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In the United States, less than $200 per capita is spent by the govern

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In the United States, less than $200 per capita is spent by the government each year to support arts and cultural institutions, such as the National Endowment for the Arts, although the amount in European countries is much greater.


(A) In the United States, less than $200 per capita is spent by the government each year to support arts and cultural institutions, such as the National Endowment for the Arts, although the amount in European countries is much greater.

(B) The United States government spends less than $200 per capita annually supporting arts and cultural institutions, like the National Endowment for the Arts, although European countries spend a much greater amount.

(C) Although European countries spend a much greater amount, in the United States, the government spends annually fewer than
$200 per capita to support arts and cultural institutions, including the National Endowment for the Arts.

(D) Arts and cultural institutions, like the National Endowment for the Arts, are supported by the United States government spending less than $200 per capita each year, although the amount in European countries is much greater.

(E) Although European countries spend a greater amount, the United States government annually spends fewer than $200 per capita to support arts and cultural institutions, such as the National Endowment for the Arts.

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Re: In the United States, less than $200 per capita is spent by the govern  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jan 2019, 22:43
Bunuel wrote:
In the United States, less than $200 per capita is spent by the government each year to support arts and cultural institutions, such as the National Endowment for the Arts, although the amount in European countries is much greater.


(A) In the United States, less than $200 per capita is spent by the government each year to support arts and cultural institutions, such as the National Endowment for the Arts, although the amount in European countries is much greater.

(B) The United States government spends less than $200 per capita annually supporting arts and cultural institutions, like the National Endowment for the Arts, although European countries spend a much greater amount.

(C) Although European countries spend a much greater amount, in the United States, the government spends annually fewer than
$200 per capita to support arts and cultural institutions, including the National Endowment for the Arts.

(D) Arts and cultural institutions, like the National Endowment for the Arts, are supported by the United States government spending less than $200 per capita each year, although the amount in European countries is much greater.

(E) Although European countries spend a greater amount, the United States government annually spends fewer than $200 per capita to support arts and cultural institutions, such as the National Endowment for the Arts.



IMO, Ans should be B owing to the structure of the sentence.
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Re: In the United States, less than $200 per capita is spent by the govern  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jan 2019, 05:01
Bunuel wrote:
In the United States, less than $200 per capita is spent by the government each year to support arts and cultural institutions, such as the National Endowment for the Arts, although the amount in European countries is much greater.


(A) In the United States, less than $200 per capita is spent by the government each year to support arts and cultural institutions, such as the National Endowment for the Arts, although the amount in European countries is much greater.

(B) The United States government spends less than $200 per capita annually supporting arts and cultural institutions, like the National Endowment for the Arts, although European countries spend a much greater amount.

(C) Although European countries spend a much greater amount, in the United States, the government spends annually fewer than
$200 per capita to support arts and cultural institutions, including the National Endowment for the Arts.

(D) Arts and cultural institutions, like the National Endowment for the Arts, are supported by the United States government spending less than $200 per capita each year, although the amount in European countries is much greater.

(E) Although European countries spend a greater amount, the United States government annually spends fewer than $200 per capita to support arts and cultural institutions, such as the National Endowment for the Arts.


I am down to options A & E
I am not sure whether usage of greater in the end option A is correct or not..
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In the United States, less than $200 per capita is spent by the govern  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jan 2019, 05:35
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Bunuel wrote:
In the United States, less than $200 per capita is spent by the government each year to support arts and cultural institutions, such as the National Endowment for the Arts, although the amount in European countries is much greater.


(A) In the United States, less than $200 per capita is spent by the government each year to support arts and cultural institutions, such as the National Endowment for the Arts, although the amount in European countries is much greater.

(B) The United States government spends less than $200 per capita annually supporting arts and cultural institutions, like the National Endowment for the Arts, although European countries spend a much greater amount.

(C) Although European countries spend a much greater amount, in the United States, the government spends annually fewer than
$200 per capita to support arts and cultural institutions, including the National Endowment for the Arts.

(D) Arts and cultural institutions, like the National Endowment for the Arts, are supported by the United States government spending less than $200 per capita each year, although the amount in European countries is much greater.

(E) Although European countries spend a greater amount, the United States government annually spends fewer than $200 per capita to support arts and cultural institutions, such as the National Endowment for the Arts.


