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# Psychologist: Though popularized by the media and even some ill-inform

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Psychologist: Though popularized by the media and even some ill-inform  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 04 Jan 2019, 09:17
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Psychologist: Though popularized by the media and even some ill-informed scientists, photographic memory is a myth. Most of the top competitors at this summer’s national memory championship have brains that are neurologically indistinguishable from those of the general population and cognitive abilities that are seldom more than a standard deviation above average.

Which of the following would LEAST strengthen the argument above?

A. The competitors at this summer’s championship are typical of the segment of the population thought to have photographic memory.

B. People with photographic memories would have brains that are neurologically distinguishable from those of the general population.

C. Photographic memory requires cognitive abilities more than a standard deviation above average.

D. Photographic memory was initially proposed by a scientist whose theories of mind have since been widely discredited.

E. Photographic memory, if it exists, would be a requirement even to qualify for a national memory competition.

Originally posted by TGC on 20 Jan 2013, 20:24.
Last edited by Bunuel on 04 Jan 2019, 09:17, edited 1 time in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: Psychologist: Though popularized by the media and even some ill-inform  [#permalink]

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02 Feb 2013, 03:48
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1
Psychologist: Though popularized by the media and even some ill-informed scientists, photographic memory is a myth. Most of the top competitors at this summer’s national memory championship have brains that are neurologically indistinguishable from those of the general population and cognitive abilities that are seldom more than a standard deviation above average.

Premise 1: Photographic memory is supposed by media and ill-informed some scientists
Premise 2: The particpants of a top notch competition have same brain structure as of general population.
Premise 2: The particpants of a top notch competition have cognitive abilities comparable with that of general population.
Conclusion : photographic memory is a myth

Which of the following would LEAST strengthen the argument above?

The competitors at this summer’s championship are typical of the segment of the population thought to have photographic memory.
Strengthens - This option eliminates the possibility that the psychologist was using a wrong sample.

People with photographic memories would have brains that are neurologically distinguishable from those of the general population.
Strengthens - This option validates the truth of Premise 2.

Photographic memory requires cognitive abilities more than a standard deviation above average.
Strengthens - This option validates the truth of Premise 3.

Photographic memory was initially proposed by a scientist whose theories of mind have since been widely discredited.
Strengthens Slightly- This option eliminates the possibility of prejudice for the adjective "ill-informed" in Premise 1.

Photographic memory, if it exists, would be a requirement even to qualify for a national memory competition.
Doesn't Help the argument.

is it E ?
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Re: Psychologist: Though popularized by the media and even some ill-inform  [#permalink]

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02 Feb 2013, 06:15
5
Hi
really excellent question.
Conclusion:Photographic memory is just a myth.
Premise: Top competitors at the competition have qualities comparable to the normal public.
Two characteristics of top competitors are presented.

Prethinking Assumption: The top competitors of the national competition are considered representative of excellent memory or If the photographic memory would have existed, than it would have been a criteria for qualifying in the competition (I mean if photographic memory existed , than for sure top competitors would have the foresaid quality).

Think of a kid who justifies his lower score by comparing his score to the the scores of toppers in his class. The argument is on similar lines.

Moreover, The stem asks which of the option Least Strengthen, ie the correct must also strengthen the argument.

B and C cannot strenghten the argument, hence can be rejected at first glance (They just repeat the characterstics, which is stated in the argumnet....not bringing new idea, hence cannot strengthen)

A is the most lucid assumption.....hence it strengthens, E also mentions one of the assumption, hence must strengthen.

D strengthens but least among all 3 correct options. It just states the scientist who proposed the photographic memory is widely discredited.
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Re: Psychologist: Though popularized by the media and even some ill-inform  [#permalink]

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03 Feb 2013, 07:57
1
I chose C, and still I don't agree with the OA...

C) Photographic memory requires cognitive abilities more than a standard deviation above average.

