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Legislation in the Canadian province of Ontario requires of both publi

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Legislation in the Canadian province of Ontario requires of both publi  [#permalink]

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Legislation in the Canadian province of Ontario requires of both public and private employers that pay be the same for jobs historically held by women as for jobs requiring comparable skill that are usually held by men.


(A) that pay be the same for jobs historically held by women as for jobs requiring comparable skill that are

(B) that pay for jobs historically held by women should be the same as for a job requiring comparable skills

(C) to pay the same in jobs historically held by women as in jobs of comparable skill that are

(D) to pay the same regardless of whether a job was historically held by women or is one demanding comparable skills

(E) to pay as much for jobs historically held by women as for a job demanding comparable skills



The Official Guide for GMAT Review, 10th Edition, 2003

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 109
Page: 669


https://www.nytimes.com/1989/07/27/business/a-new-ontario-law-matches-women-s-wages-with-men-s.html

Private employers in Canada's largest province are scrambling to comply with ground-breaking legislation requiring that the pay in jobs historically held by women match the pay for jobs of comparable skill that are usually done by men. In the public sector, the law has already produced substantial raises for women in secretarial and clerical jobs.

Originally posted by smashingpumpkins on 16 Jun 2009, 21:13.
Last edited by Bunuel on 07 Dec 2018, 05:40, edited 1 time in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: Legislation in the Canadian province of Ontario requires of both publi  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Apr 2010, 12:02
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Hey All,

A lot of conversation here, but no one has yet really gone through it piece by piece and explained what the heck is going on. I'll be that guy!

The verb "to require" can function in two ways. The first is passive: "Something is required TO do something". In this format, we have the passive voice of required. You can't go active (It's not allowed to say "He requires you to do something."), and you have to use the infinitive form of the subordinate verb. THE OTHER version of the verb "to require" is active, and forms the subjunctive of demand (We call them bossy verbs). Bossy verbs always form the same way:

BOSSY VERB CONSTRUCTION: HE demanded THAT Sheila dance.
subject normal verb always have "that" Object verb in the subjunctive

The verb in the subjunctive may be tough to recognize. However, the typical present tense form that goes with the subject "Sheila" is "dances". The subjunctive is generally formed by taking the infinitive form of the verb ("to dance") and removing the "to".

Okay. Now let's look at the question.

3. Legislation in the Canadian province of Ontario requires of both public and private employers that pay be the same for jobs historically held by women as for jobs requiring comparable skill that are usually held by men.

(A) that pay be the same for jobs historically held by women as for jobs requiring comparable skill that are
ANSWER: Here we have "requires" in the active voice, so we need the bossy verb construction. We get the THAT we need, then the object "pay", then the subjunctive form "be" (it's the infinitive "to be" without the "to"). Looks good!

(B) that pay for jobs historically held by women should be the same as for a job requiring comparable skills
PROBLEM: YOU NEVER USE SHOULD in a subjunctive construction. In fact, should gets used SO OFTEN in these types of questions, that it's worth noticing it in all the sentences you look at. Often, it signals a bossy verb subjunctive construction that you might not have noticed otherwise!

(C) to pay the same in jobs historically held by women as in jobs of comparable skill that are
PROBLEM: The "to" is wrong for the subjunctive construction. Also "in jobs" is an incorrect idiom. It should be "for jobs".

(D) to pay the same regardless of whether a job was historically held by women or is one demanding comparable skills
PROBLEM: The "to" is wrong for the subjunctive construction. Also the parallelism is wrong. The wrong two things are being compared.

(E) to pay as much for jobs historically held by women as for a job demanding comparable skills
PROBLEM: The "to" is wrong for the subjunctive construction. "Jobs" and "a job" aren't parallel.

Hope that helps!

-t
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Re: Legislation in the Canadian province of Ontario requires of both publi  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Nov 2010, 20:55
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Hey ajit,

Great question - and I think that this one is a prime candidate for what I call the Slash-and-Burn technique for streamlining sentences. The sentence begins with two modifiers before the underlined:

"in the Canadian province of Ontario" and "of both public and private employers" both describe the words before them ("legislation", the subject; and "requires", the verb). If you remove them to read the sentence in a simpler form, you have:

Legislation requires that... (A and B)

or

Legislation requires to pay... (C, D, E)

A and B have it - "legislation requires that" is correct, whereas "legislation requires to pay" doesn't have a proper subject for "to pay".


Between those two, we know that we have a comparison being drawn, so the most likely decision point is going to be a proper, parallel comparison.

A compares "the same for jobs held by women" and "as for jobs requiring..."

It correctly compares "jobs" to "jobs" and has the appropriate paralllel form of "for" in front of both.

B compares "jobs" to "a job", which isn't perfectly parallel. And it also adds the unnecessary word "should" in there ("require" means "must", so "should" just confuses the meaning). Therefore B is wrong and A is the correct answer.


