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Psychologists have found that the implementation of policies

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Psychologists have found that the implementation of policies  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Nov 2013, 11:30
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Psychologists have found that the implementation of policies allowing work schedules to be tailored to individuals' needs does not typically increase managers' job satisfaction or their efficiency-although this may be because most managers already have the autonomy to adjust their own schedules. But these flexible schedule policies do increase job satisfaction, productivity, and attendance among nonmanagerial employees. The benefits dissipate somewhat over time, however, and they are reduced even further if schedules are too elastic.

Which one of the following statements is most supported by the information above?

A. Implementing flexible schedules would be an effective means of increasing the job satisfaction and efficiency of managers who do not already have scheduling autonomy.
B. Flexible-schedule policies should be expected to improve the morale of some individual employees but not the overall morale of a company's workforce.
C. Flexible schedules should be expected to substantially improve a company's productivity and employee satisfaction in the long run.
D. There is little correlation between managers' job satisfaction and their ability to set their own work schedules.
E. The typical benefits of flexible-schedule policies cannot be reliably inferred from observations of the effects of such policies on managers.

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Re: Psychologists have found that the implementation of policies  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Nov 2013, 02:50
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To answer this Inference question, we need to eliminate all the answer choices that cannot be inferred from the premises.

Answer choice A is not supported by the premises. This choice tries to trap you by using the fallacy called 'denying the antecedent', i/e. "if A then B; not A, therefore not B". This is not a valid inference, as can be seen in the following simple example: "If it snows, the windshield fogs up. It is not snowing, therefore the windshield won't fog up". We know this is not true because the window could become fogged up for another reasons. Translated to the terms of the argument, the argument says that implementing flexible schedules does not increase manager's job satisfaction, when they already enjoy flexibility. In other words, if managers who have flexibility are allowed flexible work schedules (A), then job satisfaction will not increase (B). Answer choice A tries to deny the antecedent and say - If managers who don't have flexibility are offered flexibility (= not A) therefore job satisfaction will increase (not B). As we have seen, this kind of reasoning is not valid. Put more simply, just because we know that giving managers more flexibility doesn't help job satisfaction when they already have flexibility, we cannot conclude that when they don't have flexibility, giving it to them will result in increased job satisfaction. It might, but this is not a necessary result. There may be other factors that are more important for job satisfaction.

Answer choice B should be eliminated because we don't have premises that allow us to assess the overall morale of a company, and we are also told that the increases are time dependent, and don't necessary last.

Answer choice C should be eliminated contradicts the information in the passage, which tells us that the benefits of implementation of flexible schedules dissipates over time.

Answer choice D should be eliminated because it is not supported by the premises. The argument might in fact support the contrary - that there might be some correlation between flexibility and job satisfaction, since we know that those who already enjoy flexibility are not affected by being given more flexibility.

Answer choice E is supported by the premises. We are told in the argument that "the implementation of policies allowing work schedules to be tailored to individuals' needs does not typically increase managers' job satisfaction or their efficiency". We can infer from this that "The typical benefits of flexible-schedule policies cannot be reliably inferred from observations of the effects of such policies on managers." This answer choice is only talking about the ability to infer something: not the content of that inference, and it is therefore fully compatible with the premises of the argument.

gmat6nplus1 wrote:
Have fun.

Psychologists have found that the implementation of policies allowing work schedules to be tailored to individuals' needs does not typically increase managers' job satisfaction or their efficiency-although this may be because most managers already have the autonomy to adjust their own schedules. But these flexible schedule policies do increase job satisfaction, productivity, and attendance among nonmanagerial employees. The benefits dissipate somewhat over time, however, and they are reduced even further if schedules are too elastic.

Which one of the following statements is most supported by the information above?

A. Implementing flexible schedules would be an effective means of increasing the job satisfaction and efficiency of managers who do not already have scheduling autonomy.
B. Flexible-schedule policies should be expected to improve the morale of some individual employees but not the overall morale of a company's workforce.
C. Flexible schedules should be expected to substantially improve a company's productivity and employee satisfaction in the long run.
D. There is little correlation between managers' job satisfaction and their ability to set their own work schedules.
E. The typical benefits of flexible-schedule policies cannot be reliably inferred from observations of the effects of such policies on managers.

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Re: Psychologists have found that the implementation of policies  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Mar 2015, 05:30
IlanaEconomistGMAT wrote:
To answer this Inference question, we need to eliminate all the answer choices that cannot be inferred from the premises.

