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One of the questions of interest in the study of the evolution of spid

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One of the questions of interest in the study of the evolution of  [#permalink]

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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 338, Date : 18-Sep-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details


One of the questions of interest in the study of the evolution of spiders is whether the weaving of orb webs evolved only once or several times. About half the 35,000 known kinds of spiders make webs; a third of the web weavers make orb webs. Since most orb weavers belong either to the Araneidae or the Uloboridae families, the origin of the orb web can be determined only by ascertaining whether the families are related.

Recent taxonomic analysis of individuals from both families indicates that the families evolved from different ancestors, thereby contradicting Wiehle’s theory. This theory postulates that the families must be related, based on the assumption that complex behavior, such as web building, could evolve only once. According to Kullman, web structure is the only characteristic that suggests a relationship between families. The families differ in appearance, structure of body hair, and arrangement of eyes. Only Uloborids lack venom glands. Further identification and study of characteristic features will undoubtedly answer the question of the evolution of the orb web.


1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) settle the question of whether orb webs evolved once or more than once
(B) describe scientific speculation concerning an issue related to the evolution of orb webs
(C) analyze the differences between the characteristic features of spiders in the Araneidae and Uloboridae families
(D) question the methods used by earlier investigators of the habits of spiders
(E) demonstrate that Araneidae spiders are not related to Uloboridae spiders



2. It can be inferred from the passage that all orb-weaving spiders belong to types of spiders that

(A) lack venom glands
(B) are included either in the Uloboridae or Araneidae families
(C) share few characteristic features with other spider types
(D) comprise less than a third of all known types of spiders
(E) are more recently evolved than other types of spiders



3. According to the passage, members of the Araneidae family can be distinguished from members of the Uloboridae family by all of the following EXCEPT:

(A) the presence of venom glands
(B) the type of web they spin
(C) the structure of their body hair
(D) the arrangement of their eyes
(E) their appearance



4. Which of the following statements, if true, most weakens Wiehle’s theory that complex behavior could evolve only once?

(A) Horses, introduced to the New World by the Spaniards, thrived under diverse climatic conditions.
(B) Plants of the Palmaceae family, descendants of a common ancestor, evolved unique seed forms even though the plants occupy similar habitats throughout the world.
(C) All mammals are descended from a small, rodentlike animal whose physical characteristics in some form are found in all its descendants.
(D) Plants in the Cactaceae and Euphorbiaceae families, although they often look alike and have developed similar mechanisms to meet the rigors of the desert, evolved independently.
(E) The Cuban anole, which was recently introduced in the Florida wilds, is quickly replacing the native Florida chameleon because the anole has no competitors.


Originally posted by vageesh on 12 Jan 2010, 10:17.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 18 Sep 2019, 09:12, edited 2 times in total.
Updated - Complete topic (564).
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Re: One of the questions of interest in the study of the evolution of  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Jan 2010, 21:51
1
vageesh wrote:
One of the questions of interest in the study of the evolution of spiders is whether the weaving of orb webs evolved only once or several times. About half the 35,000 known kinds of spiders make webs; a third of the web weavers make orb webs. Since most orb weavers belong either to the Araneidae or the Uloboridae families, the origin of the orb web can be determined only by ascertaining whether the families are related.Recent taxonomic analysis of individuals from both families indicates that the families evolved from different ancestors, thereby contradicting Wiehle’s theory. This theory postulates that the families must be related, based on the assumption that complex behavior, such as web building, could evolve only once. According to Kullman, web structure is the only characteristic that suggests a relationship between families. The families differ in appearance, structure of body hair, and arrangement of eyes. Only Uloborids lack venom glands. Further identification and study of characteristic features will undoubtedly answer the question of the evolution of the orb web.

17. The primary purpose of the passage is to
(A) settle the question of whether orb webs evolved once or more than once
(B) describe scientific speculation concerning an issue related to the evolution of orb
webs
Spot on. This is the only one that makes sense. It just describes the issue.
A) it was never settled. C narrows the scope too far. It's looking at more spiders than those two. D it doesn't question any of their methods. E it doesn't really claim this. It just says one of the scientists claims this.

(C) analyze the differences between the characteristic features of spiders in the
Araneidae and Uloboridae families
(D) question the methods used by earlier investigators of the habits of spiders
(E) demonstrate that Araneidae spiders are not related to Uloboridae spiders

18. It can be inferred from the passage that all orb-weaving spiders belong to types of spiders that

(A) lack venom glands
(B) are included either in the Uloboridae or Araneidae families
(C) share few characteristic features with other spider types
(D) comprise less than a third of all known types of spiders
orb weaving spiders are 1/3 or about 1/2 of all spiders. that's 1/6 which < 1/3. Bingo
(E) are more recently evolved than other types of spiders

19. According to the passage, members of the Araneidae family can be distinguished
from members of the Uloboridae family by all of the following EXCEPT:
(A) the presence of venom glands
(B) the type of web they spin
This was the toughest one for me but I just checked it off in the passage. it doesn't say that you can distinguish the 2 by their web type. if anything it probably means they're the same
(C) the structure of their body hair
(D) the arrangement of their eyes
(E) their appearance

20. Which of the following statements, if true, most weakens Wiehle’s theory that
complex behavior could evolve only once?
(A) Horses, introduced to the New World by the Spaniards, thrived under diverse
climatic conditions.
(B) Plants of the Palmaceae family, descendants of a common ancestor, evolved
unique seed forms even though the plants occupy similar habitats throughout the
world.
(C) All mammals are descended from a small, rodentlike animal whose physical
characteristics in some form are found in all its descendants.
(D) Plants in the Cactaceae and Euphorbiaceae families, although they often look
alike and have developed similar mechanisms to meet the rigors of the desert,
evolved independently.
I don't believe in evolution but just observing the reasoning here only D makes sense. We need an example of behavior (even plant behavior) where two unrelated things do the same thing. Of these choices only D provides this.
(E) The Cuban anole, which was recently introduced in the Florida wilds, is quickly
replacing the native Florida chameleon because the anole has no competitors

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Re: One of the questions of interest in the study of the evolution of  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jan 2010, 00:42
vannbj wrote:
kaptain wrote:
BDBB.

