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# QOTD: In their search for Mayan ruins in the jungles of Guatemala

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QOTD: In their search for Mayan ruins in the jungles of Guatemala  [#permalink]

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29 Aug 2017, 13:17
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Verbal Question of The Day: Day 92: Critical Reasoning

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In their search for Mayan ruins in the jungles of Guatemala, archaeologists have been unable to utilize satellite imagery, which is taken by satellites that orbit 500 or more kilometers above the Earth's surface and cannot penetrate the dense tree canopy of the jungles. However, using new infrared imaging technology, which translates heat signatures into distinct colors, archaeologists have recently been able to discern some Mayan ruins in photographs taken from helicopters flown just above the tree canopy. If scientists can equip satellites with this new infrared imaging technology, the discovery of Mayan ruins in the jungles of Guatemala will surely be expedited.

The conclusion above logically depends on each of the following assumptions EXCEPT:

(A) All of the Mayan ruins in the jungles of Guatemala have not already been discovered.
(B) The new infrared imaging technology is compatible with satellites currently used to photograph the Earth from space.
(C) Some of the heat signatures of undiscovered Mayan ruins in the jungles of Guatemala are different from those of the surrounding jungle.
(D) The effectiveness of the new infrared imaging technology is not limited to photographs taken at heights just above the tree canopy.
(E) Funds will be available to cover the cost of launching at least one satellite with the new infrared imaging technology into orbit.

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QOTD: In their search for Mayan ruins in the jungles of Guatemala  [#permalink]

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29 Aug 2017, 13:18
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The conclusion of this passage is clearly stated in the last sentence: "If scientists can equip satellites with this new infrared imaging technology, the discovery of Mayan ruins in the jungles of Guatemala will surely be expedited." Why does the author believe that this will expedite the discovery of Mayan ruins?

• Currently, satellite imagery, which is taken by satellites that orbit 500 or more kilometers above the Earth's surface, cannot penetrate the dense tree canopy of the jungles. We can infer that if satellite imagery could penetrate the canopy of the jungles, it WOULD expedite the discovery of Mayan ruins.
• We cannot currently use satellite imagery to expedite the discovery of Mayan ruins, BUT archaeologists have recently been able to discern Mayan ruins in photographs taken from helicopters flown ABOVE the canopy. This was done using new infrared imaging technology.
• So, we can't use satellite imagery because it can't penetrate the canopy. Now we have new technology that can penetrate the canopy, at least from just above the canopy. Can that same technology be used to penetrate the canopy when used with satellites that orbit 500 or more kilometers above the Earth's surface?

Drawing the author's conclusion from the information in the passage depends on each of the following assumptions EXCEPT (cross off any required assumptions):

Quote:
(A) All of the Mayan ruins in the jungles of Guatemala have not already been discovered.

If this is true, then there will be nothing left to discover, even if we can penetrate the canopy using satellite imagery. Thus, the discovery of Mayan ruins would not be expedited. (A) is a required assumption, so it can be eliminated.

Quote:
(B) The new infrared imaging technology is compatible with satellites currently used to photograph the Earth from space.

At first, choice (B) sounds tempting. If the new technology isn't compatible with the satellites, how can we use it to take satellite images that penetrate the canopy? However, who says we need to use the satellites that are currently used to photograph the Earth from space? We might need to employ new/different satellites to take advantage of the new technology, but that would not conflict with the author's argument. Choice (B) is not a required assumption, so hang on to this one.

Quote:
(C) Some of the heat signatures of undiscovered Mayan ruins in the jungles of Guatemala are different from those of the surrounding jungle.

If the heat signatures of undiscovered Mayan ruins in the jungles of Guatemala are NOT different from those of the surrounding jungle, then the "new infrared imaging technology, which translates heat signatures into distinct colors," will be useless in finding those ruins. Thus, choice (C) is a required assumption and should be eliminated.

Quote:
(D) The effectiveness of the new infrared imaging technology is not limited to photographs taken at heights just above the tree canopy.

If the effectiveness of the new technology IS limited to photographs taken from just above the canopy, then the technology will not help when used with satellites that take photos from 500+ kilometers above the Earth's surface. Choice (D) is a required assumption, so it should be eliminated.

Quote:
(E) Funds will be available to cover the cost of launching at least one satellite with the new infrared imaging technology into orbit.