This weakens the argument of the psychologist. Indeed, if photographic memories requires cognitive abilities more than a standard deviation above average then the cognitive abilities of the top competitors at this summer’s national memory championship could have been simply not high enough to prove the photographic memory thing and so the argument of the psychologist is weakened.

On the other side answer D strengthens the main argument of the psychologist (which is that photographic memory does not exist) even though it is not relevant to his proof.
Photographic memory was initially proposed by a scientist whose theories of mind have since been widely discredited.
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Re: Psychologist: Though popularized by the media and even some ill-inform  [#permalink]

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03 Feb 2013, 08:37
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Hi Darmody,

I think your struggling because you've not totally grasped the question.

As the other guys have said, it asks for 'least strngthen' - this does not mean 'weaken'.

So in other words, we want something that strengthens the argument a little bit. NOT something that weakens...

Cheers,
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Re: Psychologist: Though popularized by the media and even some ill-inform  [#permalink]

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06 Nov 2013, 13:13
1
TGC wrote:
Psychologist: Though popularized by the media and even some ill-informed scientists, photographic memory is a myth. Most of the top competitors at this summer’s national memory championship have brains that are neurologically indistinguishable from those of the general population and cognitive abilities that are seldom more than a standard deviation above average.

Which of the following would LEAST strengthen the argument above?

The competitors at this summer’s championship are typical of the segment of the population thought to have photographic memory.
People with photographic memories would have brains that are neurologically distinguishable from those of the general population.
Photographic memory requires cognitive abilities more than a standard deviation above average.
Photographic memory was initially proposed by a scientist whose theories of mind have since been widely discredited.
Photographic memory, if it exists, would be a requirement even to qualify for a national memory competition.
Source: Veri Prep

In my opinion , E is better than D. I am not sure how does E strengthen the conclusion.
Having hard time grasping the answer. How does E strengthen the argument "photographic memory is a myth" ?
D , to an extent strengthens , since scientists theories of mind have been discredited .
Appreciate if any of the veritas experts can help on this.

-Jyothi
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Re: Psychologist: Though popularized by the media and even some ill-inform  [#permalink]

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08 Jan 2014, 23:59
gmacforjyoab wrote:
TGC wrote:
Psychologist: Though popularized by the media and even some ill-informed scientists, photographic memory is a myth. Most of the top competitors at this summer’s national memory championship have brains that are neurologically indistinguishable from those of the general population and cognitive abilities that are seldom more than a standard deviation above average.

Which of the following would LEAST strengthen the argument above?

The competitors at this summer’s championship are typical of the segment of the population thought to have photographic memory.
People with photographic memories would have brains that are neurologically distinguishable from those of the general population.
Photographic memory requires cognitive abilities more than a standard deviation above average.
Photographic memory was initially proposed by a scientist whose theories of mind have since been widely discredited.
Photographic memory, if it exists, would be a requirement even to qualify for a national memory competition.
Source: Veri Prep

In my opinion , E is better than D. I am not sure how does E strengthen the cionclusion.
Having hard time grasping the answer. How does E strengthen the argument "photographic memory is a myth" ?
D , to an extent strengthens , since scientists theories of mind have been discredited .
Appreciate if any of the veritas experts can help on this.

-Jyothi

Choice E strengthens because if photographic memory is not a requirement to qualify for the championship then the top competitors in the competition may not really possess photographic memory and the author cannot arrive at the conclusion that he does. So it is more relevant to the author's argument than choice D which really has little relevance to the logic of the author.
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Re: Psychologist: Though popularized by the media and even some ill-inform  [#permalink]

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13 Jan 2014, 07:48
PREMISE. Most of the top competitors at this summer’s national memory championship have brains that are neurologically indistinguishable from those of the general population and cognitive abilities that are seldom more than a standard deviation above average.

COUNTER PREMISE. Psychologist: photographic memory has been popularized by the media and even some ill-informed scientists.

