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On the surface of Jupiter's moon Europa, water remains frozen, but the

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On the surface of Jupiter's moon Europa, water remains frozen, but the  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Sep 2014, 14:48
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On the surface of Jupiter's moon Europa, water remains frozen, but the gravitational force of Jupiter and its other moons cause contractions that may generate so much heat that it would melt ice below Europa's surface.

A). moons cause contractions that may generate so much heat that it would melt
B). moons cause contractions, with enough heat generated for melting
C). moons causes contractions that may generate enough heat to melt
D). moons, causing contractions, may generate so much heat to melt
E). moons, which causes contractions, may generate enough heat for melting

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On the surface of Jupiter's moon Europa, water remains frozen, but the  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 10 Sep 2014, 16:44
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Hi honchos,

The best way to attack this question is to break down the sentence.

We can see that this is a compound sentence because of the ", but". A compound sentence contains two independent clauses joined by a coordinator. The coordinators are as follows: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so. (Helpful hint: The first letter of each of the coordinators spells FANBOYS.) Except for very short sentences, coordinators are always preceded by a comma.

This indicates that we should have two complete sentences on either side of the coordinator. Let's focus on the second sentence. The subject is "force". The verb (underlined) is "cause". These do not agree. Thus, we can already eliminate answer choice (A). Note the first answer choice in Sentence Correction on the GMAT is always what's underlined in the question. We can also eliminate (B) for the same reason.

Answer choice (C) has a verb that agrees with the subject, and sounds good.

Answer choice (D) is incorrect because the verb "may generate" is modifying "force" instead of "contractions", as intended. The sentence is trying to say that the contractions may generate enough heat to melt ice. The phrase "causing contractions" is used to describe the subject, "force". Answer choice (E) is incorrect for the same reason as (D); the verb is modifying the wrong noun.

Hope this helps!

Originally posted by LighthousePrep on 10 Sep 2014, 16:41.
Last edited by LighthousePrep on 10 Sep 2014, 16:44, edited 1 time in total.
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On the surface of Jupiter's moon Europa, water remains frozen, but the  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 10 Sep 2014, 16:46
LighthousePrep wrote:
Hi honchos,

The best way to attack this question is to break down the sentence.

We can see that this is a compound sentence because of the ", but". A compound sentence contains two independent clauses joined by a coordinator. The coordinators are as follows: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so. (Helpful hint: The first letter of each of the coordinators spells FANBOYS.) Except for very short sentences, coordinators are always preceded by a comma.

This indicates that we should have two complete sentences on either side of the coordinator. Let's focus on the second sentence. The subject is "force". The verb (underlined) is "cause". These do not agree. Thus, we can already eliminate answer choice (A). Note the first answer choice in Sentence Correction on the GMAT is always what's underlined in the question. We can also eliminate (B) for the same reason.

Answer choice (C) has a verb that agrees with the subject, and sounds good.

Answer choice (D) is incorrect because the verb "may generate" is modifying "force" instead of "contractions", as intended. The phrase "causing contractions" is a used to describe the subject, "force" and is not the verb. Answer choice (E) is incorrect for the same reason as (D), where the verb is modifying the wrong noun.

Hope this helps!


A compound sentence joined by a coordinator does not Necessarily contains two independent Clause.

FANBOY can also join IC + FANBOY + DC
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Originally posted by honchos on 10 Sep 2014, 16:43.
Last edited by honchos on 10 Sep 2014, 16:46, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: On the surface of Jupiter's moon Europa, water remains frozen, but the  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Sep 2014, 16:44
LighthousePrep wrote:
Hi honchos,

The best way to attack this question is to break down the sentence.

We can see that this is a compound sentence because of the ", but". A compound sentence contains two independent clauses joined by a coordinator. The coordinators are as follows: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so. (Helpful hint: The first letter of each of the coordinators spells FANBOYS.) Except for very short sentences, coordinators are always preceded by a comma.

This indicates that we should have two complete sentences on either side of the coordinator. Let's focus on the second sentence. The subject is "force". The verb (underlined) is "cause". These do not agree. Thus, we can already eliminate answer choice (A). Note the first answer choice in Sentence Correction on the GMAT is always what's underlined in the question. We can also eliminate (B) for the same reason.

Answer choice (C) has a verb that agrees with the subject, and sounds good.

Answer choice (D) is incorrect because the verb "may generate" is modifying "force" instead of "contractions", as intended. The sentence is trying to say that the contractions may generate enough heat to melt ice. The phrase "causing contractions" is used to describe the subject, "force". Answer choice (E) is incorrect for the same reason as (D); the verb is modifying the wrong noun.

Hope this helps!


THE SUBJECT is gravitational force- singular only C has the correct verb-causes.
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Re: On the surface of Jupiter's moon Europa, water remains frozen, but the  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Aug 2016, 02:16
On the surface of Jupiter's moon Europa, water remains frozen, but the gravitational force of Jupiter and its other moons cause contractions that may generate so much heat that it would melt ice below Europa's surface.

A). moons cause contractions that may generate so much heat that it would melt
B). moons cause contractions, with enough heat generated for melting : That's not the intention of sentence.
but it is " gravitational force of X and y cause contraction that may generate so much heat that it would melt ice below Europa's surface.

C). moons causes contractions that may generate enough heat to melt
D). moons, causing contractions, may generate so much heat to melt : Verb-ing is wrong.Verb-ing always modifies action of the sentence before comma, here it is just subject.

E). moons, which causes contractions, may generate enough heat for melting : again it changes the intention of the sentence. It is the contraction that generate heat not gravitational force.
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Re: On the surface of Jupiter's moon Europa, water remains frozen, but the  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jun 2017, 08:02
On the surface of Jupiter's moon Europa, water remains frozen, but the gravitational force of Jupiter and its other moons cause contractions that may generate so much heat that it would melt ice below Europa's surface.

A). moons cause contractions that may generate so much heat that it would melt
Subject is "the gravitational force" - singular so the verb requires to be singular - "cause" is NOT

B). moons cause contractions, with enough heat generated for melting
Subject is "the gravitational force" - singular so the verb requires to be singular - "cause" is NOT

C). moons causes contractions that may generate enough heat to melt
Error in Option A is rectified here

D). moons, causing contractions, may generate so much heat to melt
Meaning change : now the sentence is saying that gravitational force is generating Heat (and more so it is generating deliberately to melt the ice)

E). moons, which causes contractions, may generate enough heat for melting
Meaning change : now the sentence is saying that gravitational force is generating Heat (and more so it is generating deliberately to melt the ice)

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Re: On the surface of Jupiter's moon Europa, water remains frozen, but the  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Sep 2018, 13:30
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Re: On the surface of Jupiter's moon Europa, water remains frozen, but the &nbs [#permalink] 14 Sep 2018, 13:30
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