The conclusion rests on the condition that "scientists can equip satellites with this new infrared imaging technology." However, just because they can equip satellites with the technology, doesn't mean they actually have the money to send such a satellite into orbit. If such funding is not available and we cannot actually launch the satellites with the new technology into orbit, then we won't be able to use those satellites to search for Mayan ruins. Choice (E) is a required assumption, so it should be eliminated.

All statements aside from choice (B) are required assumptions, so (B) is the best answer.
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##### General Discussion
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Re: QOTD: In their search for Mayan ruins in the jungles of Guatemala  [#permalink]

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29 Aug 2017, 18:07
MY answer is (C). As c states that Heat signals may be different if so then the technique used may not work.
Other option are correct assumption.
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QOTD: In their search for Mayan ruins in the jungles of Guatemala  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 30 Aug 2017, 17:07
1
I say originally said E; the logic of the stem doesn't have anything to do with the ability to launch a satellite. They're simply saying that if the satellite is sent up, it would make the search faster. BUT I started thinking, and got back to B and E.

(A) All of the Mayan ruins in the jungles of Guatemala have not already been discovered.
Necessary. No point to search if they've all been found.
(B) The new infrared imaging technology is compatible with satellites currently used to photograph the Earth from space.
Eh. The tech could be fitted to new satellites. It doesn't need to be on the ones currently being used.
(C) Some of the heat signatures of undiscovered Mayan ruins in the jungles of Guatemala are different from those of the surrounding jungle.
Necessary. If the heat signatures of the surrounding jungle are the same as the ruins, neither the helicopters nor the satellites would be able to discern the ruins from the trees.
(D) The effectiveness of the new infrared imaging technology is not limited to photographs taken at heights just above the tree canopy.
Necessary. If the technology doesn't work from well above the trees, the recommendation is a bad one.
(E) Funds will be available to cover the cost of launching at least one satellite with the new infrared imaging technology into orbit.
Eh. The stem says IF the technology were fitted, THEN it would speed things up. It doesn't say that it must be done; it simply says that if it were done, then it would speed things up. But if you negate this, the conclusion becomes impossible. Negation of this answer makes the ability to send any satellite into orbit impossible.

Given these answers, I think B makes the most sense. If you negate it, there's some wiggle room. If you negate E, the conclusion fails to hold.

Originally posted by btabbush on 29 Aug 2017, 18:41.
Last edited by btabbush on 30 Aug 2017, 17:07, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: QOTD: In their search for Mayan ruins in the jungles of Guatemala  [#permalink]

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29 Aug 2017, 18:54
I think Choice E is correct. Below is my explanation:

(A) All of the Mayan ruins in the jungles of Guatemala have not already been discovered. [Incorrect - if all the mayan ruins have already been discovered then even addition of satellite will not make a difference.
(B) The new infrared imaging technology is compatible with satellites currently used to photograph the Earth from space. [Incorrect - If Infrared technology is not compatible then it will not help in discovering the ruins and conclusion will not hold]
(C) Some of the heat signatures of undiscovered Mayan ruins in the jungles of Guatemala are different from those of the surrounding jungle. [Incorrect - If all heat signatures of undiscovered mayan is same from those of other forest then Infrared technology cannot help find Mayan ruin.]
(D) The effectiveness of the new infrared imaging technology is not limited to photographs taken at heights just above the tree canopy. [Incorrect - If Infrared is only effective only for photos taken at certain height then any modification will not help improve the process of finding ruins]
(E) Funds will be available to cover the cost of launching at least one satellite with the new infrared imaging technology into orbit. [Correct- conclusion includes a condition that if scientists can equip the satellites along with Infrared, thus argument is not assuming that it will be the case. Even if the funds are not available, does not affect the conclusion that satellites will improve the process.]
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Re: QOTD: In their search for Mayan ruins in the jungles of Guatemala  [#permalink]

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29 Aug 2017, 21:49
In their search for Mayan ruins in the jungles of Guatemala, archaeologists have been unable to utilize satellite imagery, which is taken by satellites that orbit 500 or more kilometers above the Earth's surface and cannot penetrate the dense tree canopy of the jungles. However, using new infrared imaging technology, which translates heat signatures into distinct colors, archaeologists have recently been able to discern some Mayan ruins in photographs taken from helicopters flown just above the tree canopy. If scientists can equip satellites with this new infrared imaging technology, the discovery of Mayan ruins in the jungles of Guatemala will surely be expedited.