CONCLUSION. Photographic memory is a myth.

Which of the following would LEAST strengthen the argument above?

The competitors at this summer’s championship are typical of the segment of the population thought to have photographic memory.STRENGTHENER...AS it proves that those participating are neurologically indistinguishable people
People with photographic memories would have brains that are neurologically distinguishable from those of the general populationSTRENGTHENER ....that is what the conclusion says.
Photographic memory requires cognitive abilities more than a standard deviation above average....but here we have competitors who have cognitive abilities that are seldom more than a standard deviation above average...hence nothing like photographic memory....strengthener..
Photographic memory was initially proposed by a scientist whose theories of mind have since been widely discredited.....hold...this is no logic to discredit him after all he is a scientist.....
Photographic memory, if it exists, would be a requirement even to qualify for a national memory competition...but it is not so hence it doesnt exist ...strengthener
Source: Veri Prep

IMO "D"
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Re: Psychologist: Though popularized by the media and even some ill-inform  [#permalink]

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23 Nov 2014, 23:06
(A) strengthens the argument by creating a greater connection between those who are participating in the competition and people who would have photographic memory (if it existed)

(B) strengthens the argument by strengthening the premise that the fact that these competitors are neurologically indistinguishable from the general population means that there is no photographic memory

(C) This one strengthens the final premise that the fact that these competitors have abilities that are seldom more than a SD above average means that there is no photographic memory

(D) seems appealing, but really it says nothing about the argument. just because his other theories have been discredited doesn't mean that this one has. Furthermore, just because he initially proposed it doesn't mean there weren't many other scientists who have since proved it.

(E) e also strengthens the argument, because it creates a greater connection between these competitors and people with photographic memory.
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#Top150 CR: Psychologist: Though popularized by the media and even  [#permalink]

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18 Oct 2015, 04:32
E for me.

We need to find out the option that Least strengthens/Weakens/ is Irrelevant to the argument. In other words, four out of five choices will strengthen the argument, we need to spot the one that doesn't.
Key: Find out assumptions, those will be strengtheners and hence will be wrong.

A. The competitors at this summer’s championship are typical of the segment of the population thought to have photographic memory.
This is a strengthener that, if true, says that the Psychologist has chosen the right set (sample) of people to come to the conclusion. - Incorrect

B. People with photographic memories would have brains that are neurologically distinguishable from those of the general population.
This is an assumption that is required for the Psychologist's claim to be correct. The Psychologist claims on the basis of the two attributes of the competitors' brains - neurologically indistinguishable from others and cognitive abilities. This is attribute#1.
Incorrect

C. Photographic memory requires cognitive abilities more than a standard deviation above average.
Like B, this is an assumption too. Here is the attribute#2-cognitive abilities.
Incorrect

D. Photographic memory was initially proposed by a scientist whose theories of mind have since been widely discredited.
This gives me one more reason to believe that the Psychologist is probably correct. Photographic memory could actually be a myth. Good strengthener.
Incorrect

E. Photographic memory, if it exists, would be a requirement even to qualify for a national memory competition.
At last, here's something that weakens the argument. This attacks the basis of Psychologist's conclusion. If all those who enter the competition have Photographic memories, and even then have Attribute#1 and Attribute#2 as describes by the Psychologist. His finding is flawed.

Please correct me if im wrong.
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Re: #Top150 CR: Psychologist: Though popularized by the media and even  [#permalink]

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18 Oct 2015, 11:37
1
Psychologist: Though popularized by the media and others, photographic memory is a myth.
Most of the top competitors at this summer’s national memory championship have
• brains
that are neurologically indistinguishable from those of the general population
and
• cognitive abilities
that are seldom more than a standard deviation above average
.

Which of the following would LEAST strengthen the argument above?

A. The competitors at this summer’s championship are typical of the segment of the population thought to have photographic memory.
(so whatever applies to normal public applies to competitors at championship here. Assumption acts as a strengthener.)

