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Some scientists, who today are recognized for their brilliance, were

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Some scientists, who today are recognized for their brilliance, were  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 19 Aug 2019, 21:11
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Some scientists, who today are recognized for their brilliance, were once vilified for their work and considered insane during their lifetimes. It therefore follows that what is considered insane or not insane has changed over time.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?


(A) Works of science that are considered insane change the way in which the general public defines 'insanity.'

(B) The number of things that are considered insane has decreased with the passage of time.

(C) Public opinion does not determine the validity of scientific research.

(D) Not all scientists who were once considered insane are still considered insane today.

(E) Some scientists who are considered insane today were also considered insane in the past.

Originally posted by HarveyS on 09 Mar 2014, 16:34.
Last edited by Bunuel on 19 Aug 2019, 21:11, edited 4 times in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: Some scientists, who today are recognized for their brilliance, were  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Jan 2016, 22:06
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akadmin wrote:
Some scientists, who today are recognized for their brilliance, were once vilified for their work and considered insane during their lifetimes. It therefore follows that what is considered insane or not insane has changed over time.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

Works of science that are that are considered insane change the way in which the general public defines 'insanity.'
The number of things that are considered insane has decreased with the passage of time.
Public opinion does not determine the validity of scientific research.
Not all scientists who were once considered insane are still considered insane today.
Some scientists who are considered insane today were also considered insane in the past


The previous one was locked


Responding to a pm:

It is an assumption question. It means you are looking for a gap between premises and conclusion. The premises are not enough to take you to the conclusion. You NEED the answer option to reach the conclusion. So the first thing we need to do is chalk out our premises and conclusion.

Premises:
Some scientists are recognized for their brilliance today.
They were once vilified for their work and considered insane during their lifetimes.

Conclusion:
What is considered insane or not insane has changed over time.

Now here is the catch. the premises say that some scientists were considered insane during their lifetime. They are being recognised as brilliant now. The premises do not say that they are not considered insane now - only that they are considered brilliant now. Note that we cannot assume that brilliance and insanity are mutually exclusive traits. Brilliant people can be considered insane too aka "mad scientists" :).

To say that what is considered insane has changed over time, we are assuming that some of those scientists who were thought to be insane are not considered insane anymore.

Option (D) tells you this: Not all scientists who were once considered insane are still considered insane today.
So this is the correct answer.

All other options are just confusing or plain irrelevant.
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Re: Some scientists, who today are recognized for their brilliance, were  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Mar 2014, 00:11
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IMO D

Conclusion: It therefore follows that what is considered insane or not insane has changed over time.
I assume that this is an assumption question as you tagged it as 'Assumption' .
Here is my reasoning behind picking D as answer.

Works of science that are that are considered insane change the way in which the general public defines 'insanity.' --Incorrect. Too broad and we are never concerned about what general public defines 'insanity' and it doesn't affect our conclusion. Out of scope.
The number of things that are considered insane has decreased with the passage of time.---Incorrect. Irrelevant whether number of things considered insane are decreasing over time.
Public opinion does not determine the validity of scientific research.- - Incorrect. Out of Scope and also doesn't affect our conclusion in any way.
Not all scientists who were once considered insane are still considered insane today.-- Correct. Negate this i.e. All scientists who were once considered insane are still considered insane today This implies that there is no change over what we consider insane today and in the past, falling apart our conclusion.
Some scientists who are considered insane today were also considered insane in the past.-- Incorrect. This was tempting for me. If I negate this i.e. None of the scientists who are considered insane today were also considered insane in the past. This doesn't really fall apart our conclusion if we read our conclusion carefully i.e. It therefore follows that what is considered insane or not insane has changed over time.. So I rejected this and went ahead with D
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Re: Some scientists, who today are recognized for their brilliance, were  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 05 Nov 2018, 05:47
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Some scientists, who today are recognized for their brilliance, were once vilified for their work and considered insane during their lifetimes. It therefore follows that what is considered insane or not insane has changed over time.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

Works of science that are that are considered insane change the way in which the general public defines 'insanity.'
The number of things that are considered insane has decreased with the passage of time.
Public opinion does not determine the validity of scientific research.
Not all scientists who were once considered insane are still considered insane today.
Some scientists who are considered insane today were also considered insane in the past


The previous one was locked

Originally posted by akadmin on 04 Jan 2016, 17:45.
Last edited by Bunuel on 05 Nov 2018, 05:47, edited 2 times in total.
Edited the question.
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Re: Some scientists, who today are recognized for their brilliance, were  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Jan 2016, 21:00
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D it is : Not all scientists who were once considered insane are still considered insane today.

negate D : all scientists who were once considered insane are still considered insane today.----->this breaks the conclusion, which states "what is considered insane or not insane has changed over time"

negate E: NONE of the scientists who are considered insane today were also considered insane in the past---->this supports the conclusion !!
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Re: Some scientists, who today are recognized for their brilliance, were  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Feb 2017, 03:09
VeritasPrepKarishma wrote:
akadmin wrote:
Some scientists, who today are recognized for their brilliance, were once vilified for their work and considered insane during their lifetimes. It therefore follows that what is considered insane or not insane has changed over time.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

Works of science that are that are considered insane change the way in which the general public defines 'insanity.'
The number of things that are considered insane has decreased with the passage of time.
Public opinion does not determine the validity of scientific research.
Not all scientists who were once considered insane are still considered insane today.
Some scientists who are considered insane today were also considered insane in the past


The previous one was locked


Responding to a pm:

It is an assumption question. It means you are looking for a gap between premises and conclusion. The premises are not enough to take you to the conclusion. You NEED the answer option to reach the conclusion. So the first thing we need to do is chalk out our premises and conclusion.