Type - Assumption Except
Boil it down - If scientists can equip satellites with this new infrared imaging technology, the discovery of Mayan ruins in the jungles of Guatemala will surely be expedited.

(A) All of the Mayan ruins in the jungles of Guatemala have not already been discovered. - Incorrect - If this all of the Mayan ruins have already been discovered, then we will not find any more of them
(B) The new infrared imaging technology is compatible with satellites currently used to photograph the Earth from space. - Correct - We can always launch a new satellite with IR capabilities
(C) Some of the heat signatures of undiscovered Mayan ruins in the jungles of Guatemala are different from those of the surrounding jungle. - Incorrect - If the heat signatures are the same, then we can't distinguish between ruins and jungles
(D) The effectiveness of the new infrared imaging technology is not limited to photographs taken at heights just above the tree canopy. - Incorrect - If IR tech only works just above tree canopy level and is not useful at 500 or more KM above surface
(E) Funds will be available to cover the cost of launching at least one satellite with the new infrared imaging technology into orbit. - Incorrect - If funds are not available, then we can't launch a new satellite into orbit

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QOTD: In their search for Mayan ruins in the jungles of Guatemala  [#permalink]

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30 Aug 2017, 06:03
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why is option B wrong. if the infrared technology is not compatible how can one use it in satellites.
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QOTD: In their search for Mayan ruins in the jungles of Guatemala  [#permalink]

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30 Aug 2017, 06:10
zaidq1 wrote:
why is option B wrong. if the infrared technology is not compatible how can one use it in satellites.

It's irrelevant if the technology is compatible with current photography satellites. The scientists could develop a new kind of satellite specifically designed to use infrared technology.
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Re: QOTD: In their search for Mayan ruins in the jungles of Guatemala  [#permalink]

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30 Aug 2017, 08:50
Narrowed down to B and C...

thanks
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QOTD: In their search for Mayan ruins in the jungles of Guatemala  [#permalink]

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30 Aug 2017, 11:50
souvik101990 wrote:

Verbal Question of The Day: Day 92: Critical Reasoning

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In their search for Mayan ruins in the jungles of Guatemala, archaeologists have been unable to utilize satellite imagery, which is taken by satellites that orbit 500 or more kilometers above the Earth's surface and cannot penetrate the dense tree canopy of the jungles. However, using new infrared imaging technology, which translates heat signatures into distinct colors, archaeologists have recently been able to discern some Mayan ruins in photographs taken from helicopters flown just above the tree canopy. If scientists can equip satellites with this new infrared imaging technology, the discovery of Mayan ruins in the jungles of Guatemala will surely be expedited.

The conclusion above logically depends on each of the following assumptions EXCEPT:

(A) All of the Mayan ruins in the jungles of Guatemala have not already been discovered.
(B) The new infrared imaging technology is compatible with satellites currently used to photograph the Earth from space.
(C) Some of the heat signatures of undiscovered Mayan ruins in the jungles of Guatemala are different from those of the surrounding jungle.
(D) The effectiveness of the new infrared imaging technology is not limited to photographs taken at heights just above the tree canopy.
(E) Funds will be available to cover the cost of launching at least one satellite with the new infrared imaging technology into orbit.

Every question of the day will be followed by an expert reply by GMATNinja in 12-15 hours. Stay tuned! Post your answers and explanations to earn kudos.

Frankly speaking I gave a wrong answer E.
Now that I know the correct answer, I think that I understand where does it come from, but not sure for 100%.

A. Depends on this assumption. If all ruins have already been discovered, it would be nothing to expedite. Inccorrect.
C. Depends on this asssumption. If the signatures do not differ, we will be not able to discover any ruins, using this technology. Incorrect.
D. Depends on this asssumption. Maybe this technology works only in limited heights. And thus will not be useful in case of 500+rm. Incorrect.

E. A little tricky for me. When I answered the question, I thought this issue was out of scope. The passage is about technology. Not money.
But ok. It really depends on these assumption. We need funds to launch at least one satellite with this new technology. Incorrect.

B. Even trickier. When I answered the question, I thought it was obvious, that we depend on this assumption. And it is incorrect answer.
Of course the technology has to be compatible with the satelites, currently used to photograph Earth.

