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SUBJUNCTIVE VERBS AND INFINITIVE VERB FORMS

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SUBJUNCTIVE VERBS AND INFINITIVE VERB FORMS  [#permalink]

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New post 23 May 2014, 10:11
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Subjunctive Verbs




What are Subjunctive Verbs?

The verbs used to express the subjunctive mood are known as subjunctive verbs. The subjunctive verbs are same as regular verb, but these are always used in plural form. Let’s try to understand the usage of subjunctive verbs with the help of a few examples:


EXAMPLE:

I. The doctor recommended that Paul should spend some time away from his stressful work. Incorrect

II. The doctor recommended that Paul spend some time away from his stressful work. Correct

In the above example, the verb ‘spend’ is a subjunctive verb and the verb ‘recommended’ is a trigger word that tells us that this sentence needs a subjunctive verb.



EXAMPLE:

I. The authorities from the flood affected states requested that help should be provided to their people at the earliest. Incorrect

II. The authorities from the flood affected states requested that help be provided to their people at the earliest. Correct

In the above example, the verb ‘be provided’ is a subjunctive verb and the verb ‘requested’ is a trigger word that tells us that this sentence needs a subjunctive verb.



EXAMPLE:

I. The Non-Proliferation Treaty requires that a nation prevents the spread of nuclear weapons. Incorrect

II. The Non-Proliferation Treaty requires a nation to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons. Correct

III. The Non-Proliferation Treaty requires that a nation prevent the spread of nuclear weapons. Correct

In the above example, the ‘to + verb’ form ‘to prevent’ is known as infinitive. Again, the verb ‘requires’ is a trigger word that tells us that we need to use either a subjunctive verb or a ‘to + verb’ in this sentence.



When are Subjunctive Verbs Used?

A subjunctive verb cannot be used always. Its usage is always context based and triggered by some specific words. Before we start learning more about how to use the subjunctive verb, let’s first learn when to use it.

The subjunctive verbs are used with certain words that express demand/request/recommendation. Given below is a list of words that express these emotions.

i. Demand
ii. Dictate
iii. Insist
iv. Mandate
v. Propose
vi. Recommend
vii. Request
viii. Stipulate
ix. Suggest

Since these words trigger the use of subjunctive verbs in the sentences, we will call them trigger words.
Note that, all the trigger words mentioned above are in verb forms. However, the noun forms of these words also act as trigger words in a sentence.



How to use a subjunctive Verb?

There are certain rules that we need to keep in mind while using the subjunctive verbs.

1. There is a certain format in which a subjunctive verb is used. Subjunctive verb is always used with ‘that’.

'…...trigger word + that + subject + subjunctive verb + ....'

2. Subjunctive verb is always used in plural form be it with a plural subject or with a singular subject.

3. The verb ‘be’ is used in the same form. The forms ‘is/am/are’ are not used with the subjunctive verb.

4. ‘Should + verb’ is not used with a subjunctive verb. Since these words already include demand/request/recommendation, ‘should’ becomes redundant.

5. All the trigger words mentioned above are in verb forms. However, the noun forms of these words also act as trigger words in a sentence.


EXAMPLES:

The doctor recommended that Paul spend some time away from his stressful work.

The authorities from the flood affected states requested that help be provided to their people at the earliest.

The Non-Proliferation Treaty requires that a nation prevent the spread of nuclear weapons.

The recommendation that each board member be present in four board meetings annually will be made in the next board meeting.



When are subjunctive verbs not used?

Unlike the above trigger words, there are certain demand/request/recommendation words that should not be used with a subjunctive verb. These words are used in another format and are followed by a ‘to + verb’. Following are the words that are not used with a subjunctive verb:

i. Advise
ii. Allow
iii. Forbid
iv. Persuade
v. Want


EXAMPLES:

Sheldon’s friends persuaded him to go with them on a trekking camp.

I want you to go there right now.

Stephen’s parents don’t allow him to watch television till late.



Miscellaneous


In the demand/request/recommendation words, there is one more type of words. These are the words that can be used with both subjunctive verb and ‘to + verb’.
i. Ask
ii. Beg
iii. Desire
iv. Intend
v. Order
vi. Prefer
vii. Require
viii. Urge


EXAMPLES:


The Non-Proliferation Treaty requires a nation to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons.

The Non-Proliferation Treaty requires that a nation prevent the spread of nuclear weapons.





Let’s take a few official questions to understand the usage of the subjunctive verbs:

OFFICIAL QUESTION

The commission proposed that funding for the park's development, which could be open to the public early next year, is obtained through a local bond issue.

(A) that funding for the park's development, which could be open to the public early next year, is
(B) that funding for development of the park, which could be open to the public early next year, be
(C) funding for the development of the park, perhaps open to the public early next year, to be
(D) funds for the park's development, perhaps open to the public early next year, be
(E) development funding for the park, which could be open to the public early next year, is to be


EXPLANATION

• The commission proposed
o that funding for the park's development,
 which could be open to the public early next year,
o is obtained through a local bond issue.

