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Never before had taxpayers confronted so many changes at once as they

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Never before had taxpayers confronted so many changes at once as they  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 29 Jan 2018, 23:09
3
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A
B
C
D
E

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The Official Guide for GMAT Review, 11th Edition, 2005

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 76
Page: 649

Never before had taxpayers confronted so many changes at once as they had in the Tax Reform Act of 1986.

(A) so many changes at once as they had in

(B) at once as many changes as

(C) at once as many changes that there were with

(D) as many changes at once as they confronted in

(E) so many changes at once that confronted them in

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Originally posted by maddy2u on 09 Oct 2010, 05:17.
Last edited by hazelnut on 29 Jan 2018, 23:09, edited 2 times in total.
Edited the question.
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Re: Never before had taxpayers confronted so many changes at once as they  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Aug 2012, 12:43
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Hi Tom,

Let’s first understand how can we use the idiom “so…that…”. Let’s take an example here:

He ate so much that he could not move from his place.

This sentence has two clauses:
i. Tom ate so much (Independent Clause)
ii. that he could not move from his place. (Dependent Clause)

Notice that the IC with “so” is presenting the cause and the DC with “that” is presenting the effect. Why could Tom not move from his place? Tom could not move because he ate a lot of food. So there is a cause-effect relationship between the two clauses. This cause and effect relationship has been established by the idiom “so… that…”. Hence, usage of this idiom establishes the cause-effect relationship.

Now let’s see whether this usage stands true for this idiom in the OG sentence with choice E:

Never before had taxpayers confronted so many changes at once that confronted them the Tax Reform Act of 1986.

If we analyze this sentence, there is no cause and effect relationship between the two clauses. Notice that in sentence “that” is functioning as a relative pronoun that is modifying a slightly far away noun “changes”. However, in the example sentence, “that” is functioning as a conjunction that connects the cause clause with the effect clause. Hence, the usage of “so… that…” is not correct in choice E.

Hope this helps.
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Re: Never before had taxpayers confronted so many changes at once as they  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Oct 2010, 05:38
1
1
1
correct idiom is
As many as

So, C is out.

So X as Y is used to express quality rather than quantity. So, A is out.
B breaks //lism. Compares "many changes with Tax Reform".

I prefer D over E as E says "many changes" confronted the taxpayers.
So, IMO D
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New post 09 Oct 2010, 06:11
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The first thing to realize is that, we can not use past perfect tense, (whether one or many) without the accompaniment of a simple past. The later one has to be in simple past

Choice A fouls that norm, by having had confronted and they had. Clearly the latter event is the Tax Reform Act of 1986 and the correct answer choice has to use the simple past equivalent of the verb confronted to describe the Act.

Choice B is wrong because, we can not have a dangling past perfect.

C is unidiomatic in that it is not completing the idiom starting with as with another as but switches over to that.

D fits in well and is the right answer, by using the simple past confronted. You can use did here, instead of confronted.

E changes the meaning that changes confronted the taxpayers rather than the reverse of it.
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Re: Never before had taxpayers confronted so many changes at once as they  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Oct 2010, 10:52
maddy2u wrote:
Never before had taxpayers confronted so many
changes at once as they had in
the Tax Reform Act
of 1986.
A )so many changes at once as they had in
B) at once as many changes as
C) at once as many changes that there were with
D )as many changes at once as they confronted in
E )so many changes at once that confronted them in


Please analyze the correct answer and explain it here



Thanks Guys.. and you are all right.. OA is D
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Re: Never before had taxpayers confronted so many changes at once as they  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Nov 2010, 17:45
1
Great work on this one, daagh - D it is! I like the way you broke that down:

1) Verb Tense

We clearly have a sequence of events: They had never before confronted comes before "they confronted" in 1986, so we can (and should) use past-perfect for the first portion but cannot use it for the second.

2) Comparisons

"As many as" is the correct structure

3) Let me also add "logical meaning".

Choice A actually could use the word "had" to mean "possessed" in the past-tense (and not "had confronted" in the past-perfect), but is that a logical meaning? Did the taxpayers "possess" or "own" those changes? No - they encountered, or "confronted" them, but they didn't "have" them. So A is, again, eliminated.
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New post 23 Nov 2010, 16:36
Was choosing between D and E. But D is structurally more meaningfull....
E - wrong sentence structure. Also changes the meaning...
IMO D
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Re: Never before had taxpayers confronted so many changes at once as they  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Nov 2010, 18:22
1
maddy2u wrote:
Never before had taxpayers confronted so many
changes at once as they had in
the Tax Reform Act
of 1986.
A )so many changes at once as they had in
B) at once as many changes as
C) at once as many changes that there were with
D )as many changes at once as they confronted in
E )so many changes at once that confronted them in


Please analyze the correct answer and explain it here


------------
'as many as' is correct idiom. So A ,C, and E are out.
B Comparing changes to 'the Tax Reform Act'
D is the option to go with.
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Re: Never before had taxpayers confronted so many changes at once as they  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Nov 2010, 09:06
The issue here is Idiom...and not on S-V agreement

as many as is the correct idiom when comparing one to another.
that leaves with B,C and D.
among the three

Never before had taxpayers confronted so many
changes at once as they had in the Tax Reform Act
of 1986.
A )so many changes at once as they had in
B) at once as many changes as
C) at once as many changes that there were with - the use of restrictive clause/ there is not required.
D )as many changes at once as they confronted in - as many......as; "they" pronoun is corretly related to taxpayers.E )so many changes at once that confronted them in - incorrect idiom, and that usage is referring to any pronoun
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Re: Never before had taxpayers confronted so many changes at once as they  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Nov 2010, 12:32
Why common idiom confronted with does not work here?