Now I think. Maybe because "If scientists can equip satellites with this new infrared imaging technology" is given in a passage, it means we already have this assumption. And we do not have to repeat this one in the options ---->hence it is an answer. But not sure about it.

With all respects. Why I do not like the explanation of B by Skywalker18 .
------
B. Correct. We can always launch a new satellite with IR capabilities
------

If we want to launch a new satelite with these capabilities (in addition to satelites we already have), we will need additional funds. So it gets us to option E. And we need this assumption, so it can not be the right answer. Maybe I am wrong and it is overthinking.

And if it is because it was in a passge, no such problem.

But will wait to hear the expert opinion of GmatNinja.
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QOTD: In their search for Mayan ruins in the jungles of Guatemala  [#permalink]

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30 Aug 2017, 15:30
I also picked C because I didn't think it was an assumption:

From the stem: archaeologists have recently been able to discern some Mayan ruins in photographs taken from helicopters flown just above the tree canopy

This tells me that archaeologists HAVE BEEN ABLE to discern Mayan ruins from surrounding areas. While we don't know exactly how the archaeologists discerned the Mayan ruins from the surrounding areas, we know they are able to do so. Therefore, the archaeologists do not necessarily have to rely on some of the heat signatures being different.

In other words, even if we negate C and say that "none of the heat signatures are different", we still know from the stem that the archaeologist are able to discern Mayan ruins using this technique.
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Re: QOTD: In their search for Mayan ruins in the jungles of Guatemala  [#permalink]

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20 Sep 2017, 09:07
if test takers read too fast, none of the options seem to be the right answer.
Then, they soon find out that B is not an assumption because if ones negate B, then B is no longer relating to the conclusion anymore.
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Re: QOTD: In their search for Mayan ruins in the jungles of Guatemala  [#permalink]

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20 Sep 2017, 11:59
In their search for Mayan ruins in the jungles of Guatemala, archaeologists have been unable to utilize satellite imagery, which is taken by satellites that orbit 500 or more kilometers above the Earth's surface and cannot penetrate the dense tree canopy of the jungles. However, using new infrared imaging technology, which translates heat signatures into distinct colors, archaeologists have recently been able to discern some Mayan ruins in photographs taken from helicopters flown just above the tree canopy. If scientists can equip satellites with this new infrared imaging technology, the discovery of Mayan ruins in the jungles of Guatemala will surely be expedited.

The conclusion above logically depends on each of the following assumptions EXCEPT:

(A) All of the Mayan ruins in the jungles of Guatemala have not already been discovered.
(B) The new infrared imaging technology is compatible with satellites currently used to photograph the Earth from space.
(C) Some of the heat signatures of undiscovered Mayan ruins in the jungles of Guatemala are different from those of the surrounding jungle.
(D) The effectiveness of the new infrared imaging technology is not limited to photographs taken at heights just above the tree canopy.
(E) Funds will be available to cover the cost of launching at least one satellite with the new infrared imaging technology into orbit.

An assumption question can be treated as a strengthen question as well because the validity of an assumption validates the argument. However, we are looking for an 'except assumption' answer from the assumptions.

A. It is a valid assumption because if it were not true then there would be nothing left for the archaeologists to discover.

B. To me, this too is a valid assumption, implying that the new technology could be used in existing satellites for better use by the archaeologists. Now here, we are not to consider the financial implications because that too again is assumed by the archaeologists as being a non-issue in their pursuit.

C. Has nothing to do with the Mayan jungles. And considering images from surrounding jungles is an out of scope position. THIS IS NOT AN ASSUMPTION THE ARGUMENT IS BASED ON.

D. When the archaeologists propose using the technology, then it is well assumed that the technology will be of use to them in the way they imagine using it.

E. Funds again is a no-brainer. Because they are already seeing its use has an underlying assumption that funds will not be a hindrance.

I would pick C
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QOTD: In their search for Mayan ruins in the jungles of Guatemala  [#permalink]

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26 Sep 2017, 19:56
GMATNinja wrote:
The conclusion of this passage is clearly stated in the last sentence: "If scientists can equip satellites with this new infrared imaging technology, the discovery of Mayan ruins in the jungles of Guatemala will surely be expedited." Why does the author believe that this will expedite the discovery of Mayan ruins?