Answer choice A is not supported by the premises. This choice tries to trap you by using the fallacy called 'denying the antecedent', i/e. "if A then B; not A, therefore not B". This is not a valid inference, as can be seen in the following simple example: "If it snows, the windshield fogs up. It is not snowing, therefore the windshield won't fog up". We know this is not true because the window could become fogged up for another reasons. Translated to the terms of the argument, the argument says that implementing flexible schedules does not increase manager's job satisfaction, when they already enjoy flexibility. In other words, if managers who have flexibility are allowed flexible work schedules (A), then job satisfaction will not increase (B). Answer choice A tries to deny the antecedent and say - If managers who don't have flexibility are offered flexibility (= not A) therefore job satisfaction will increase (not B). As we have seen, this kind of reasoning is not valid. Put more simply, just because we know that giving managers more flexibility doesn't help job satisfaction when they already have flexibility, we cannot conclude that when they don't have flexibility, giving it to them will result in increased job satisfaction. It might, but this is not a necessary result. There may be other factors that are more important for job satisfaction.

Answer choice B should be eliminated because we don't have premises that allow us to assess the overall morale of a company, and we are also told that the increases are time dependent, and don't necessary last.

Answer choice C should be eliminated contradicts the information in the passage, which tells us that the benefits of implementation of flexible schedules dissipates over time.

Answer choice D should be eliminated because it is not supported by the premises. The argument might in fact support the contrary - that there might be some correlation between flexibility and job satisfaction, since we know that those who already enjoy flexibility are not affected by being given more flexibility.

Answer choice E is supported by the premises. We are told in the argument that "the implementation of policies allowing work schedules to be tailored to individuals' needs does not typically increase managers' job satisfaction or their efficiency". We can infer from this that "The typical benefits of flexible-schedule policies cannot be reliably inferred from observations of the effects of such policies on managers." This answer choice is only talking about the ability to infer something: not the content of that inference, and it is therefore fully compatible with the premises of the argument.

gmat6nplus1 wrote:
Have fun.

Psychologists have found that the implementation of policies allowing work schedules to be tailored to individuals' needs does not typically increase managers' job satisfaction or their efficiency-although this may be because most managers already have the autonomy to adjust their own schedules. But these flexible schedule policies do increase job satisfaction, productivity, and attendance among nonmanagerial employees. The benefits dissipate somewhat over time, however, and they are reduced even further if schedules are too elastic.

Which one of the following statements is most supported by the information above?

A. Implementing flexible schedules would be an effective means of increasing the job satisfaction and efficiency of managers who do not already have scheduling autonomy.
B. Flexible-schedule policies should be expected to improve the morale of some individual employees but not the overall morale of a company's workforce.
C. Flexible schedules should be expected to substantially improve a company's productivity and employee satisfaction in the long run.
D. There is little correlation between managers' job satisfaction and their ability to set their own work schedules.
E. The typical benefits of flexible-schedule policies cannot be reliably inferred from observations of the effects of such policies on managers.


Can someone help me explain this part-( I got the answer right but I feel that this explanation is useful) Please help me understand this bit.

Answer choice A is not supported by the premises. This choice tries to trap you by using the fallacy called 'denying the antecedent', i/e. "if A then B; not A, therefore not B". This is not a valid inference, as can be seen in the following simple example: "If it snows, the windshield fogs up. It is not snowing, therefore the windshield won't fog up". We know this is not true because the window could become fogged up for another reasons. Translated to the terms of the argument, the argument says that implementing flexible schedules does not increase manager's job satisfaction, when they already enjoy flexibility. In other words, if managers who have flexibility are allowed flexible work schedules (A), then job satisfaction will not increase (B). Answer choice A tries to deny the antecedent and say - If managers who don't have flexibility are offered flexibility (= not A) therefore job satisfaction will increase (not B). As we have seen, this kind of reasoning is not valid. Put more simply, just because we know that giving managers more flexibility doesn't help job satisfaction when they already have flexibility, we cannot conclude that when they don't have flexibility, giving it to them will result in increased job satisfaction. It might, but this is not a necessary result. There may be other factors that are more important for job satisfaction.

Thanks
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Re: Psychologists have found that the implementation of policies  [#permalink]

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New post 12 May 2015, 02:16
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IlanaEconomistGMAT wrote:
To answer this Inference question, we need to eliminate all the answer choices that cannot be inferred from the premises.

