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# In the summer of 1905, twenty-five Black intellectuals met at Niagara

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In the summer of 1905, twenty-five Black intellectuals met at Niagara  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 06 Oct 2019, 22:13
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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 240, Date : 31-Jul-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details

In the summer of 1905, twenty-five Black intellectuals met at Niagara Falls.They hoped to form a national organization that would battle all forms of segregation and discrimination and also oppose Booker T. Washington’s moderate and conciliatory policy. That policy, they felt, not only endangered Blacks’ rights but also inhibited protest. Opposed by Washington and all of his powerful friends, Black and White, the Niagara movement never enlisted the active support of more than a small group of Black leaders. Young Blacks who wanted to help the Black community felt that it was not politically wise to be associated with this new organization.

Booker T. Washington advocated hard work and political passivity: he argued that Blacks should devote their energies to getting rid of political agitators in their ranks and that they should always abide by the law of the land. Believing that hard work was the highest virtue, Washington urged Blacks to learn trades, and he established schools to make that possible. He assured them that if their work were perceived as indispensable to society, they would eventually achieve all the rights of citizenship. On the other hand, Niagara movement leader W. E. B. Du Bois wrote: “We claim for ourselves every single right that belongs to a free-born American - political, civil, and social; until we get these rights we will never cease to protest and assail the ears ofAmerica.” Washington and Du Bois became national symbols of, as well as the respective leaders of, these two mainstreams of Black thought.

Du Bois and his followers did not, for a long time, seriously encroach on Washington’s influence. But increasingly these more militant leaders forced Washington to concede his position as the sole Black spokesperson to the White community. Eventually Washington had to watch his own words and deeds carefully, for he had to reckon with reactions not only from the White community but from the Black community as well. Perhaps not surprisingly, by the time of his death in 1915, Washington’s position had moved noticeably toward that of his critics.

By the year 1910 the Niagara movement had ceased to be a serviceable organization. By this time, however, the stage was set for the founding of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), which became one of the principal organizations protesting racial discrimination in the Untied States.Though small and short-lived, the Niagara movement was important. It was the first organization founded to protest the way that Blacks had been treated since Reconstruction. It brought to open conflict and wide public debate two types of Black resistance, one stressing accommodation and the other urging overt protest. The Niagara movement’s strategy of active resistance to racial discrimination was later adopted by many organizations that sought to foster equal and just treatment for all people.

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) explain the reasons for the growth and success of the Niagara movement in the first decade of the twentieth century
(B) reveal the differences between the leadership techniques of W. E.B. Du Bois and those ofBooker T. Washington in the early 1900’s
(C) show the impact of Booker T. Washington’s views on Black political movements in the twentieth century
(D) discuss the nature of the Niagara movement and its historical role in the struggle for civil rights
(E) trace the origins of the NAACP and other political organizations to the Niagara movement

2. The author’s presentation of the material includes all of the following EXCEPT

(A) chronological arrangement of events
(B) comparison and contrast
(C) direct quotation
(D) statement of cause and effect
(E) development of an extended analogy

3. According to the passage, the strategy of W.E.B. Du Bois differed from the strategy of Booker T.Washington in that the strategy of Du Bois emphasized

(A) conciliation
(B) protest
(C) neutrality
(D) compromise
(E) caution

4. Which of the following statements about the Niagara movement does the passage best support?

(A) It opposed the idea that Black Americans should have to earn the inherent rights of citizenship through hard work
(B) It had a sudden impact on Washington’s ability to help Blacks achieve their rights
(C) It caused Washington to concede to his critics and adopt a more compliant position in relation toWhite society
(D) It was opposed by much of the White community, but supported by most of the Black community
(E) It was a Black organization that arose during the Reconstruction period

5. It can be inferred that the followers of W.E.B. Du Bois were interested in all of the following EXCEPT

(A) challenging Booker T. Washington’s pre-eminence as spokesperson for all Black Americans
(B) developing an organization controlled by a small group of prominent Black leaders
(C) opposing segregation, discrimination, and all other denials of Blacks’ political, civil or social rights
(D) protesting the policy of acquiescence in race relations
(E) increasing opportunities for Blacks to participate fully in American society

6. The passage contains information that would answer which of the following questions about the history of the Niagara movement?

