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# It is believed that the earliest precursor to the modern-day camera de

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Re: It is believed that the earliest precursor to the modern-day camera de [#permalink]
Bunuel wrote:
It is believed that the earliest precursor to the modern-day camera derives from the camera obscura, usually credited to the Arab scientist Abu Ali Al-Hasan Ibn al-Haitham in the eleventh century. Working in an early version of a dark room, Ibn al-Haitham studied the movement of light and discovered that he could reproduce images by reflecting light through pinholes. Prior to Ibn al-Haitham, though, the Chinese philosopher Mozi had already begun developing a variety of a
pinhole camera in the fourth century BC. Later in that same century, both Aristotle and Euclid remarked on the placement of light when projected through pinholes. What is more, the Arab mathematician Abu Yusuf Ya‘qub Ibn Ishaq al-Kindi became the first to project images with an early type of camera obscura in the ninth century. As a result, although Ibn al-Haitham is often credited with the creation of the camera obscura, he is also recorded as having said that he did not invent it.

The claims made in the passage above, if true, support which of the following statements?

+1 for B

(A) Though Ibn al-Haitham is given credit for inventing the camera obscura in the eleventh century, it was invented by Mozi in the fourth century BC.
Mozi inly developed or rather lais sown a few imporatant features so we cannot entirely bestow the credit to Mozi

(B) Ibn al-Haitham’s development of the camera obscura in the eleventh century was the result of discoveries in previous centuries that contributed to his research.
This feels promising since Ibn admits that he didn't invent it completly this might hint towards the fact that he took cues from others individually therefore let us hang on to it

(C) The Greek philosophers Aristotle and Euclid developed their experiments on the pinhole camera from the writings of the Chinese philosopher Mozi.
We cannot be absolutely sure since they might have individually developed for example Newton and leibnitz developed calculus individually without the aid of reference of anyone

(D) Ibn Ishaq al-Kindi is unfairly overlooked as the real inventor of the camera obscura.
unfairly fair are all subjective terms therefore we can give one look and eleminate

(E) Though usually considered a modern development, the camera was really invented in the eleventh century
camera obscura was developed and not itself was developed

Therefore IMO D
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It is believed that the earliest precursor to the modern-day camera de [#permalink]
TheGraceful wrote:
Hi Bunuel,
Although its official explanation that says B is the correct answer choice, I am NOT convinced and am doubtful about the explanation.

Since I agree with explanations for answer choices A, C and E, I will discuss only about B and D here.

(B) Ibn al-Haitham’s development of the camera obscura in the eleventh century was the result of discoveries in previous centuries that contributed to his research.
==> This can NOT be inferred from the para/passage. Although some work was made on presursor of camera, but it can NOT be said that contributed to Ibn al-Haitham's work. Ibn al-Haitham independently discovered the thing.
Let's have a look at para (highlighted)

Bunuel wrote:
It is believed that the earliest precursor to the modern-day camera derives from the camera obscura, usually credited to the Arab scientist Abu Ali Al-Hasan Ibn al-Haitham in the eleventh century. Working in an early version of a dark room, Ibn al-Haitham studied the movement of light and discovered that he could reproduce images by reflecting light through pinholes. Prior to Ibn al-Haitham, though, the Chinese philosopher Mozi had already begun developing a variety of a pinhole camera in the fourth century BC. Later in that same century, both Aristotle and Euclid remarked on the placement of light when projected through pinholes. What is more, the Arab mathematician Abu Yusuf Ya‘qub Ibn Ishaq al-Kindi became the first to project images with an early type of camera obscura in the ninth century. As a result, although Ibn al-Haitham is often credited with the creation of the camera obscura, he is also recorded as having said that he did not invent it.

As for his saying of he did NOT invent it, doesn't concretely mean his predecessors did it, he could have wanted to share the credit with any of his assistant, friend, family member, pet that made.

(D) Ibn Ishaq al-Kindi is unfairly overlooked as the real inventor of the camera obscura.
Since other options are eliminated this becomes our answer. Moreover, look at the passage (highlited the things) that supports this option.
Bunuel wrote:
It is believed that the earliest precursor to the modern-day camera derives from the camera obscura, usually credited to the Arab scientist Abu Ali Al-Hasan Ibn al-Haitham in the eleventh century. Working in an early version of a dark room, Ibn al-Haitham studied the movement of light and discovered that he could reproduce images by reflecting light through pinholes. Prior to Ibn al-Haitham, though, the Chinese philosopher Mozi had already begun developing a variety of a pinhole camera in the fourth century BC. Later in that same century, both Aristotle and Euclid remarked on the placement of light when projected through pinholes. What is more, the Arab mathematician Abu Yusuf Ya‘qub Ibn Ishaq al-Kindi became the first to project images with an early type of camera obscura in the ninth century. As a result, although Ibn al-Haitham is often credited with the creation of the camera obscura, he is also recorded as having said that he did not invent it.

TheGraceful with all sincerity you should be absolutely careful how some terms like fairness affects the passage these are subjective based on people for example a i phone might be great for one however this may not be the case for other for example if a person is one a budget the nord 100 would be better
Apologizing for the vague example however my main point being that when you look at terms that exemplies something you should always put forward your skeptism first , even though there is no question about your dedication you should keep these subtle things in mind to ace the Gmat it'a a hard fought mind game
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Re: It is believed that the earliest precursor to the modern-day camera de [#permalink]
Crytiocanalyst wrote:

TheGraceful with all sincerity you should be absolutely careful how some terms like fairness affects the passage these are subjective based on people for example a i phone might be great for one however this may not be the case for other for example if a person is one a budget the nord 100 would be better
Apologizing for the vague example however my main point being that when you look at terms that exemplies something you should always put forward your skeptism first , even though there is no question about your dedication you should keep these subtle things in mind to ace the Gmat it'a a hard fought mind game

Yes, I got the point and intent.
Thanks.
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Re: It is believed that the earliest precursor to the modern-day camera de [#permalink]
Crytiocanalyst wrote:
TheGraceful wrote:
Hi Bunuel,
Although its official explanation that says B is the correct answer choice, I am NOT convinced and am doubtful about the explanation.