B. People with photographic memories would have brains that are neurologically distinguishable from those of the general population.
(Assumption from 1st of the 2 above mentioned competitor qualities)

C. Photographic memory requires cognitive abilities more than a standard deviation above average.
(Assumption from 2nd of the 2 above mentioned competitor qualities)

D. Photographic memory was initially proposed by a scientist whose theories of mind have since been widely discredited.
Who proposed it does not affect the conclusion much.

E. Photographic memory, if it exists, would be a requirement even to qualify for a national memory competition.
(Assumption from correlation between general theory and example mentioned above regarding competition.)
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Re: #Top150 CR: Psychologist: Though popularized by the media and even  [#permalink]

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18 Oct 2015, 18:30
I dunno.. i couple of weeks to go before the big day and my reasoning has gone for a toss
It was always between D and E and i chose E. And im still not convinced- How can it be D!

2 reasons for D to be a strengthener-
D. Photographic memory was initially proposed by a scientist whose theories of mind have since been widely discredited.
Scientist X, lets say, went crazy at some point in his life and then was the same since then, all the theories (including this one) he proposed from then onward have been discredited.

D. Photographic memory was initially proposed by a scientist whose theories of mind have since been widely discredited.
Scientist X, lets say, dived into the field of 'mind' and was not actually eligible to, most of his 'theories of mind' (including this one) have been discredited.

Any degree of strengthening is enough for an option to be a strengthener. This, i thought was more than enough.

My reasoning behind E
E. Photographic memory, if it exists, would be a requirement even to qualify for a national memory competition.
IF Photographic memory exists and is a requirement to qualify for memory competition AND the brains of the participants are neurologically indistinguishable from those of the general population and the cognitive abilities are mostly same,
THEN there has to be some other reason for their Photographic memory which is overlooked by the Psychologist.

This reason questions his finding and his claim. Am i overthinking here??

Can someone point where i went wrong and help me fix my reasoning??

-Thanks
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Re: #Top150 CR: Psychologist: Though popularized by the media and even  [#permalink]

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18 Oct 2015, 19:08
Quote:
2 reasons for D to be a strengthener-
D. Photographic memory was initially proposed by a scientist whose theories of mind have since been widely discredited.
Scientist X, lets say, went crazy at some point in his life and then was the same since then, all the theories (including this one) he proposed from then onward have been discredited.

The scientist theories which came out after he proposed the photographic theory have been widely discredited.
But the current theory need not wrong because of the same.

This statement tells that since most of the scientists theories which came later are not approved even this one can be wrong. But this need not be true.

Quote:
D. Photographic memory was initially proposed by a scientist whose theories of mind have since been widely discredited.
Scientist X, lets say, dived into the field of 'mind' and was not actually eligible to, most of his 'theories of mind' (including this one) have been discredited.
same extreme case. Almost every scientist in this world is famous for some theories and discredited for some, that fact cannot be an evidence to disapprove his remaining theories or his thinking level.

Quote:
My reasoning behind E
E. Photographic memory, if it exists, would be a requirement even to qualify for a national memory competition.
IF Photographic memory exists and is a requirement to qualify for memory competition AND the brains of the participants are neurologically indistinguishable from those of the general population and the cognitive abilities are mostly same,
THEN there has to be some other reason for their Photographic memory which is overlooked by the Psychologist.

This reason questions his finding and his claim. Am i overthinking here??
sorry but yes.

In the argument, there are two things
1. Psychologist statement that says photographic memory is a myth.
2. evidence supporting the above statement taking top competitors at this summer’s national memory championship as a sample.

Assumption: Photographic memory, if it exists, would be a requirement even to qualify for a national memory competition.
if this is negated then the conclusion falls apart.
as if Photographic memory not required then the conclusion does not make sense.

Assumption also works as strengthener sometimes. and option E is an Assumption from correlation between general theory and example mentioned above regarding competition.

