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Scientific research that involves international collaborati

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Scientific research that involves international collaborati  [#permalink]

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30 Oct 2013, 22:24
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Scientific research that involves international collaboration has produced papers of greater influence, as measured by the number of times a paper is cited in subsequent papers, than has research without any collaboration. Papers that result from international collaboration are cited an average of seven times, whereas papers with single authors are cited only three times on average. This difference shows that research projects conducted by international research teams are of greater importance than those conducted by single researchers.

Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A) Prolific writers can inflate the number of citations they receive by citing themselves in subsequent papers.

(B) It is possible to ascertain whether or not a paper is the product of international collaboration by determining the number of citations it has received

(C) The number of citations a paper receives is a measure of the importance of the research it reports.

(D) The collaborative efforts of scientists who are citizens of the same country do not produce papers that are as important as papers that are produced by international collaboration.

(E) International research teams tend to be more generously funded than are single researchers.
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Re: Scientific research that involves international collaborati  [#permalink]

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31 Oct 2013, 00:29
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Fact: Papers that result from international collaboration are cited an average of seven times,
Fact: Papers with single authors are cited only three times on average.
Conclusion: Research projects conducted by international research teams are of greater importance than those conducted by single researchers.

This question is about supporter assumption that will close the GAP between premises and conclusions.

The form is this question is:
X is cited more times than Y is cited.
==> X is more important than Y
We need a “bridge” to link the number of citations to the important of a paper. <== This is the assumption.

(A) Prolific writers can inflate the number of citations they receive by citing
themselves in subsequent papers.
Wrong. Irrelevant.

(B) It is possible to ascertain whether or not a paper is the product of international
collaboration by determining the number of citations it has received
Wrong. Irrelevant. We don’t discuss whether a paper is international. We only talk about whether a paper is important?

(C) The number of citations a paper receives is a measure of the importance of the
research it reports.
Correct. This is a supporter assumption that links the number of citations to the important of the paper.

(D) The collaborative efforts of scientists who are citizens of the same country do
not produce papers that are as important as papers that are produced by
international collaboration.
Wrong. Irrelevant. Nothing about citizens of same country vs. international.

(E) International research teams tend to be more generously funded than are single
researchers.

Hope it helps.
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Re: Scientific research that involves international collaborati  [#permalink]

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03 Oct 2017, 10:35
The author of the argument is making an assumption that more the number of citation, important a paper is.

Option C hinges on this assumption.

If we negate the option C we get "the number of citations a paper receives is not a measure of the importance of the research it reports" then on what basis the conclusion was drawn. Hence C is the answer.
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Scientific research that involves international collaborati  [#permalink]

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14 Jul 2018, 02:35

Can you advise if re-wording of (B) would be a valid assumption?
I think that is how I interpreted it in my head.

Quote:
Scientific research that involves international collaboration has produced papers of greater influence, as measured by the number of times a paper is cited in subsequent papers, than has research without any collaboration. Papers that result from international collaboration are cited an average of seven times, whereas papers with single authors are cited only three times on average. This difference shows that research projects conducted by international research teams are of greater importance than those conducted by single researchers.

Research projects conducted by international research teams are of greater importance than those conducted by single researchers.

I could also identify the scope shift from influence to importance

(B) It is possible to ascertain whether or not a paper is the product of international collaboration by determining the number of citations it has received

Reworded:
(B) It is possible to ascertain whether or not a paper is important in view of international collaboration by determining the number of citations it has received
Since negating it, does break my conclusion:
It is NOT possible to ascertain whether or not a paper is important in view of international collaboration by determining the number of citations it has received
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Re: Scientific research that involves international collaborati  [#permalink]

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14 Jul 2018, 06:12
1

Can you advise if re-wording of (B) would be a valid assumption?
I think that is how I interpreted it in my head.

Quote:
Scientific research that involves international collaboration has produced papers of greater influence, as measured by the number of times a paper is cited in subsequent papers, than has research without any collaboration. Papers that result from international collaboration are cited an average of seven times, whereas papers with single authors are cited only three times on average. This difference shows that research projects conducted by international research teams are of greater importance than those conducted by single researchers.

Research projects conducted by international research teams are of greater importance than those conducted by single researchers.

I could also identify the scope shift from influence to importance

(B) It is possible to ascertain whether or not a paper is the product of international collaboration by determining the number of citations it has received

Reworded:
(B) It is possible to ascertain whether or not a paper is important in view of international collaboration by determining the number of citations it has received
Since negating it, does break my conclusion:
It is NOT possible to ascertain whether or not a paper is important in view of international collaboration by determining the number of citations it has received

No, option (B) is definitely incorrect. Read the argument again. Forget all about what is the assumption etc.
All the argument says is: Papers that result from international collaboration are cited an average of seven times, whereas papers with single authors are cited only three times on average.
Note that these are average numbers. International collaboration 7 times on avg and individual 3 times on avg.

Look at what option (B) says: It is possible to ascertain whether or not a paper is the product of international collaboration by determining the number of citations it has received
Say if a paper has received only 2 citations. Can we say that it must be an individual's work? No. The given figures are just averages. It is possible that an individual's paper get cited 10 times while an international collaboration paper gets cited only once.

The argument is linking citation with importance and that is what you need to focus on. Option (C) does just that.
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Re: Scientific research that involves international collaborati  [#permalink]

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17 Sep 2018, 11:16
Scientific research that involves international collaboration has produced papers of greater influence, as measured by the number of times a paper is cited in subsequent papers, than has research without any collaboration. Papers that result from international collaboration are cited an average of seven times, whereas papers with single authors are cited only three times on average. This difference shows that research projects conducted by international research teams are of greater importance than those conducted by single researchers.

Conclusion :- The argument links citation to importance. The argument concludes that since papers that result from international collaboration are on an average cited more than papers with single authors, research projects conducted by international research teams are of greater importance than those conducted by single researchers.

We have to make an assumption based on above conclusion.
The author is assuming that citation is linked to importance. Based on this we move on to answer choices.

Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A) Prolific writers can inflate the number of citations they receive by citing themselves in subsequent papers.
Even if citation increases, we are not told about its link with importance. Wrong

(B) It is possible to ascertain whether or not a paper is the product of international collaboration by determining the number of citations it has received
Even if we are able to ascertain, we are not told about its link with importance. Wrong

(C) The number of citations a paper receives is a measure of the importance of the research it reports.
Correct. This is what we needed.

(D) The collaborative efforts of scientists who are citizens of the same country do not produce papers that are as important as papers that are produced by international collaboration.
Out of scope.Who produces and who does not is not important to us.

(E) International research teams tend to be more generously funded than are single researchers.
Funding is irrelevant. Wrong.
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Re: Scientific research that involves international collaborati  [#permalink]

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07 Oct 2019, 02:28
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Re: Scientific research that involves international collaborati   [#permalink] 07 Oct 2019, 02:28
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