• Currently, satellite imagery, which is taken by satellites that orbit 500 or more kilometers above the Earth's surface, cannot penetrate the dense tree canopy of the jungles. We can infer that if satellite imagery could penetrate the canopy of the jungles, it WOULD expedite the discovery of Mayan ruins.
• We cannot currently use satellite imagery to expedite the discovery of Mayan ruins, BUT archaeologists have recently been able to discern Mayan ruins in photographs taken from helicopters flown ABOVE the canopy. This was done using new infrared imaging technology.
• So, we can't use satellite imagery because it can't penetrate the canopy. Now we have new technology that can penetrate the canopy, at least from just above the canopy. Can that same technology be used to penetrate the canopy when used with satellites that orbit 500 or more kilometers above the Earth's surface?

Drawing the author's conclusion from the information in the passage depends on each of the following assumptions EXCEPT (cross off any required assumptions):

Quote:
(A) All of the Mayan ruins in the jungles of Guatemala have not already been discovered.

If this is true, then there will be nothing left to discover, even if we can penetrate the canopy using satellite imagery. Thus, the discovery of Mayan ruins would not be expedited. (A) is a required assumption, so it can be eliminated.

Quote:
(B) The new infrared imaging technology is compatible with satellites currently used to photograph the Earth from space.

At first, choice (B) sounds tempting. If the new technology isn't compatible with the satellites, how can we use it to take satellite images that penetrate the canopy? However, who says we need to use the satellites that are currently used to photograph the Earth from space? We might need to employ new/different satellites to take advantage of the new technology, but that would not conflict with the author's argument. Choice (B) is not a required assumption, so hang on to this one.

Quote:
(C) Some of the heat signatures of undiscovered Mayan ruins in the jungles of Guatemala are different from those of the surrounding jungle.

If the heat signatures of undiscovered Mayan ruins in the jungles of Guatemala are NOT different from those of the surrounding jungle, then the "new infrared imaging technology, which translates heat signatures into distinct colors," will be useless in finding those ruins. Thus, choice (C) is a required assumption and should be eliminated.

Quote:
(D) The effectiveness of the new infrared imaging technology is not limited to photographs taken at heights just above the tree canopy.

If the effectiveness of the new technology IS limited to photographs taken from just above the canopy, then the technology will not help when used with satellites that take photos from 500+ kilometers above the Earth's surface. Choice (D) is a required assumption, so it should be eliminated.

Quote:
(E) Funds will be available to cover the cost of launching at least one satellite with the new infrared imaging technology into orbit.

The conclusion rests on the condition that "scientists can equip satellites with this new infrared imaging technology." However, just because they can equip satellites with the technology, doesn't mean they actually have the money to send such a satellite into orbit. If such funding is not available and we cannot actually launch the satellites with the new technology into orbit, then we won't be able to use those satellites to search for Mayan ruins. Choice (E) is a required assumption, so it should be eliminated.

All statements aside from choice (B) are required assumptions, so (B) is the best answer.

We have been given this condition : If scientists can equip satellites with this new infrared imaging technology

so our analysis starts after we can equip the satellite. If we can equip or not is not pertinent.
That's why E should be the correct answer.

Why B is wrong?
B) The new infrared imaging technology is compatible with satellites currently used to photograph the Earth from space.

It is given that "archaeologists have recently been able to discern some Mayan ruins in photographs taken from helicopters flown just above the tree canopy" so in this situation and the situation we are evaluating, what is the difference? what has changed? Helicopters to satellite. We don't know if this technology is also compatible with satellite or not. if it is not then then surely conclusion falls apart, hence B is one of the correct assumption here.

Further: https://gmatclub.com/forum/the-number-o ... ml?kudos=1

(C) Country X does not have the resources to examine all visitors from Country Y.
is not the answer precisely for the same reason.
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Re: QOTD: In their search for Mayan ruins in the jungles of Guatemala  [#permalink]

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08 Nov 2017, 14:24
We have been given this condition : If scientists can equip satellites with this new infrared imaging technology

so our analysis starts after we can equip the satellite. If we can equip or not is not pertinent.
That's why E should be the correct answer.

Why B is wrong?
B) The new infrared imaging technology is compatible with satellites currently used to photograph the Earth from space.