Answer choice A is not supported by the premises. This choice tries to trap you by using the fallacy called 'denying the antecedent', i/e. "if A then B; not A, therefore not B". This is not a valid inference, as can be seen in the following simple example: "If it snows, the windshield fogs up. It is not snowing, therefore the windshield won't fog up". We know this is not true because the window could become fogged up for another reasons. Translated to the terms of the argument, the argument says that implementing flexible schedules does not increase manager's job satisfaction, when they already enjoy flexibility. In other words, if managers who have flexibility are allowed flexible work schedules (A), then job satisfaction will not increase (B). Answer choice A tries to deny the antecedent and say - If managers who don't have flexibility are offered flexibility (= not A) therefore job satisfaction will increase (not B). As we have seen, this kind of reasoning is not valid. Put more simply, just because we know that giving managers more flexibility doesn't help job satisfaction when they already have flexibility, we cannot conclude that when they don't have flexibility, giving it to them will result in increased job satisfaction. It might, but this is not a necessary result. There may be other factors that are more important for job satisfaction.

Answer choice B should be eliminated because we don't have premises that allow us to assess the overall morale of a company, and we are also told that the increases are time dependent, and don't necessary last.

Answer choice C should be eliminated contradicts the information in the passage, which tells us that the benefits of implementation of flexible schedules dissipates over time.

Answer choice D should be eliminated because it is not supported by the premises. The argument might in fact support the contrary - that there might be some correlation between flexibility and job satisfaction, since we know that those who already enjoy flexibility are not affected by being given more flexibility.

Answer choice E is supported by the premises. We are told in the argument that "the implementation of policies allowing work schedules to be tailored to individuals' needs does not typically increase managers' job satisfaction or their efficiency". We can infer from this that "The typical benefits of flexible-schedule policies cannot be reliably inferred from observations of the effects of such policies on managers." This answer choice is only talking about the ability to infer something: not the content of that inference, and it is therefore fully compatible with the premises of the argument.

gmat6nplus1 wrote:
Have fun.

Psychologists have found that the implementation of policies allowing work schedules to be tailored to individuals' needs does not typically increase managers' job satisfaction or their efficiency-although this may be because most managers already have the autonomy to adjust their own schedules. But these flexible schedule policies do increase job satisfaction, productivity, and attendance among nonmanagerial employees. The benefits dissipate somewhat over time, however, and they are reduced even further if schedules are too elastic.

Which one of the following statements is most supported by the information above?

A. Implementing flexible schedules would be an effective means of increasing the job satisfaction and efficiency of managers who do not already have scheduling autonomy.
B. Flexible-schedule policies should be expected to improve the morale of some individual employees but not the overall morale of a company's workforce.
C. Flexible schedules should be expected to substantially improve a company's productivity and employee satisfaction in the long run.
D. There is little correlation between managers' job satisfaction and their ability to set their own work schedules.
E. The typical benefits of flexible-schedule policies cannot be reliably inferred from observations of the effects of such policies on managers.



Hi Ilana,
I have one doubt here

But here effect of this policy is given for managers and non managerial employees.
"managers' job satisfaction or their efficiency-although this may be because most managers already have the autonomy to adjust their own schedules. But these flexible schedule policies do increase job satisfaction, productivity, and attendance amongnonmanagerial employees."

Further no clear conclusion is present in stimulus,on whether this policy is good or bad for employees
So how can OA be E .
Kindly help me to get this
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Re: Psychologists have found that the implementation of policies  [#permalink]

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New post 14 May 2015, 09:59
Psychologists have found that the implementation of policies allowing work schedules to be tailored to individuals' needs does not typically increase managers' job satisfaction or their efficiency-although this may be because most managers already have the autonomy to adjust their own schedules. But these flexible schedule policies do increase job satisfaction, productivity, and attendance among nonmanagerial employees. The benefits dissipate somewhat over time, however, and they are reduced even further if schedules are too elastic.

Which one of the following statements is most supported by the information above?

A. Implementing flexible schedules would be an effective means of increasing the job satisfaction and efficiency of managers who do not already have scheduling autonomy.This would be true if it were certain that existing autonomy was the reason for their lack of response to flexible schedules
B. Flexible-schedule policies should be expected to improve the morale of some individual employees but not the overall morale of a company's workforce.Morale is out of scope.
C. Flexible schedules should be expected to substantially improve a company's productivity and employee satisfaction in the long run. We're told that the effects dissipate over time.
D. There is little correlation between managers' job satisfaction and their ability to set their own work schedules. The stimulus suggests that there may be a correlation between managers' job satisfaction and their autonomy.
E. The typical benefits of flexible-schedule policies cannot be reliably inferred from observations of the effects of such policies on managers. Managers respond differently to flexible schedules compared to nonmanagerial employees. As such, benefits of flexible-schedule policies cannot be reliably observed.
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Re: Psychologists have found that the implementation of policies  [#permalink]

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