I hope that helps...
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Re: Legislation in the Canadian province of Ontario requires of both publi  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Jul 2009, 01:05
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ugimba wrote:
sanoasis wrote:
3. Legislation in the Canadian province of Ontario requires of both public and private employers that pay be the same for jobs historically held by women as for jobs requiring comparable skill that are usually held by men.

(A) that pay be the same for jobs historically held by women as for jobs requiring comparable skill that are
(B) that pay for jobs historically held by women should be the same as for a job requiring comparable skills
(C) to pay the same in jobs historically held by women as in jobs of comparable skill that are
(D) to pay the same regardless of whether a job was historically held by women or is one demanding comparable skills
(E) to pay as much for jobs historically held by women as for a job demanding comparable skills



requires that ... subjunctive mood..

IMO A



Here is an excellent thread on subjunctive constructs.

subjunctive-and-use-of-that-with-simple-verb-form-79606.html

It is not essential that "that" appear in subjunctive.
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Re: Legislation in the Canadian province of Ontario requires of both publi  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Nov 2009, 17:40
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3. Legislation in the Canadian province of Ontario requires of both public and private employers that pay be the same for jobs historically held by women as for jobs requiring comparable skill that are usually held by men.

(A) that pay be the same for jobs historically held by women as for jobs requiring comparable skill that are
(B) that pay for jobs historically held by women should be the same as for a job requiring comparable skills
(C) to pay the same in jobs historically held by women as in jobs of comparable skill that are
(D) to pay the same regardless of whether a job was historically held by women or is one demanding comparable skills
(E) to pay as much for jobs historically held by women as for a job demanding comparable skills

B - require ... that ... should - incorrect
C - pay in - not a correct idiom, should be pay for
D - awkward structure - a job was ... or is one (job) ...
E - jobs vs job
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Re: Legislation in the Canadian province of Ontario requires of both publi  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jan 2010, 03:03
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Shouldn't it be:
legislation ...requires ... employers .. TO PAY as much for jobs.

As opposed to:

Legislation ...requires ...employers .. THAT PAY be the same for jobs.

When do we use an infinitive, and when do we use a subordinate?

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Re: Legislation in the Canadian province of Ontario requires of both publi  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Apr 2010, 06:24
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Tommy, according to MGMAT SC. I thought "require" is one of those verbs that can take EITHER command subjunctive or the Infinitive.

We require that he be here
We require him to be here

I believe both are correct?
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Re: Legislation in the Canadian province of Ontario requires of both publi  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Apr 2010, 14:28
Hey Lonewolf,

This is a tough one. You're absolutely right that the MGMAT SC Guide states as a correct sentence: "She requires that her friend do work." I feel certain that this construction is not used anymore, though it still may be considered grammatically correct. I'll have to ask around. However, I did say in my explanation that "require" can be used both ways. I merely specified that we don't use the subjunctive format transitively anymore (transitively = with a direct object).

"We require that he be here" is not correct in my opinion, because you can't put an active subject in front of the the verb when used in the subjunctive. "It is required that he be here" is correct, but I don't believe I can "require that you be somewhere".

"We require him to be here" is entirely correct as is.

I will check on this difference, because I wouldn't want to steer you wrong.

-tommy
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Re: Legislation in the Canadian province of Ontario requires of both publi  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Apr 2010, 12:28
Hey Lonewolf,

So I've done my research, and yes, that version IS considered okay: "I require that you be here". Darnit! : )

It doesn't change the answer, however, or my explanation. Can I help further?

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Re: Legislation in the Canadian province of Ontario requires of both publi  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Dec 2010, 03:57
IMO, this text is a test of parallelism and idiom. Only A maintains both by using the comparative phrase ‘for jobs historically held by women as for jobs requiring’. A is the right answer

No other choice flaunts an equitable comparison, B and E compare ‘jobs’ with ‘a job’

C uses an odd and unidiomatic ‘to pay the same in the jobs ‘
D compares ‘past tense’ with ‘present tense’
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Re: Legislation in the Canadian province of Ontario requires of both publi  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Dec 2010, 11:19
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Good question, Rajen - if we take out the modifying phrases and whittle down to just "legislation requires to pay", there isn't any indication of WHOM is required to pay. The legislation surely isn't paying. For demands like "require", there needs to be an object of that verb that then does something else. You could say:

The law requires employers to pay

or

The law requires that employers pay

but in either case you need to have "employers" (or another appropriate noun) clearly set up as the object of the requirement and the subject of the verb "pay".

The modifying phrase "of both public and private employers" puts "employers" as a description but not as a subject/object. Because of that preposition "of", we can ignore that phrase to closer link the subject, verb, and object - and in doing so we realize that without a clear noun for the verb "to pay", the sentence is incomplete.