It is given that "archaeologists have recently been able to discern some Mayan ruins in photographs taken from helicopters flown just above the tree canopy" so in this situation and the situation we are evaluating, what is the difference? what has changed? Helicopters to satellite. We don't know if this technology is also compatible with satellite or not. if it is not then then surely conclusion falls apart, hence B is one of the correct assumption here.

Further: https://gmatclub.com/forum/the-number-o ... ml?kudos=1

(C) Country X does not have the resources to examine all visitors from Country Y.
is not the answer precisely for the same reason.

As you said yourself, IFwe can equip or not is not pertinent. So, it doesn't matter IF we can equip the current satellites with the new technology. The conclusion is based on a conditional statement: "If scientists can equip satellites with this new infrared imaging technology." We don't care whether the condition can actually be met. Thus, choice (B) has no impact on the conclusion.

Let's assume that condition is met and we CAN equip a satellite with the technology. Great, but what if we can't afford to actually send the thing into space? In that case, our satellite will just sit sadly in the lab and won't help discover any ruins. Thus, choice (E) is actually required.
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Re: QOTD: In their search for Mayan ruins in the jungles of Guatemala  [#permalink]

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17 Nov 2017, 21:56
I believe that long posts like those of gmatninja all deserve to be kept forever if the archive of the website has enough space to store those posts.
Now, I realize that a post has no word limit.
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Re: QOTD: In their search for Mayan ruins in the jungles of Guatemala  [#permalink]

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14 Oct 2018, 11:29
I disagree with this one. The prompt gives the following sentence as a fact: "However, using new infrared imaging technology, which translates heat signatures into distinct colors, archaeologists have recently been able to discern some Mayan ruins in photographs taken from helicopters flown just above the tree canopy." Since the new infrared technology discerns some Mayan ruins you should not have to assume anything about differences betwwen ruins and the jungle. Otherwise, how would the achaeologists be able to tell the ruins apart from the trees?
I think there is no great choice here, but an argument could definitely be made for why (C) is ambiguous here.
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Re: QOTD: In their search for Mayan ruins in the jungles of Guatemala  [#permalink]

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15 Oct 2018, 08:22
GMATNinja
Though I agree that option B is indeed the right answer , I am not well convinced by the explanation for option A.

According to me option A itself doesn't really matter.

Conclusion is - If scientists can equip satellites with this new infrared imaging technology, the discovery of Mayan ruins in the jungles of Guatemala will surely be expedited."

Now as it stands the author concludes a possibility of expedition with the help of new Infra...so basically his conclusion is equipping X with You will make z possible

Option A says not all the ruins are already found. - even if all the ruins are found the conclusion may still stand as we are concerned with the usefulness/viability/efficiency of the satellite equipped with INFRA. They may still be useful right? Please explain

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Re: QOTD: In their search for Mayan ruins in the jungles of Guatemala  [#permalink]

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15 Oct 2018, 09:45
GMATNinja
Though I agree that option B is indeed the right answer , I am not well convinced by the explanation for option A.

According to me option A itself doesn't really matter.

Conclusion is - If scientists can equip satellites with this new infrared imaging technology, the discovery of Mayan ruins in the jungles of Guatemala will surely be expedited."

Now as it stands the author concludes a possibility of expedition with the help of new Infra...so basically his conclusion is equipping X with You will make z possible

Option A says not all the ruins are already found. - even if all the ruins are found the conclusion may still stand as we are concerned with the usefulness/viability/efficiency of the satellite equipped with INFRA. They may still be useful right? Please explain

chetan2u

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No, A is a logical assumption on which conclusion stands

As per you too, you have reworked on conclusion as - equipping X with You will make z possible

So all three X, you and z are important for conclusion. NO z, conclusion falls apart..

Conclusion is on three parts..
1) satellites
2) new infrared technology
3) expediting discovery

So A does act as an assumption
_________________

1) Absolute modulus : http://gmatclub.com/forum/absolute-modulus-a-better-understanding-210849.html#p1622372
2)Combination of similar and dissimilar things : http://gmatclub.com/forum/topic215915.html
3) effects of arithmetic operations : https://gmatclub.com/forum/effects-of-arithmetic-operations-on-fractions-269413.html

GMAT online Tutor

Re: QOTD: In their search for Mayan ruins in the jungles of Guatemala &nbs [#permalink] 15 Oct 2018, 09:45
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