Premises:
Some scientists are recognized for their brilliance today.
They were once vilified for their work and considered insane during their lifetimes.

Conclusion:
What is considered insane or not insane has changed over time.

Now here is the catch. the premises say that some scientists were considered insane during their lifetime. They are being recognised as brilliant now. The premises do not say that they are not considered insane now - only that they are considered brilliant now. Note that we cannot assume that brilliance and insanity are mutually exclusive traits. Brilliant people can be considered insane too aka "mad scientists" :).

To say that what is considered insane has changed over time, we are assuming that some of those scientists who were thought to be insane are not considered insane anymore.

Option (D) tells you this: Not all scientists who were once considered insane are still considered insane today.
So this is the correct answer.

All other options are just confusing or plain irrelevant.


VeritasPrepKarishma

Maam with all due respect,don't you think D would have been right if it were a "must be true question".Because option D is just a paraphrase of the first line.But if we negate option A then we find out that if a scientific work is tagged insane and can't be changed then the hole argument falls apart.
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Re: Some scientists, who today are recognized for their brilliance, were  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Feb 2017, 04:42
techiesam wrote:
VeritasPrepKarishma wrote:
akadmin wrote:
Some scientists, who today are recognized for their brilliance, were once vilified for their work and considered insane during their lifetimes. It therefore follows that what is considered insane or not insane has changed over time.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

Works of science that are that are considered insane change the way in which the general public defines 'insanity.'
The number of things that are considered insane has decreased with the passage of time.
Public opinion does not determine the validity of scientific research.
Not all scientists who were once considered insane are still considered insane today.
Some scientists who are considered insane today were also considered insane in the past


The previous one was locked


Responding to a pm:

It is an assumption question. It means you are looking for a gap between premises and conclusion. The premises are not enough to take you to the conclusion. You NEED the answer option to reach the conclusion. So the first thing we need to do is chalk out our premises and conclusion.

Premises:
Some scientists are recognized for their brilliance today.
They were once vilified for their work and considered insane during their lifetimes.

Conclusion:
What is considered insane or not insane has changed over time.

Now here is the catch. the premises say that some scientists were considered insane during their lifetime. They are being recognised as brilliant now. The premises do not say that they are not considered insane now - only that they are considered brilliant now. Note that we cannot assume that brilliance and insanity are mutually exclusive traits. Brilliant people can be considered insane too aka "mad scientists" :).

To say that what is considered insane has changed over time, we are assuming that some of those scientists who were thought to be insane are not considered insane anymore.

Option (D) tells you this: Not all scientists who were once considered insane are still considered insane today.
So this is the correct answer.

All other options are just confusing or plain irrelevant.


VeritasPrepKarishma

Maam with all due respect,don't you think D would have been right if it were a "must be true question".Because option D is just a paraphrase of the first line.But if we negate option A then we find out that if a scientific work is tagged insane and can't be changed then the hole argument falls apart.


My explanation given above clarifies why (D) is not the same as the first line of the argument. "Brilliant" and "insane" are not mutually exclusive. Hence, you need (D) to establish that what is considered sane has changed over time.

(A) Works of science that are that are considered insane change the way in which the general public defines 'insanity.'
Negated (A) Works of science that are considered insane do not change the way in which the general public defines 'insanity.'
This says that "works" have no effect on the definition of insanity.

But our conclusion is "what is considered insane or not insane has changed over time."
Even if the works have no effect on the definition of insanity, something else could have changed it. So this doesn't break down the conclusion.
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Re: Some scientists, who today are recognized for their brilliance, were  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Aug 2019, 15:09
The argument is that what is considered insane or not insane has changed over time.
This is based on the fact that some scientists who were once vilified for their work and considered insane are now recognised for their brilliance.

What is an assumption?

A is incorrect because it may not need to be true that the cause of the change in what is perceived as insane is the scientists' works, but perhaps the scientists themselves.
Second, it may simply just be the case that the public's perception / values have changed.

B - the # of insane things is irrelevant to the conception of current insanity versus previous insanity.

C - similarly. The validity of research is for all we know irrelevant to the definition of insanity.

D - must be true. In fact its almost restating the premise here. D basically says that some scientists are no longer considered insane, thus what is considered insane/ not insane must have changed.

E - E is the converse. We know that in one direction some scientists no longer considered insane today were considered insane in the past, so we don't need to know that some scientists considered insane in the past are still considered insane today.
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Re: Some scientists, who today are recognized for their brilliance, were  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Dec 2019, 02:38
Why not (B)?

Negation of B: The number of things that are considered insane has NOT decreased with the passage of time.

If it hasn't decreased, then what is considered insane or not insane has NOT changed over time.

The argument does fall apart. Can anyone explain on this?
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Re: Some scientists, who today are recognized for their brilliance, were   [#permalink] 01 Dec 2019, 02:38
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