Concepts Tested:
1. Money is uncountable. Individual dollar bills are countable.
We use “LESS” when we count something UNCOUNTABLE, and we use “FEW” when we count something COUNTABLE.


2. We use Such and including to INTRODUCE EXAMPLES. Like is used for Comparison.

(A). Answer Option A is Correct Choice.
It correctly uses both “less” to count uncountable money and “such as” to introduce examples.

(B). Answer Option B is Incorrect Choice.
It correctly uses “less” to count uncountable money, but incorrectly uses “like” to introduce examples.

(C). Answer Option C is Incorrect Choice.
It incorrectly uses “fewer” to count uncountable money, but correctly uses “including” to introduce examples.

(D). Answer Option D is Incorrect Choice.
It correctly uses “less” to count uncountable money, but incorrectly uses “like” to introduce examples.

(E). Answer Option E is Incorrect Choice.
It incorrectly uses “fewer” to count uncountable money, but correctly uses “such as” to introduce examples.

Answer Option A is Correct Choice.!

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Re: In the United States, less than $200 per capita is spent by the govern  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jan 2019, 10:16
In the United States, less than $200 per capita is spent by the government each year to support arts and cultural institutions, such as the National Endowment for the Arts, although the amount in European countries is much greater.


(A) In the United States, less than $200 per capita is spent by the government each year to support arts and cultural institutions, such as the National Endowment for the Arts, although the amount in European countries is much greater.

(B) The United States government spends less than $200 per capita annually supporting arts and cultural institutions, like the National Endowment for the Arts, although European countries spend a much greater amount.

(C) Although European countries spend a much greater amount, in the United States, the government spends annually fewer than
$200 per capita to support arts and cultural institutions, including the National Endowment for the Arts.

(D) Arts and cultural institutions, like the National Endowment for the Arts, are supported by the United States government spending less than $200 per capita each year, although the amount in European countries is much greater.

(E) Although European countries spend a greater amount, the United States government annually spends fewer than $200 per capita to support arts and cultural institutions, such as the National Endowment for the Arts.

Answer should be E:

A)The only reason for A to be wrong is "In the United States " should be in the main clause because it provides necessary information about the entity discussed.
B)The usage of "like" to cite an example is wrong. The modifier "supporting arts and cultural institutions" looks wrong.
c)"annually " should modify200 dollars per capita and "including the" modifier is wrongly used. Error of choice A is repeated.
d) this option does not show the contrast perfectly and changes the meaning.
e)"The United States" is in the main clause and provides the exact information, no other errors as such.

Please review this explanation.
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In the United States, less than $200 per capita is spent by the govern  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jan 2019, 21:44
apovit wrote:
In the United States, less than $200 per capita is spent by the government each year to support arts and cultural institutions, such as the National Endowment for the Arts, although the amount in European countries is much greater.


(A) In the United States, less than $200 per capita is spent by the government each year to support arts and cultural institutions, such as the National Endowment for the Arts, although the amount in European countries is much greater.

(B) The United States government spends less than $200 per capita annually supporting arts and cultural institutions, like the National Endowment for the Arts, although European countries spend a much greater amount.

(C) Although European countries spend a much greater amount, in the United States, the government spends annually fewer than
$200 per capita to support arts and cultural institutions, including the National Endowment for the Arts.

(D) Arts and cultural institutions, like the National Endowment for the Arts, are supported by the United States government spending less than $200 per capita each year, although the amount in European countries is much greater.

(E) Although European countries spend a greater amount, the United States government annually spends fewer than $200 per capita to support arts and cultural institutions, such as the National Endowment for the Arts.

Answer should be E:

A)The only reason for A to be wrong is "In the United States " should be in the main clause because it provides necessary information about the entity discussed.
B)The usage of "like" to cite an example is wrong. The modifier "supporting arts and cultural institutions" looks wrong.
c)"annually " should modify200 dollars per capita and "including the" modifier is wrongly used. Error of choice A is repeated.
d) this option does not show the contrast perfectly and changes the meaning.
e)"The United States" is in the main clause and provides the exact information, no other errors as such.

Please review this explanation.

apovit
Quote:
A)The only reason for A to be wrong is "In the United States " should be in the main clause because it provides necessary information about the entity discussed.

• "In the United States" is fine.
Introductory phrases, especially those that begin with prepositions, are almost always set off by a comma.

