the idea that Black Americans should have to earn the inherent rights of citizenship through hard work
(B) It had a sudden impact on Washington’s ability to help Blacks achieve their rights
(C) It caused Washington to concede to his critics and adopt a more compliant position in relation toWhite society
(D) It was opposed by much of the White community, but supported by most of the Black community
(E) It was a Black organization that arose during the Reconstruction period


5. It can be inferred that the followers of W.E.B. Du Bois were interested in all of the following EXCEPT
(A) challenging Booker T. Washington’s pre-eminence as spokesperson for all Black Americans
(B) developing an organization controlled by a small group of prominent Black leaders
(C) opposing segregation, discrimination, and all other denials of Blacks’ political, civil or social rights
(D) protesting the policy of acquiescence in race relations
(E) increasing opportunities for Blacks to participate fully in American society


6. The passage contains information that would answer which of the following questions about the history of the Niagara movement?
I. How was Booker T. Washington’s policy of moderation affected by the Niagara movement?
II. Why, by the year 1910, had the Niagara movement ceased to serve its purpose?
III. In what respect might the NAACP be viewed as a successor of the Niagara movement?
(A) I only
(B) II only
(C) I and III only
(D) II and III only
(E) I, II, and III


7. Which of the following titles best summarizes the content of the passage?
(A) Booker T. Washington’s Strategy: Progress Through Education and Work
(B) The Niagara Movement: Early Advocate of Organized Black Resistance
(C) The History of Social Change in the Twentieth Century
(D) A History of Racial Protest Groups in Twentieth-Century America
(E) Black Leadership and Black Organizations

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Re: In the summer of 1905, twenty-five Black intellectuals met at Niagara  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Feb 2019, 04:15
Thanks for adding source, if source tag is not available for any particular source kindy write it at the very end of the question/passage.
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Re: In the summer of 1905, twenty-five Black intellectuals met at Niagara   [#permalink] 05 Feb 2019, 04:15
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In the summer of 1905, twenty-five Black intellectuals met at Niagara

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