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It is widely known that oxidants a

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It is widely known that oxidants a  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Oct 2018, 10:10
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It is widely known that oxidants are toxic in large amounts, and our cells naturally generate their own anti-oxidants to neutralize them. Accordingly it is advised that people boost the intake of antioxidants to counter the effects of toxic "reactive oxygen species," or ROS, the elevated levels of which are connected with various cancers. However, such advice may not have any substantial medical grounds as new research shows that tumor-promoting ROS are produced at cellular energy factories called mitochondria whereas supplements and dietary antioxidants tend to accumulate at scattered distant sites in the cell not connected with mitochondria at all.


In the argument above, the two bold-face portions play which of the following roles?

(A)The first acts as evidence against the position taken by the argument; the second acts as a reason in support of the position taken by the author.

(B)The first is evidence that the argument disputes; the second is an observation that supports the main conclusion drawn by the argument

(C)The first is a conclusion that the argument as a whole disputes; the second is evidence that supports the position taken by the argument.

(D)The first is a conclusion that is disputed by the argument; the second is evidence that supports that conclusion

(E)The first is a conclusion against the position taken by the argument; the second acts as evidence in support of that position
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It is widely known that oxidants a  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Oct 2018, 03:21
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Probus wrote:
It is widely known that oxidants are toxic in large amounts, and our cells naturally generate their own anti-oxidants to neutralize them. Accordingly it is advised that people boost the intake of antioxidants to counter the effects of toxic "reactive oxygen species," or ROS, the elevated levels of which are connected with various cancers. However, such advice may not have any substantial medical grounds as new research shows that tumor-promoting ROS are produced at cellular energy factories called mitochondria whereas supplements and dietary antioxidants tend to accumulate at scattered distant sites in the cell not connected with mitochondria at all.


In the argument above, the two bold-face portions play which of the following roles?

(A)The first acts as evidence against the position taken by the argument; the second acts as a reason in support of the position taken by the author.

(B)The first is evidence that the argument disputes; the second is an observation that supports the main conclusion drawn by the argument

(C)The first is a conclusion that the argument as a whole disputes; the second is evidence that supports the position taken by the argument.

(D)The first is a conclusion that is disputed by the argument; the second is evidence that supports that conclusion

(E)The first is a conclusion against the position taken by the argument; the second acts as evidence in support of that position


Here is the role played by each sentence in the argument:

Context: "It is widely known that oxidants are toxic in large amounts, and our cells naturally generate their own anti-oxidants to neutralize them."

Contrary position: "people boost the intake of antioxidants to counter the effects of toxic "reactive oxygen species," or ROS, the elevated levels of which are connected with various cancers."

Position taken by the argument/Conclusion of the argument: "such advice may not have any substantial medical grounds"

Supporting data for the position taken by the argument: "new research shows that tumor-promoting ROS are produced at cellular energy factories called mitochondria whereas supplements and dietary antioxidants tend to accumulate at scattered distant sites in the cell not connected with mitochondria at all."

(A)The first acts as evidence against the position taken by the argument; the second acts as a reason in support of the position taken by the author.
First bold portion is not evidence. It is the position contrary to the position taken by the author.

(B)The first is evidence that the argument disputes; the second is an observation that supports the main conclusion drawn by the argument
First bold portion is not evidence. It is the position contrary to the position taken by the author.

(C)The first is a conclusion that the argument as a whole disputes; the second is evidence that supports the position taken by the argument.
Correct. First bold is contrary position. Second bold is supporting data for author's (argument's) position.

(D)The first is a conclusion that is disputed by the argument; the second is evidence that supports that conclusion
Second supports the argument's position, not the position disputed by the argument.

(E)The first is a conclusion against the position taken by the argument; the second acts as evidence in support of that position
Second supports the argument's position, not the position against the position taken by the argument.

Answer (C)
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It is widely known that oxidants a  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Oct 2018, 03:29
VeritasKarishma wrote:
Probus wrote:
It is widely known that oxidants are toxic in large amounts, and our cells naturally generate their own anti-oxidants to neutralize them. Accordingly it is advised that people boost the intake of antioxidants to counter the effects of toxic "reactive oxygen species," or ROS, the elevated levels of which are connected with various cancers. However, such advice may not have any substantial medical grounds as new research shows that tumor-promoting ROS are produced at cellular energy factories called mitochondria whereas supplements and dietary antioxidants tend to accumulate at scattered distant sites in the cell not connected with mitochondria at all.


In the argument above, the two bold-face portions play which of the following roles?

(A)The first acts as evidence against the position taken by the argument; the second acts as a reason in support of the position taken by the author.

(B)The first is evidence that the argument disputes; the second is an observation that supports the main conclusion drawn by the argument

(C)The first is a conclusion that the argument as a whole disputes; the second is evidence that supports the position taken by the argument.

(D)The first is a conclusion that is disputed by the argument; the second is evidence that supports that conclusion

(E)The first is a conclusion against the position taken by the argument; the second acts as evidence in support of that position


Here is the role played by each sentence in the argument:

Context: "It is widely known that oxidants are toxic in large amounts, and our cells naturally generate their own anti-oxidants to neutralize them."

Contrary position: "people boost the intake of antioxidants to counter the effects of toxic "reactive oxygen species," or ROS, the elevated levels of which are connected with various cancers."

