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As scientists developed the Standard Model of physics (the generally

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As scientists developed the Standard Model of physics (the generally  [#permalink]

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As scientists developed the Standard Model of physics (the generally accepted framework that explains how subatomic particles interact) in the 1960s and 1970s, they began to ask: How do subatomic particles acquire mass? The Standard Model gave satisfactory results in other areas in which it had been tested, but the mathematics behind the model seemed to prohibit subatomic particles from having any mass at all, which meant that the model was incomplete. Scientists speculated that a mechanism must exist that causes such particles to gain mass, but does not violate the principles of the Standard Model. They theorized that a field known as the Higgs field would allow such a mechanism to function, and that the Higgs field would have an accompanying Higgs boson particle.

In attempting to find this missing mechanism, physicists have focused on the Higgs boson. If experiments prove that the Higgs boson exists, then scientists can be satisfied that this part of the Standard Model is accurate. On the other hand, if results demonstrate that the Higgs boson does not exist, then scientists will need to consider alternative versions of the theory. Finding the Higgs boson, however, has proven challenging. If it were similar to lighter, more commonly found bosons, such as photons, it would be easily identifiable. However, this particle can only be created through highly energetic particle collisions achieved by massive particle accelerators, and even then, such particle collisions are just as likely to produce particles other than the Higgs boson. Further complicating matters, any Higgs bosons that are created will only exist for mere fractions of a second before quickly decaying, which means that rather than studying the particles directly, scientists must analyze the patterns of the decay in order to determine whether the particle was in fact a Higgs boson.

Recent findings have nevertheless been promising. In July 2012, scientists at the European Organization for Nuclear Research announced that they had discovered evidence of a boson with energy and other properties consistent with those predicted for the Higgs boson. While the data is not yet conclusive, if the particle can indeed be shown to be a Higgs boson, then scientists will be able to take the next step of considering whether its characteristics match those predicted by the Standard Model.

1. Based on the information presented by the author, it can be inferred that if Higgs bosons did not exist

A) the current theory of how particles gain mass would have to be adapted
B) subatomic particles would not be able to gain mass
C) the Standard Model would be proved erroneous
D) scientists would be forced to look for another, lighter particle
E) more experiments using highly energetic particle collisions would have to be conducted

2) The primary purpose of the passage is to

A) present a disputed theory and defend its accuracy
B) criticize a conventional model and argue for an alternative theory
C) outline an issue and demonstrate the unlikelihood of resolving it
D) describe a problem and examine its possible solutions
E) contrast two different models and show that one is more accurate

3) The author’s claim that “if experiments prove that the Higgs boson exists, then scientists can be satisfied that this part of the Standard Model is accurate” would be most undermined by the discovery that

A) many subatomic particles produce decay signatures that are similar to those predicted for the Higgs boson
B) in order to create mass, the Higgs field must work with another unidentified mechanism that requires its own accompanying particle
C) Higgs bosons and photons are both highly energetic and can decay very rapidly when created by particle accelerators
D) the particle discovered at the European Center for Nuclear Research has some properties that are not consistent with those predicted for the Higgs boson
E) most collisions created by particle accelerators produce particles other than Higgs bosons, so the probability of discovering the Higgs boson is very low

4. According to the passage, if Higgs bosons exist, then they possess all of the following properties EXCEPT

A) a fast decay rate
B) the ability to work in conjunction with the Higgs field
C) a difficulty to be detected if they were created
D) be created by massive particle detectors
E) relatively little mass

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Re: As scientists developed the Standard Model of physics (the generally  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Aug 2017, 05:25
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QUESTION 4 ) According to the passage, if Higgs bosons exist, then they possess all of the following properties EXCEPT
A) a fast decay rate
B) the ability to work in conjunction with the Higgs field
C) a difficulty to be detected if they were created
D) be created by massive particle detectors
E) relatively little mass

This question confused a little on the ans option, given the OA as E

but if look at following sentence from passage D also looks promising ans :

"particle can only be created through highly energetic particle collisions achieved by massive particle accelerators,"
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Re: As scientists developed the Standard Model of physics (the generally  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Oct 2018, 22:22
1. Based on the information presented by the author, it can be inferred that if Higgs bosons did not exist

A) the current theory of how particles gain mass would have to be adapted
B) subatomic particles would not be able to gain mass
C) the Standard Model would be proved erroneous
D) scientists would be forced to look for another, lighter particle
E) more experiments using highly energetic particle collisions would have to be conducted


If experiments prove that the Higgs boson exists, then scientists can be satisfied that this part of the Standard Model is accurate. On the other hand, if results demonstrate that the Higgs boson does not exist, then scientists will need to consider alternative versions of the theory.

the passage clearly mentions that if Higss does not exist then scientist will need to consider alternate versions of the theory. it is nowhere mentioned that that theory will be the current theory.