For 20., "evolved unique seed forms" seems to convey complex behaviour.


But they're related. Wouldn't that, if anything, strengthen W's theory?


Correct. I overlooked the statement "descendants of a common ancestor," and instead concentrated on the statements "the plants occupy similar habitats throughout the world." Thought if the plants are found throughout the world then they must have evolved independently. However they can be spread across the world due to various factors such as wind, birds etc carrying pollens. Obviously, I was thinking beyond the context of the passage. Classic example that answers are easily inferred by closely studying the passage.
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Re: One of the questions of interest in the study of the evolution of  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Aug 2016, 05:27
Please help me understand Q18

Why can't the answer be B?
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Re: One of the questions of interest in the study of the evolution of  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Aug 2016, 07:29
1
Gayatrimane wrote:
Please help me understand Q18

Why can't the answer be B?

Gayatrimane

The passage only said "most" of orb-web belongs to 2 families, but in the question stem it's all - "all orb-weaving spiders belong to types of spiders that.."
Most is always smaller set than All, thereby, B is not correct.
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Re: One of the questions of interest in the study of the evolution of spid  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Jan 2019, 21:42
Took 4 mins.

My answers are B D B B.

1) The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) settle the question of whether orb webs evolved once or more than once
There was no question asked.

(B) describe scientific speculation concerning an issue related to the evolution of orb webs
Correct answer, Spoke about two theories, pertaining to different scientists.

(C) analyze the differences between the characteristic features of spiders in the Araneidae and Uloboridae families
This was just a brief discussion

(D) question the methods used by earlier investigators of the habits of spiders
habits of spiders-Broad scope

(E) demonstrate that Araneidae spiders are not related to Uloboridae spiders
The passage spoke more on "study of the evolution of spiders is whether the weaving of orb webs evolved only once or several times."
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Re: One of the questions of interest in the study of the evolution of spid  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Jul 2019, 21:35
2
All correct in 6 mins, including 2 mins 30 seconds to read.

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) settle the question of whether orb webs evolved once or more than once - incorrect, the passage does not settle the question; Further identification and study of characteristic features will undoubtedly answer the question of the evolution of the orb web.
(B) describe scientific speculation concerning an issue related to the evolution of orb webs - Correct
(C) analyze the differences between the characteristic features of spiders in the Araneidae and Uloboridae families - incorrect
(D) question the methods used by earlier investigators of the habits of spiders - incorrect- the methods of investigation used by earlier investigators is not questioned
(E) demonstrate that Araneidae spiders are not related to Uloboridae spiders - incorrect


2. It can be inferred from the passage that all orb-weaving spiders belong to types of spiders that
(D) comprise less than a third of all known types of spiders - Correct
About half the 35,000 known kinds of spiders make webs; a third of the web weavers make orb webs.


3. According to the passage, members of the Araneidae family can be distinguished from members of the Uloboridae family by all of the following EXCEPT

(A) the presence of venom glands
(B) the type of web they spin - Correct
(C) the structure of their body hair
(D) the arrangement of their eyes
(E) their appearance

The families differ in appearance, structure of body hair, and arrangement of eyes. Only Uloborids lack venom glands.

4. Which of the following statements, if true, most weakens Wiehle's theory that complex behavior could evolve only once?
(D) Plants in the Cactaceae and Euphorbiaceae families, although they often look alike and have developed similar mechanisms to meet the rigors of the desert, evolved independently. - Correct,
In case of the Plants in the Cactaceae and Euphorbiaceae families, the complex behavior to meet the rigors of the desert evolved independently
Wiehle's theory postulates that the families must be related, based on the assumption that complex behavior, such as web building, could evolve only once.
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Re: One of the questions of interest in the study of the evolution of spid  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Jul 2019, 20:57
Can someone please explain Q.2.
Please correct my reasoning since I clearly got it wrong.

2. It can be inferred from the passage that all orb-weaving spiders belong to types of spiders that

(A) lack venom glands - incorrect; "Only Uloborids lack venom glands", not talking about the Araneidae families which is also part of the orb-weaving spiders
(B) are included either in the Uloboridae or Araneidae families - correct; "Since most orb weavers belong either to the Araneidae or the Uloboridae families"
(C) share few characteristic features with other spider types - incorrect; this was no stated anywhere in the passage
(D) comprise less than a third of all known types of spiders - incorrect; "a third of the web weavers make orb webs", doesn't mean less than a third.
(E) are more recently evolved than other types of spiders - incorrect; this was not stated anywhere in the passage.
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Re: One of the questions of interest in the study of the evolution of  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Sep 2019, 18:30
SajjadAhmad

This passage has already been discussed here: https://gmatclub.com/forum/one-of-the-q ... fl=similar and is already a part of RC Butler. Kindly do the needful
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Re: One of the questions of interest in the study of the evolution of spid  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Sep 2019, 21:58
Thanks!

I have merged the topic and will replace the duplicate one.

gmat1393 wrote:
SajjadAhmad

This passage has already been discussed here: https://gmatclub.com/forum/one-of-the-q ... fl=similar and is already a part of RC Butler. Kindly do the needful

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Re: One of the questions of interest in the study of the evolution of spid   [#permalink] 22 Sep 2019, 21:58
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