• Unlike many other introductory phrases, introductory prepositional phrases do not have to modify the subject that follows.
-- For an explanation of the rule and a list of the five introductory phrases that do have to modify the subject that follows, see this post, here.
Quote:
B)The usage of "like" to cite an example is wrong. The modifier "supporting arts and cultural institutions" looks wrong.

Your first sentence is correct. With respect to the second, highlighted sentence, "looks wrong" does not give me much with which to work. Why does the modifier "look wrong"?
Quote:
c)"annually " should modify200 dollars per capita and "including the" modifier is wrongly used. Error of choice A is repeated.

Annually is an adverb that modifies "spends" (how often does the U.S. government spent the money?).
• "Fewer" than $200 is not correct. Think one money, two moneys. :( The sentence should state, LESS than $200 per capita . . .
"Including" is an exception to the participial phrase rules (verbING phrases).
Including always modifies a noun and is usually preceded by a comma. In major dictionaries "including" is listed as a preposition.
Quote:
d) this option does not show the contrast perfectly and changes the meaning.

• Option D is a hot mess. You are correct that it changes the meaning. In what way?
Quote:
e)"The United States" is in the main clause and provides the exact information, no other errors as such.

• Option E incorrectly uses "fewer" to refer to $200. To modify money, use LESS.
Option E also incorrectly compares European countries to the U.S. government

I hope that helps.
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In the United States, less than $200 per capita is spent by the govern  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jan 2019, 21:52
Bunuel wrote:
In the United States, less than $200 per capita is spent by the government each year to support arts and cultural institutions, such as the National Endowment for the Arts, although the amount in European countries is much greater.


(A) In the United States, less than $200 per capita is spent by the government each year to support arts and cultural institutions, such as the National Endowment for the Arts, although the amount in European countries is much greater.
Not incorrect, but an odd word choice.

(B) The United States government spends less than $200 per capita annually supporting arts and cultural institutions, like the National Endowment for the Arts, although European countries spend a much greater amount.

(C) Although European countries spend a much greater amount, in the United States, the government spends annually fewer than
$200 per capita to support arts and cultural institutions, including the National Endowment for the Arts.

(D) Arts and cultural institutions, like the National Endowment for the Arts, are supported by the United States government spending less than $200 per capita each year, although the amount in European countries is much greater.

(E) Although European countries spend a greater amount , the United States government annually spends fewer than $200 per capita to support arts and cultural institutions, such as the National Endowment for the Arts.

The introductory prepositional phrase in option A is fine.

At least five types of introductory phrases must modify the subject that follows.
An introductory prepositional phrase does not have to modify the subject that follows.
See this post, here, in which the five types mentioned and introductory prepositional phrases are explained.

Split #1: less v. fewer
Money, distance, and time (and uncountable nouns) always use MORE/LESS
-- One way to remember — if you see $200, think 200 dollars.
Then change dollar to money. One money, two moneys, three moneys. No. :(

Correct: I have less money than she has.
Correct: I have twenty dollars less than she has.
Correct: I have $20 less than she has.
Wrong: I have $20 fewer than she has.
Wrong: I have fewer than $20 in my pocket.

Options C and E use "fewer" than $200. Eliminate them.

Split #2: Like vs. Such As
-- To introduce examples, use SUCH AS.

-- How to remember?
Alex, when you go to the grocery store, please buy me some vegetables like carrots and broccoli. :(
-- Am I asking Alex to buy me vegetables that are similar to carrots and broccoli? =>
Alex, please buy me some vegetables [that are] like carrots and broccoli. :(
-- Or am I asking Alex to buy me vegetables named "carrot" and "broccoli"?

-- Avoid ambiguity. Do not use like to list or to introduce examples. Use "such as."
Alex, please buy me some vegetables such as carrots and broccoli.

Options B and D use "like" to introduce The National Endowment of the Arts as an example of arts and cultural institutions

Eliminate options B and D.

Option A correctly uses
• less than $200
• such as the National Endowment . . .
• "In the United States" is correct. See my note and link at the top of this answer.

Option A

Other issues
• "comma + including" in option C is fine.
Including is an exception to the rules for comma + ___ING (participial phrases)
Including is always followed by a noun or noun-form; major dictionaries define it as a preposition

• Comparison in E is not parallel.
European countries are compared to the U.S. government. A country is not a government.