Position taken by the argument/Conclusion of the argument: "such advice may not have any substantial medical grounds"

Supporting data for the position taken by the argument: "new research shows that tumor-promoting ROS are produced at cellular energy factories called mitochondria whereas supplements and dietary antioxidants tend to accumulate at scattered distant sites in the cell not connected with mitochondria at all."

(A)The first acts as evidence against the position taken by the argument; the second acts as a reason in support of the position taken by the author.
First bold portion is not evidence. It is the position contrary to the position taken by the author.

(B)The first is evidence that the argument disputes; the second is an observation that supports the main conclusion drawn by the argument
First bold portion is not evidence. It is the position contrary to the position taken by the author.

(C)The first is a conclusion that the argument as a whole disputes; the second is evidence that supports the position taken by the argument.
Correct. First bold is contrary position. Second bold is supporting data for author's (argument's) position.

(D)The first is a conclusion that is disputed by the argument; the second is evidence that supports that conclusion
Second supports the argument's position, not the position disputed by the argument.

(E)The first is a conclusion against the position taken by the argument; the second acts as evidence in support of that position
Second supports the argument's position, not the position against the position taken by the argument.

Answer (C)





VeritasKarishma : In C it is stated that 1st is a conclusion . Is it not counter premise ?I am very much confused in this one. Can you please help
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Re: It is widely known that oxidants a  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Oct 2018, 04:06
2
zac123 wrote:
VeritasKarishma wrote:
Probus wrote:
It is widely known that oxidants are toxic in large amounts, and our cells naturally generate their own anti-oxidants to neutralize them. Accordingly it is advised that people boost the intake of antioxidants to counter the effects of toxic "reactive oxygen species," or ROS, the elevated levels of which are connected with various cancers. However, such advice may not have any substantial medical grounds as new research shows that tumor-promoting ROS are produced at cellular energy factories called mitochondria whereas supplements and dietary antioxidants tend to accumulate at scattered distant sites in the cell not connected with mitochondria at all.


In the argument above, the two bold-face portions play which of the following roles?

(A)The first acts as evidence against the position taken by the argument; the second acts as a reason in support of the position taken by the author.

(B)The first is evidence that the argument disputes; the second is an observation that supports the main conclusion drawn by the argument

(C)The first is a conclusion that the argument as a whole disputes; the second is evidence that supports the position taken by the argument.

(D)The first is a conclusion that is disputed by the argument; the second is evidence that supports that conclusion

(E)The first is a conclusion against the position taken by the argument; the second acts as evidence in support of that position


Here is the role played by each sentence in the argument:

Context: "It is widely known that oxidants are toxic in large amounts, and our cells naturally generate their own anti-oxidants to neutralize them."

Contrary position: "people boost the intake of antioxidants to counter the effects of toxic "reactive oxygen species," or ROS, the elevated levels of which are connected with various cancers."

Position taken by the argument/Conclusion of the argument: "such advice may not have any substantial medical grounds"

Supporting data for the position taken by the argument: "new research shows that tumor-promoting ROS are produced at cellular energy factories called mitochondria whereas supplements and dietary antioxidants tend to accumulate at scattered distant sites in the cell not connected with mitochondria at all."

(A)The first acts as evidence against the position taken by the argument; the second acts as a reason in support of the position taken by the author.
First bold portion is not evidence. It is the position contrary to the position taken by the author.

(B)The first is evidence that the argument disputes; the second is an observation that supports the main conclusion drawn by the argument
First bold portion is not evidence. It is the position contrary to the position taken by the author.

(C)The first is a conclusion that the argument as a whole disputes; the second is evidence that supports the position taken by the argument.
Correct. First bold is contrary position. Second bold is supporting data for author's (argument's) position.

(D)The first is a conclusion that is disputed by the argument; the second is evidence that supports that conclusion
Second supports the argument's position, not the position disputed by the argument.

(E)The first is a conclusion against the position taken by the argument; the second acts as evidence in support of that position
Second supports the argument's position, not the position against the position taken by the argument.

Answer (C)





VeritasKarishma : In C it is stated that 1st is a conclusion . Is it not counter premise ?I am very much confused in this one. Can you please help


Premises are facts - something you can verify.
Conclusion is the position taken by the author or some counter position taken by "other people" or "some experts" etc.

Think of an argument like this:
Some experts say "A is harmful". As per some studies, it induces sleepiness... But when taken in small doses, it improves circulation ... it improves digestion ... etc. So A is not harmful.

What role does "A is harmful" play? It is the opinion of some experts. It is the position they hold. It is not a premise. It does not provide any info to support any conclusion. It itself is a conclusion (of the experts). It is a counter position to the position of the argument.

What role does "A is not harmful" play? It is the conclusion of the argument (author). It is the position the argument takes.

What role does "As per some studies, it induces sleepiness..." play?
It is premise. It supports the conclusion of the experts, the counter position.

What role does "when taken in small doses, it improves circulation ... it improves digestion ... etc" play?
It is a premise. It supports the conclusion of the argument.
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It is widely known that oxidants a  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Oct 2018, 05:56
@VeitasKarishma : Got it now ,Thanks . Also can you please explain what is the difference between ans choice 'E' and 'C' . Seems that both are same .
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It is widely known that oxidants a   [#permalink] 11 Oct 2018, 05:56
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