Oxford Dictionary:
4 ~ sb with sb/sth to make sb face or deal with an unpleasant or difficult person or situation:
He confronted her with a choice between her career or their relationship.
5 (be confronted with sth) to have sth in front of you that you have to deal with or react to:
Most people when confronted with a horse will pat it.
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Re: Never before had taxpayers confronted so many changes at once as they  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Aug 2012, 12:02
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Never before had taxpayers confronted so many changes at once as they had in the Tax Reform Act of 1986.

A. so many changes at once as they had in

B. at once as many changes as

C. at once as many changes that there were with

D. as many changes at once as they confronted in

E. so many changes at once that confronted them

This SC is already posted in this forum,but i have very specific doubt. In option E we have idiom "so...that". How to know that usage is wrong in this context.
Please explain

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Re: Never before had taxpayers confronted so many changes at once as they  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Aug 2012, 18:14
Hi

Thank You very much for your explanation.
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New post 18 Aug 2012, 09:19
Let us look at it from a different angle; In re: to the comparison: We are trying to compare some changes that occurred earlier with the changes that occurred in the Tax Reform Act of 1986. A comparison that is started with either ‘so’ or ‘as’ should be completed with another ‘as’, per the tenets of comparison; the idiom is as X as Y or so X as Y. It may be seen E is missing the second comparator ‘as’.
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New post 06 Sep 2015, 06:22
thanks VeritasPrepBrian. i thought the same had is not wrong because its is simple past ,but wrong becaise of intended meaning; hence per the intended meaning confronted is necessary
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Re: Never before had taxpayers confronted so many changes at once as they  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jul 2017, 13:13
WRT (A) vs (D), I'm sure that the problem is not related to "so ... as" vs "as ... as" idioms.

what is wrong in (A)? Is "had" not right in this case? Could someone please elaborate?
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Re: Never before had taxpayers confronted so many changes at once as they  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jul 2017, 22:44
manhasnoname wrote:
WRT (A) vs (D), I'm sure that the problem is not related to "so ... as" vs "as ... as" idioms.

what is wrong in (A)? Is "had" not right in this case? Could someone please elaborate?

Hi manhasnoname, idiomatic usage is definitely an issue with A.

In addition, A incorrectly uses past perfect (had confronted) when it should be using simple past (confronted).

In general when there are two events that happened in the past, the event that happened later (in this case taxpayers confronting many changes in the Tax Reform Act of 1986) should be expressed in simple past.

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses Past perfect tense, its application and examples in significant detail. If someone is interested, PM me your email-id; I can mail the corresponding section.
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Re: Never before had taxpayers confronted so many changes at once as they  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Dec 2018, 02:41
Never before had taxpayers confronted so many changes at once as they had in the Tax Reform Act of 1986.

(A) so many changes at once as they had in

(A) is also incorrect because "had" cannot substitute for the action "confront"
In option (A), we actually don't know what taxpayers had ... had faced? had confronted? had what?

(D) has the correct tense sequence and clearly stated the verb "confronted"

Ans: (D)
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Re: Never before had taxpayers confronted so many changes at once as they  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Apr 2019, 06:11
Never before had taxpayers confronted so many changes at once as they had in the Tax Reform Act of 1986. (AS X AS)

(A) so many changes at once as they had in

(B) at once as many changes as – changed the meaning when you place the "at once" with many changes separately; the comparison item – many changes at once

(C) at once as many changes that there were with

(D) as many changes at once as they confronted in - GOOD

(E) so many changes at once that confronted them in
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Re: Never before had taxpayers confronted so many changes at once as they  [#permalink]

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New post 20 May 2019, 11:18
Never before had taxpayers confronted so many changes at once as they had in the Tax Reform Act of 1986.

(A) so many changes at once as they had in ( so many as is not the correct idiom)

(B) at once as many changes as ( comparison is incorrect, comparison is between changes and the tax reform act of 1986)

(C) at once as many changes that there were with ( as many as is the correct idiom)

(D) as many changes at once as they confronted in ( correct)

(E) [color=#ff0000]so many changes at once that confronted them in ( no cause and effect)

Will go with option D.
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Re: Never before had taxpayers confronted so many changes at once as they   [#permalink] 20 May 2019, 11:18
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