• Option D needs the possessive case for the noun, government, before what is a gerund and yet another noun, namely, spending
This issue is difficult and it is tested occasionally in harder questions.
This post addresses the issue, as does this post
Arts and cultural institutions . . . are supported by THE U.S. government's spending [OF] less than $200 per capita . . .

Correct: I appreciate your inviting me.
Wrong: I appreciate you inviting me.

• Option D has this structure: X is supported by Y's spending less than $200 per person a year.
"By" in this case illogically implies "because."
Option D sounds as if the arts are supported by the fact that the U.S. government spends LESS than $200 per capita.
By spending [Because it spends] LESS than $200 per capita, the U.S. government supports the arts . . .
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Re: In the United States, less than $200 per capita is spent by the govern  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jan 2019, 05:13
generis wrote:
apovit wrote:
In the United States, less than $200 per capita is spent by the government each year to support arts and cultural institutions, such as the National Endowment for the Arts, although the amount in European countries is much greater.


(A) In the United States, less than $200 per capita is spent by the government each year to support arts and cultural institutions, such as the National Endowment for the Arts, although the amount in European countries is much greater.

(B) The United States government spends less than $200 per capita annually supporting arts and cultural institutions, like the National Endowment for the Arts, although European countries spend a much greater amount.

(C) Although European countries spend a much greater amount, in the United States, the government spends annually fewer than
$200 per capita to support arts and cultural institutions, including the National Endowment for the Arts.

(D) Arts and cultural institutions, like the National Endowment for the Arts, are supported by the United States government spending less than $200 per capita each year, although the amount in European countries is much greater.

(E) Although European countries spend a greater amount, the United States government annually spends fewer than $200 per capita to support arts and cultural institutions, such as the National Endowment for the Arts.

Answer should be E:

A)The only reason for A to be wrong is "In the United States " should be in the main clause because it provides necessary information about the entity discussed.
B)The usage of "like" to cite an example is wrong. The modifier "supporting arts and cultural institutions" looks wrong.
c)"annually " should modify200 dollars per capita and "including the" modifier is wrongly used. Error of choice A is repeated.
d) this option does not show the contrast perfectly and changes the meaning.
e)"The United States" is in the main clause and provides the exact information, no other errors as such.

Please review this explanation.


Quote:
A)The only reason for A to be wrong is "In the United States " should be in the main clause because it provides necessary information about the entity discussed.

• "In the United States" is fine.
Introductory phrases, especially those that begin with prepositions, are almost always set off by a comma.

• Unlike many other introductory phrases, introductory prepositional phrases do not have to modify the subject that follows.
-- For an explanation of the rule and a list of the five introductory phrases that do have to modify the subject that follows, see
Quote:
B)The usage of "like" to cite an example is wrong. The modifier "supporting arts and cultural institutions" looks wrong.

Your first sentence is correct. With respect to the second, highlighted sentence, "looks wrong" does not give me much with which to work. Why does the modifier "look wrong"?
Quote:
c)"annually " should modify200 dollars per capita and "including the" modifier is wrongly used. Error of choice A is repeated.

Annually is an adverb that modifies "spends" (how often does the U.S. government spent the money?).
• "Fewer" than $200 is not correct. Think one money, two moneys. :( The sentence should state, LESS than $200 per capita . . .
"Including" is an exception to the participial phrase rules (verbING phrases).
Including always modifies a noun and is usually preceded by a comma. In major dictionaries "including" is listed as a preposition.
Quote:
d) this option does not show the contrast perfectly and changes the meaning.

• Option D is a hot mess. You are correct that it changes the meaning. In what way?
Quote:
e)"The United States" is in the main clause and provides the exact information, no other errors as such.

• Option E incorrectly uses "fewer" to refer to $200. To modify money, use LESS.
Option E also incorrectly compares European countries to the U.S. government

I hope that helps.[/quote}

For Option B when i replace "supporting arts and cultural institutions" with "for supporting" or "to support arts and cultural institutions" makes more sense to me, but i am not sure whether the current usage is right. Could you please highlight the gap in my understanding? Also in this option the contrast is between "the United States government" and "European countries"
For option D as it says"the amount in European countries is much higher." Isnt it left open? Amount for what?
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Re: In the United States, less than $200 per capita is spent by the govern   [#permalink] 17 Jan 2019, 05:13
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