D is the correct answer since A, B, C and E are wrong.
Remember we are dealing with LEAST or EXCEPTION category of CR questions here.
I hope this helps.
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#Top150 CR: Psychologist: Though popularized by the media and even  [#permalink]

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25 Nov 2016, 09:25
1
1
arhumsid wrote:
I dunno.. i couple of weeks to go before the big day and my reasoning has gone for a toss
It was always between D and E and i chose E. And im still not convinced- How can it be D!

2 reasons for D to be a strengthener-
D. Photographic memory was initially proposed by a scientist whose theories of mind have since been widely discredited.
Scientist X, lets say, went crazy at some point in his life and then was the same since then, all the theories (including this one) he proposed from then onward have been discredited.

D. Photographic memory was initially proposed by a scientist whose theories of mind have since been widely discredited.
Scientist X, lets say, dived into the field of 'mind' and was not actually eligible to, most of his 'theories of mind' (including this one) have been discredited.

Any degree of strengthening is enough for an option to be a strengthener. This, i thought was more than enough.

My reasoning behind E
E. Photographic memory, if it exists, would be a requirement even to qualify for a national memory competition.
IF Photographic memory exists and is a requirement to qualify for memory competition AND the brains of the participants are neurologically indistinguishable from those of the general population and the cognitive abilities are mostly same,
THEN there has to be some other reason for their Photographic memory which is overlooked by the Psychologist.

This reason questions his finding and his claim. Am i overthinking here??

Can someone point where i went wrong and help me fix my reasoning??

-Thanks

For a weakening (or strengthening) statement a must be true condition need not be satisfied. The examples you have mentioned may indicate that D is not a weakener, but if a person's work is not credited, then there are chances that his works are not creditworthy. This kind of reasoning is good enough to qualify an option to be a strengthening or weakening.

Option E: The conclusion is that the photographic memory is a myth. Option E states "Photographic memory, if it exists...", but it does not provide any argument in favor that such memory exists. Thus option E is a neutral statement - it neither strengthens, nor weakens.

The question asks you to identify the least strengthening statement - in that list D comes first, then comes E. So D is the correct answer.
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Re: #Top150 CR: Psychologist: Though popularized by the media and even  [#permalink]

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08 Feb 2017, 00:18
I am unable to understand how option B even slightly strengthens the conclusion.
My reasoning:
Option B states that people with PM would have brains that are neurologically different from those of the general population.
However, in order to support his view that PM is a myth, the psychologist quotes the example of most top competitors' having brains that are NOT neurologically different from those of the general population.

In essence, if characteristic A is required to be classified as belonging to type B, how can you say that it is not possible to be type B by sampling people who DO NOT possess characteristic A?
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#Top150 CR: Psychologist: Though popularized by the media and even  [#permalink]

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12 Feb 2017, 02:32
1
Vaidya wrote:
I am unable to understand how option B even slightly strengthens the conclusion.
My reasoning:
Option B states that people with PM would have brains that are neurologically different from those of the general population.
However, in order to support his view that PM is a myth, the psychologist quotes the example of most top competitors' having brains that are NOT neurologically different from those of the general population.

In essence, if characteristic A is required to be classified as belonging to type B, how can you say that it is not possible to be type B by sampling people who DO NOT possess characteristic A?

Media / ill-informed scientists. PM is true
Author: PM is myth.

Author's argument:
Premise: No difference in neurological feature.
Conclusion: PM is myth.

Assumption: There must be distinguishable neurological feature in people with PM (but there is none).

So Option B is an assumption ( and thus a strengthening statement that conclusively proves that the author's argument is valid).
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Re: Psychologist: Though popularized by the media and even some ill-inform  [#permalink]

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Re: Psychologist: Though popularized by the media and even some ill-inform   [#permalink] 04 Jan 2019, 09:19
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# Psychologist: Though popularized by the media and even some ill-inform

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