IMO the answer should be C
passage says :- If experiments prove that the Higgs boson exists, then scientists can be satisfied that this part of the Standard Model is accurate- by which we can infer that if not , then the theory is erroneous ( inaccurate)

Pls explain this
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Re: As scientists developed the Standard Model of physics (the generally  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Oct 2018, 01:57
Quote:
1. Based on the information presented by the author, it can be inferred that if Higgs bosons did not exist

A) the current theory of how particles gain mass would have to be adapted
B) subatomic particles would not be able to gain mass
C) the Standard Model would be proved erroneous
D) scientists would be forced to look for another, lighter particle
E) more experiments using highly energetic particle collisions would have to be conducted


If experiments prove that the Higgs boson exists, then scientists can be satisfied that this part of the Standard Model is accurate. On the other hand, if results demonstrate that the Higgs boson does not exist, then scientists will need to consider alternative versions of the theory.

the passage clearly mentions that if Higss does not exist then scientist will need to consider alternate versions of the theory. it is nowhere mentioned that that theory will be the current theory.

IMO the answer should be C
passage says :- If experiments prove that the Higgs boson exists, then scientists can be satisfied that this part of the Standard Model is accurate- by which we can infer that if not , then the theory is erroneous ( inaccurate)

Pls explain this


Personal explanation:
On the other hand, if results demonstrate that the Higgs boson does not exist, then scientists will need to consider alternative versions of the theory.
Alternate version of the theory ie. theory other than The Standard Model (the current theory of how particles gain mass)

Answer C is incorrect (the Standard Model would be proved erroneous)
"If experiments prove that the Higgs boson exists, then scientists can be satisfied that this part of the Standard Model is accurate." that means it only satisfy part of the Model NOT THE FULL MODEL because the answer states the whole model will be wrong therefore incorrect
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Re: As scientists developed the Standard Model of physics (the generally  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Oct 2018, 03:28
could someone explain how the answer to q1 can be A, not through POA
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As scientists developed the Standard Model of physics (the generally  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Oct 2018, 09:42
NCRanjan, Valhalla, rahulkashyap

even i answered this question incorrectly, i landed up selected E :-). Anyway, here is why i feel answer A is the correct choice for question 1.

Here is the snippet from first para:
Scientists speculated that a mechanism must exist that causes such particles to gain mass, but does not violate the principles of the Standard Model.

Here the snippet of second para:
In attempting to find this missing mechanism, physicists have focused on the Higgs boson. If experiments prove that the Higgs boson exists, then scientists can be satisfied that this part of the Standard Model is accurate. On the other hand, if results demonstrate that the Higgs boson does not exist, then scientists will need to consider alternative versions of the theory.

What does it mean:
If Higgs boson exists —> the Standard Model is accurate
if Higgs boson does not exist —> consider alternative versions of the theory . here theory refers to “Scientists speculated that a mechanism must exist that causes such particles to gain mass” <— this is again taken from para 1

Now, according to option 1:
A) the current theory of how particles gain mass would have to be adapted

as stated above, We already know what current theory points to. Let’s concentrate more on the word ‘adapted’.
The dictionary meaning of word ‘adapt’—> make (something) suitable for a new use or purpose; modify.

so clearly, even option 1 is also suggesting the same that if Higgs boson does not exist then adapt the existing theory. it means, you will have to alter the existing theory and find suitable version that explains how particles gain mass. "consider alternative versions of the theory" means adapting the theory/modifying to suit the need

i hope this explains the link among all these sentences.


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Re: As scientists developed the Standard Model of physics (the generally  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Oct 2018, 10:17
jokschmer: I am not sure if my analysis is 100% correct. even i selected choice D. But Here is my analysis.

Let's look at the question:
4. According to the passage, if Higgs bosons exist, then they possess all of the following properties EXCEPT

A) a fast decay rate
B) the ability to work in conjunction with the Higgs field
C) a difficulty to be detected if they were created
D) be created by massive particle detectors
E) relatively little mass
-------------
My interpretation of the question:
We are asked to determine, if Higgs bosons exist, What are all the properties/characterists possed by Higgs bosons? We are NOT asked to determine how Higgs bosons are created?
-------------
D - very tempting choice, i understand that they want to trick us by presenting D as an option. we clearly see Higgs bosons are created by particle accelerators and not by particle detectors. But is that what question is asking for? Not really.
-------------
Now for Option E: relatively little mass

The 2nd para shows : If it were similar to lighter, more commonly found bosons, such as photons, it would be easily identifiable.

The 3rd para shows: Recent findings have nevertheless been promising........While the data is not yet conclusive, if the particle can indeed be shown to be a Higgs boson, then scientists will be able to take the next step of considering whether its characteristics match those predicted by the Standard Model.

My analysis:
It can be interpreted from para 2 and para 3 that, the study is not conclusive, it's just promising. Further, there's no confirmation that Higgs boson are similar to that of photons. The 3rd para says that scientist will evaluate whether its characteristics match those predicted by the Standard Model.
"mass" is one of the properties of the particles. hence the para does not say or confirm that Higgs bosons have relatively little mass. Scientist still need to evaluate that. hence choice E is the right answer.

i hope this is clear.