Since I agree with explanations for answer choices A, C and E, I will discuss only about B and D here.

(B) Ibn al-Haitham’s development of the camera obscura in the eleventh century was the result of discoveries in previous centuries that contributed to his research.
==> This can NOT be inferred from the para/passage. Although some work was made on presursor of camera, but it can NOT be said that contributed to Ibn al-Haitham's work. Ibn al-Haitham independently discovered the thing.
Let's have a look at para (highlighted)

Bunuel wrote:
It is believed that the earliest precursor to the modern-day camera derives from the camera obscura, usually credited to the Arab scientist Abu Ali Al-Hasan Ibn al-Haitham in the eleventh century. Working in an early version of a dark room, Ibn al-Haitham studied the movement of light and discovered that he could reproduce images by reflecting light through pinholes. Prior to Ibn al-Haitham, though, the Chinese philosopher Mozi had already begun developing a variety of a pinhole camera in the fourth century BC. Later in that same century, both Aristotle and Euclid remarked on the placement of light when projected through pinholes. What is more, the Arab mathematician Abu Yusuf Ya‘qub Ibn Ishaq al-Kindi became the first to project images with an early type of camera obscura in the ninth century. As a result, although Ibn al-Haitham is often credited with the creation of the camera obscura, he is also recorded as having said that he did not invent it.

As for his saying of he did NOT invent it, doesn't concretely mean his predecessors did it, he could have wanted to share the credit with any of his assistant, friend, family member, pet that made.

(D) Ibn Ishaq al-Kindi is unfairly overlooked as the real inventor of the camera obscura.
Since other options are eliminated this becomes our answer. Moreover, look at the passage (highlited the things) that supports this option.
Bunuel wrote:
It is believed that the earliest precursor to the modern-day camera derives from the camera obscura, usually credited to the Arab scientist Abu Ali Al-Hasan Ibn al-Haitham in the eleventh century. Working in an early version of a dark room, Ibn al-Haitham studied the movement of light and discovered that he could reproduce images by reflecting light through pinholes. Prior to Ibn al-Haitham, though, the Chinese philosopher Mozi had already begun developing a variety of a pinhole camera in the fourth century BC. Later in that same century, both Aristotle and Euclid remarked on the placement of light when projected through pinholes. What is more, the Arab mathematician Abu Yusuf Ya‘qub Ibn Ishaq al-Kindi became the first to project images with an early type of camera obscura in the ninth century. As a result, although Ibn al-Haitham is often credited with the creation of the camera obscura, he is also recorded as having said that he did not invent it.

TheGraceful with all sincerity you should be absolutely careful how some terms like fairness affects the passage these are subjective based on people for example a i phone might be great for one however this may not be the case for other for example if a person is one a budget the nord 100 would be better
Apologizing for the vague example however my main point being that when you look at terms that exemplies something you should always put forward your skeptism first , even though there is no question about your dedication you should keep these subtle things in mind to ace the Gmat it'a a hard fought mind game

Hi Crytiocanalyst,

Instead of writing on the "subjectivity" of the arqgument/options, it would have been highly helpful if you could have helped us in showing from where option B can be inferred from the passage.

I stand by TheGraceful on this one. Ibn al-Haitham could have developed tha camera independently as well.

To show that his work was a result of discoveries in previous centuries that contributed to his research, we have to signify somehow that Ibn al-Haitham somehow read their works or interacted with them on this matter.

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It is believed that the earliest precursor to the modern-day camera de [#permalink]
Hi Crytiocanalyst,

Instead of writing on the "subjectivity" of the arqgument/options, it would have been highly helpful if you could have helped us in showing from where option B can be inferred from the passage.

I stand by TheGraceful on this one. Ibn al-Haitham could have developed tha camera independently as well.

To show that his work was a result of discoveries in previous centuries that contributed to his research, we have to signify somehow that Ibn al-Haitham somehow read their works or interacted with them on this matter.

It is believed that the earliest precursor to the modern-day camera derives from the camera obscura, usually credited to the Arab scientist Abu Ali Al-Hasan Ibn al-Haitham in the eleventh century. Working in an early version of a dark room, Ibn al-Haitham studied the movement of light and discovered that he could reproduce images by reflecting light through pinholes. Prior to Ibn al-Haitham, though, the Chinese philosopher Mozi had already begun developing a variety of a
pinhole camera in the fourth century BC
. Later in that same century, both Aristotle and Euclid remarked on the placement of light when projected through pinholes. What is more, the Arab mathematician Abu Yusuf Ya‘qub Ibn Ishaq al-Kindi became the first to project images with an early type of camera obscura in the ninth century. As a result, although Ibn al-Haitham is often credited with the creation of the camera obscura, he is also recorded as having said that he did not invent it.

These are the two instances that made me conclude that Ibn didn't invent the camera himself but was a result of combined effort of several others like Mozi , Arab mathematicians , Aristole and Euclid they all independently developed so you could question was it not unfair to give credit to Ibn what if there was not a system in the earlier period where there was mo system where minor however important discoveries were not appreciated or rather recognised since all other inventors were dead and it was onlt Ibn was to recognise their importance of all the invention and reunite them then IBn had done the right thing and not unfairly overlooked

Therefore IMO B hope it clarifies
It is believed that the earliest precursor to the modern-day camera de [#permalink]
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