Without the phrase "of", "to pay" could work: Legislation requires both public and private employers to pay...

But the word "of" makes that noun "employers" part of a modifier and not a standalone object-of-"require" / subject-of-"to pay", and so therefore C/D/E are all incorrect.
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Re: Legislation in the Canadian province of Ontario requires of both publi  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Dec 2010, 02:24
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IMO, while both the subjunctive mood and infinitive form are usable depending upon the construction, the sentence sould also hold good other secondary parameters.

In the given case, choices containing the infinitive form of ‘to pay’ are not sustainable for reasons of wrong idiom, or modification or llism
C suffers from a host of such problems Employers pay for the jibs and not in the jobs. Additionally what does the relative pronoun 'that' stands for? Skill or jobs? If it is the singular skill, there is a serous SV mismatch because the subordinate verb ‘require’ is plural; if it is jobs, then can it bye-pass the noun just in front and flirt with a distant one? We a re getting stuck with the same old modification debate.

D suffers wrong llism of co- relative conjunction 'whether ….or'. After whether there is a noun (job) while after or there is a verb (is)

E. comparing jobs with a job is improper.

So you may see why C doesn’t make the grade.
If we narrow down to the subjunctive form, then B is instantly out, as we have to use the imperative form of the verb - ‘be’- and not 'should be’

A is the eventual winner.
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Re: Legislation in the Canadian province of Ontario requires of both publi  [#permalink]

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New post 24 May 2012, 07:10
Since this is from a source other than GMAT, I make bold to ask question. Is it comparable skills or skill as given in the passage? If it is skill, one may perhaps notice that skill that are held is very wrong. Therefore, we have to fetch a plural noun for the restrictive pronoun that, by going out of the way to match it with its logical noun jobs, which lies distant. One has the onus to justify that requiring comparable skill is an essential modifier of the noun jobs and hence we can ignore the restrictivity of the pronoun that. Same story with Choice C also, another serious contender.

It is not even required to consider whether it is requires of or simply requires, since it is in the non-underlined part. The need for subjunctive mood arises because it is a legation and therefore statutory. Therefore, we must follow it up with the rest of the requirements of the subjunctive mood such as using that in the sub-clause and the basic form be
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Re: Legislation in the Canadian province of Ontario requires of both publi  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Aug 2012, 00:21
A is better than B in a few ways:

The simplest is parallelism. B compares "jobs" to "a job," while A compares "jobs" to "jobs."

Second, B uses "should" with "requires." You don't require that someone *should* do something. You just require that they do it.

Third, the ending of B is ambiguous. With "usually held by men" attached directly to "skills," it looks like the skills, rather than the jobs, might be held by men.
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Re: Legislation in the Canadian province of Ontario requires of both publi  [#permalink]

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rishabchoraria wrote:
souvik101990 wrote:
Legislation in the Canadian province of Ontario requires of both public and private employers that pay be the same for jobs historically held by women as for jobs requiring comparable skill that are usually held by men.

A. that pay be the same for jobs historically held by women as for jobs requiring comparable skill that are

B. that pay for jobs historically held by women should be the same as for a job requiring comparable skills

C. to pay the same in jobs historically held by women as in jobs of comparable skill that are

D. to pay the same regardless of whether a job was historically held by women or is one demanding comparable skills

E. to pay as much for jobs historically held by women as for a job demanding comparable skills



I picked A. But cannot figure why C would be wrong. Anyone who would like to take a dig at C?



Hello rishabchoraria

I can't find rule but I see some pattern:

If we have subject pronoun (I, you, he, she...) we should use "require that":

We require THAT HE BE here.
She required that everyone attend
The law now requires that parents serve on the committees that plan and evaluate school programs...

And if we have object pronoun (him, them) we should used "required to":

We require HIM TO BE here
The rules also require employers to provide safety training...
All candidates will be required to take a short test.


So it looks like in variant A we have word pay as a noun

Legislation requires employers that pay be --> This is first type of construction and pay is subject pronun so require that is correct

And in variant C we have word pay as a verb
Legislation requires employers to pay the same --> This is second type of construction and employers is object pronoun so require to is correct

If these pattern is correct then require that/require to in this question is a false split and only difference is "pay the same in jobs"
I again can't find the rule but think that pay in jobs is incorrect idiom.
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Legislation in the Canadian province of Ontario requires of both publi  [#permalink]

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New post 05 May 2016, 10:27
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powellmittra wrote:
rishabchoraria wrote:


I picked A. But cannot figure why C would be wrong. Anyone who would like to take a dig at C?



Hello rishabchoraria

I can't find rule but I see some pattern:

If we have subject pronoun (I, you, he, she...) we should use "require that":

We require THAT HE BE here.
She required that everyone attend
The law now requires that parents serve on the committees that plan and evaluate school programs...