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Re: As scientists developed the Standard Model of physics (the generally  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Oct 2018, 02:05
Hi u1983

Can u please help with Q3.
I marked D.
D) the particle discovered at the European Center for Nuclear Research has some properties that are not consistent with those predicted for the Higgs boson
If some properties are not consistent with those predicted for Higgs boson. As properties are different from what we need and if we use them in Standard model then the accuracy of Standard Model will be at risk. Hence its weakening the statement
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Re: As scientists developed the Standard Model of physics (the generally  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Nov 2018, 09:44
Passage summary:
1) Introduces an issue, i.e. SM does not agree that subatomic particles can gain mass, and a possible solution to it - Higgs field and boson;
2) Describes the implications that could occur if the theory were proved to be correct or incorrect, and accounts for several challenges that surround the finding of the boson;
3) EONR has manage to detect evidence that the boson may exist, but more research is needed to confirm the finding in order to further explain MS


1. Based on the information presented by the author, it can be inferred that if Higgs bosons did not exist Relevant text: <...> but the mathematics behind the model seemed to prohibit subatomic particles from having any mass at all <...> If experiments prove that the Higgs boson exists, then scientists can be satisfied that this part of the Standard Model is accurate. On the other hand, if results demonstrate that the Higgs boson does not exist, then scientists will need to consider alternative versions of the theory.
A) the current theory of how particles gain mass would have to be adapted on the one hand, the "current" theory doesn't allow subatomic particles to gain mass. So the wording is kind of imprecise. On the other hand, if not the boson, then alternatives will be build around MS. In that case, this seems to be the correct answer
B) subatomic particles would not be able to gain mass too generic, because there may be alternatives to allow subatomic particles to gain mass
C) the Standard Model would be proved erroneous incomplete does not translate into flawed. Moreover, it's said that scientists will need to rely on alternative methods instead, if the boson is found non-existent
D) scientists would be forced to look for another, lighter particle not given: we don't know whether this would an alternative
E) more experiments using highly energetic particle collisions would have to be conducted again, the same as in D

2) The primary purpose of the passage is to
A) present a disputed theory and defend its accuracy
B) criticize a conventional model and argue for an alternative theory
C) outline an issue and demonstrate the unlikelihood of resolving it
D) describe a problem and examine its possible solutions correct
E) contrast two different models and show that one is more accurate

3) The author’s claim that “if experiments prove that the Higgs boson exists, then scientists can be satisfied that this part of the Standard Model is accurate” would be most undermined by the discovery that Relevant text: The Standard Model gave satisfactory results in other areas in which it had been tested, but the mathematics behind the model seemed to prohibit subatomic particles from having any mass at all, which meant that the model was incomplete. Scientists speculated that a mechanism must exist that causes such particles to gain mass, but does not violate the principles of the Standard Model. They theorized that a field known as the Higgs field would allow such a mechanism to function, and that the Higgs field would have an accompanying Higgs boson particle. - to put it shortly, the boson would account for the mass. So in order to weaken the confidence that the scientist expect from the finding, we need to assume that we would find the boson that it would not account for the mass, undermining the hypothesis
A) many subatomic particles produce decay signatures that are similar to those predicted for the Higgs boson doesn't even address the boson
B) in order to create mass, the Higgs field must work with another unidentified mechanism that requires its own accompanying particle fits the bill, because it seems that there's something more than just the boson that is required to allow subatomic particles to collect mass
C) Higgs bosons and photons are both highly energetic and can decay very rapidly when created by particle accelerators this has already been given
D) the particle discovered at the European Center for Nuclear Research has some properties that are not consistent with those predicted for the Higgs boson the question stem already tells us to assume that the boson has been proved to exist
E) most collisions created by particle accelerators produce particles other than Higgs bosons, so the probability of discovering the Higgs boson is very low the same as in D

4. According to the passage, if Higgs bosons exist, then they possess all of the following properties EXCEPT
A) a fast decay rate Further complicating matters, any Higgs bosons that are created will only exist for mere fractions of a second before quickly decaying <...>
B) the ability to work in conjunction with the Higgs field They theorized that a field known as the Higgs field would allow such a mechanism to function, and that the Higgs field would have an accompanying Higgs boson particle.
C) a difficulty to be detected if they were created However, this particle can only be created through highly energetic particle collisions achieved by massive particle accelerators, and even then, such particle collisions are just as likely to produce particles other than the Higgs boson.
D) be created by massive particle detectors this one seems really disputable. However, "Further complicating matters, any Higgs bosons that are created will only exist for mere fractions of a second before quickly decaying, which means that rather than studying the particles directly, scientists must analyze the patterns of the decay in order to determine whether the particle was in fact a Higgs boson." - implies that a detector will have to "create" the boson from scratch, relying on the patterns of its decay. Other ideas?
E) relatively little mass correct: If it were similar to lighter, more commonly found bosons, such as photons, it would be easily identifiable.

Quote:
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Please refer to my explanation
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Re: As scientists developed the Standard Model of physics (the generally &nbs [#permalink] 01 Nov 2018, 09:44
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