I. How was Booker T. Washington’s policy of moderation affected by the Niagara movement?
II. Why, by the year 1910, had the Niagara movement ceased to serve its purpose?
III. In what respect might the NAACP be viewed as a successor of the Niagara movement?

(A) I only
(B) II only
(C) I and III only
(D) II and III only
(E) I, II, and III

7. Which of the following titles best summarizes the content of the passage?

(A) Booker T. Washington’s Strategy: Progress Through Education and Work
(B) The Niagara Movement: Early Advocate of Organized Black Resistance
(C) The History of Social Change in the Twentieth Century
(D) A History of Racial Protest Groups in Twentieth-Century America
(E) Black Leadership and Black Organizations

Originally posted by pathy on 04 Feb 2019, 21:44.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 06 Oct 2019, 22:13, edited 3 times in total.
Updated - Complete topic (817).
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Re: In the summer of 1905, twenty-five Black intellectuals met at Niagara  [#permalink]

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31 Jul 2019, 08:16
+1 Kudos to posts containing answer explanation of all questions
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Re: In the summer of 1905, twenty-five Black intellectuals met at Niagara  [#permalink]

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31 Jul 2019, 09:29
Please explain Question 2 since I thought the new Organisation is the extended version of the movement
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Re: In the summer of 1905, twenty-five Black intellectuals met at Niagara  [#permalink]

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01 Aug 2019, 23:07
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aaggarwal191 wrote:
Please explain Question 2 since I thought the new Organisation is the extended version of the movement

Yes, it's true that the new organization is the extended version of the movement, however there is no 'analogy' here. No where in the passage will you find an analogy either in explaining the events or in using the passage to explain another parallel event.
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Re: In the summer of 1905, twenty-five Black intellectuals met at Niagara  [#permalink]

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01 Aug 2019, 23:09
Can someone explain no. 4 .

I don't quite understand how option e is wrong. Is it that the formation of the organization was after Reconstruction period ?
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Re: In the summer of 1905, twenty-five Black intellectuals met at Niagara  [#permalink]

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02 Aug 2019, 21:26
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Hello navderm

Explanation

4. Which of the following statements about the Niagara movement does the passage best support?

Difficulty Level: 700

Explanation

After reading this passage i can say that this is a good piece of writing for GMAT Purpose, i don't know it source but pathy may help out in this regard. All questions are logically supported by the passage text. Coming to question number four. The OA option A states that

(A) It opposed the idea that Black Americans should have to earn the inherent rights of citizenship through hard work.

I didn't think the word opposed is justified by the passage, it is a bit extreme word with the reference to the passage. Passage didn't suggest that Niagara opposed rather their activities/motives leads to this opposition, so directly saying opposed is a bit off.

Now why A is correct and E is incorrect.

Read lines 20-23 in the passage which states a quotation of Niagara movement leader W. E. B. Du Bois

“We claim for ourselves every single right that belongs to a free-born American - political, civil, and social; until we get these rights we will never cease to protest and assail the ears of America.”

Now by taking this question as an inference question we conclude that Option A is correct one by read above quotation. Leader of Niagara said that they should received all the facilities as a free born American so it implies that for all these facilities Hard work is not necessary, as they born as a free American so are eligible for all the facilities there.

Now Why E is wrong, your interpretation is perfect, read lines 40-42

the Niagara movement was important. It was the first organization founded to protest the way that Blacks had been treated since Reconstruction.

Now read what E says

(E) It was a Black organization that arose during the Reconstruction period.

And that is why E is wrong Niagara was came into existence after reconstruction not during. Other options are easy eliminations.

Hope it helps

navderm wrote:
Can someone explain no. 4 .

I don't quite understand how option e is wrong. Is it that the formation of the organization was after Reconstruction period ?

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Re: In the summer of 1905, twenty-five Black intellectuals met at Niagara  [#permalink]

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06 May 2020, 22:22
Can anyone please explain Q6? I understand why III is correct but not why I is correct? I mean how did that affected the policy? It may have affected the view towards Washington, but how did it changed the policy?

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Re: In the summer of 1905, twenty-five Black intellectuals met at Niagara   [#permalink] 06 May 2020, 22:22

# In the summer of 1905, twenty-five Black intellectuals met at Niagara

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