And if we have object pronoun (him, them) we should used "required to":

We require HIM TO BE here
The rules also require employers to provide safety training...
All candidates will be required to take a short test.


So it looks like in variant A we have word pay as a noun

Legislation requires employers that pay be --> This is first type of construction and pay is subject pronun so require that is correct

And in variant C we have word pay as a verb
Legislation requires employers to pay the same --> This is second type of construction and employers is object pronoun so require to is correct

If these pattern is correct then require that/require to in this question is a false split and only difference is "pay the same in jobs"
I again can't find the rule but think that pay in jobs is incorrect idiom.


Please note the following usages:

1. Require someone to do something: correct
2. Require OF someone to do something: wrong
3. Require OF someone that ...command subjunctive...: correct
4. Require OF someone that ..should... : wrong

someone = both public and private employers
something = pay
command subjunctive: be

Because of 2 above, C, D and E are wrong.
Because of 4 above B is wrong.

A is correct: it adheres to 3 above.
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Re: Legislation in the Canadian province of Ontario requires of both publi  [#permalink]

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New post 05 May 2016, 10:56
souvik101990 wrote:
Legislation in the Canadian province of Ontario requires of both public and private employers that pay be the same for jobs historically held by women as for jobs requiring comparable skill that are usually held by men.

A. that pay be the same for jobs historically held by women as for jobs requiring comparable skill that are

B. that pay for jobs historically held by women should be the same as for a job requiring comparable skills

C. to pay the same in jobs historically held by women as in jobs of comparable skill that are

D. to pay the same regardless of whether a job was historically held by women or is one demanding comparable skills

E. to pay as much for jobs historically held by women as for a job demanding comparable skills


Requires is a subjunctive word and for Subjunctive mood the structure of the Sentence is

Quote:
subject + verb + that + subject + verb in simple form. . .


So , that is needed for this sentence ( Options C , D and E can be rejected )

Between A & B ; A uses the correct Subjunctive structure of subject + verb + that + subject + verb in simple form. . ., so (A) is the correct Answer !! :P
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Re: Legislation in the Canadian province of Ontario requires of both publi  [#permalink]

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New post 11 May 2016, 12:57
souvik101990 wrote:
Legislation in the Canadian province of Ontario requires of both public and private employers that pay be the same for jobs historically held by women as for jobs requiring comparable skill that are usually held by men.

A. that pay be the same for jobs historically held by women as for jobs requiring comparable skill that are

B. that pay for jobs historically held by women should be the same as for a job requiring comparable skills

C. to pay the same in jobs historically held by women as in jobs of comparable skill that are

D. to pay the same regardless of whether a job was historically held by women or is one demanding comparable skills

E. to pay as much for jobs historically held by women as for a job demanding comparable skills



Require can be used in both the ways- require that and require to . I want to find out why option E is wrong. Is it because the structure of option E "Require of X to pay" is a bit awkward?

Please explain why E is incorrect?


With thanks,

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Re: Legislation in the Canadian province of Ontario requires of both publi  [#permalink]

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New post 13 May 2016, 11:05
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yaman1203 wrote:
souvik101990 wrote:
Legislation in the Canadian province of Ontario requires of both public and private employers that pay be the same for jobs historically held by women as for jobs requiring comparable skill that are usually held by men.

A. that pay be the same for jobs historically held by women as for jobs requiring comparable skill that are

B. that pay for jobs historically held by women should be the same as for a job requiring comparable skills

C. to pay the same in jobs historically held by women as in jobs of comparable skill that are

D. to pay the same regardless of whether a job was historically held by women or is one demanding comparable skills

E. to pay as much for jobs historically held by women as for a job demanding comparable skills



Require can be used in both the ways- require that and require to . I want to find out why option E is wrong. Is it because the structure of option E "Require of X to pay" is a bit awkward?

Please explain why E is incorrect?


With thanks,

Yaman


Not just awkward.. it is outright wrong - following are the correct usages (probably you missed my previous post):

1. Require someone to do something: correct
2. Require OF someone to do something: wrong
3. Require OF someone that ...command subjunctive...: correct
4. Require OF someone that ..should... : wrong
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Re: Legislation in the Canadian province of Ontario requires of both publi  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Jan 2017, 11:13
understandZERO wrote:
Why in answer choice A word "skill" considered as plural followed by verb "are".
I eliminated A because I thought skill is singular here. Why "require that" is preferred over "require to".


"That" refers to "jobs" - hence "that" is plural, and the verb "are" should also be plural. Jobs (not skills) are held by men.
"Requiring comparable skill" modifies "jobs" and the second modifier "that are usually held by men" refer to the noun and the previous modifier together. (This is an example of an exception to the modifier touch rule).
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Re: Legislation in the Canadian province of Ontario requires of both publi   [#permalink] 03 Jan 2017, 11:13

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