Since this sentence uses a trigger word ‘proposed’, it should be followed by a subjunctive verb. The subject for the subjunctive verb is placed next to ‘that’, i.e. ‘funding for the park’s development’. So, the subjunctive verb should be ‘is obtained’.
Now, let’s look at the options one by one.

(A) ‘is obtained’ is not a subjunctive verb. Incorrect

(B) ‘be obtained’ is a subjunctive verb.

(C) ‘to be’ is not a subjunctive verb. ‘to + verb’ cannot be used with ‘proposed’. Incorrect

(D) ‘be obtained’ is a subjunctive verb.

(E) ‘to be’ is not a subjunctive verb. ‘to + verb’ cannot be used with ‘proposed’. Incorrect

In option D, it is not clear what the modifier ‘perhaps open to the public early next year’ is modifying, since the noun ‘park’ is not used in the sentence.
In option B, ‘which’ correctly modifies ‘the park’. So, option B is the correct answer.


Hope this helps! :)
Manyu


Given below are two more official questions on the concept of the subjunctive verbs.

OFFICIAL QUESTION

The report recommended that the hospital should eliminate unneeded beds, expensive services should be consolidated, and use space in other hospitals.

(A) should eliminate unneeded beds, expensive services should be consolidated, and use space in other hospitals.
(B) should eliminate unneeded beds, expensive services should be consolidated, and other hospitals' space be used.
(C) should eliminate unneeded beds, expensive services should be consolidated, and to use space in other hospitals.
(D) eliminate unneeded beds, consolidate expensive services, and other hospitals' space used.
(E) eliminate unneeded beds, consolidate expensive services, and use space in other hospitals.




OFFICIAL QUESTION

Lawmakers are examining measures that would require banks to disclose all fees and account requirements in writing, provide free cashing of government checks, and to create basic savings accounts to carry minimal fees and require minimal initial deposits.

(A) provide free cashing of government checks, and to create basic savings accounts to carry
(B) provide free cashing of government checks, and creating basic savings accounts carrying
(C) to provide free cashing of government checks, and creating basic savings accounts that carry
(D) to provide free cashing of government checks, creating basic savings accounts to carry
(E) to provide free cashing of government checks, and to create basic savings accounts that carry



Looking forward to your response and feedback. :)
Manyu
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Re: SUBJUNCTIVE VERBS AND INFINITIVE VERB FORMS  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Dec 2018, 07:32
manyu2409 wrote:

Subjunctive Verbs




What are Subjunctive Verbs?

The verbs used to express the subjunctive mood are known as subjunctive verbs. The subjunctive verbs are same as regular verb, but these are always used in plural form. Let’s try to understand the usage of subjunctive verbs with the help of a few examples:


EXAMPLE:

I. The doctor recommended that Paul should spend some time away from his stressful work. Incorrect

II. The doctor recommended that Paul spend some time away from his stressful work. Correct

In the above example, the verb ‘spend’ is a subjunctive verb and the verb ‘recommended’ is a trigger word that tells us that this sentence needs a subjunctive verb.



EXAMPLE:

I. The authorities from the flood affected states requested that help should be provided to their people at the earliest. Incorrect

II. The authorities from the flood affected states requested that help be provided to their people at the earliest. Correct

In the above example, the verb ‘be provided’ is a subjunctive verb and the verb ‘requested’ is a trigger word that tells us that this sentence needs a subjunctive verb.



EXAMPLE:

I. The Non-Proliferation Treaty requires that a nation prevents the spread of nuclear weapons. Incorrect

II. The Non-Proliferation Treaty requires a nation to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons. Correct

III. The Non-Proliferation Treaty requires that a nation prevent the spread of nuclear weapons. Correct

In the above example, the ‘to + verb’ form ‘to prevent’ is known as infinitive. Again, the verb ‘requires’ is a trigger word that tells us that we need to use either a subjunctive verb or a ‘to + verb’ in this sentence.



When are Subjunctive Verbs Used?

A subjunctive verb cannot be used always. Its usage is always context based and triggered by some specific words. Before we start learning more about how to use the subjunctive verb, let’s first learn when to use it.

The subjunctive verbs are used with certain words that express demand/request/recommendation. Given below is a list of words that express these emotions.

i. Demand
ii. Dictate
iii. Insist
iv. Mandate
v. Propose
vi. Recommend
vii. Request
viii. Stipulate
ix. Suggest

Since these words trigger the use of subjunctive verbs in the sentences, we will call them trigger words.
Note that, all the trigger words mentioned above are in verb forms. However, the noun forms of these words also act as trigger words in a sentence.



How to use a subjunctive Verb?

There are certain rules that we need to keep in mind while using the subjunctive verbs.

1. There is a certain format in which a subjunctive verb is used. Subjunctive verb is always used with ‘that’.

'…...trigger word + that + subject + subjunctive verb + ....'

2. Subjunctive verb is always used in plural form be it with a plural subject or with a singular subject.

3. The verb ‘be’ is used in the same form. The forms ‘is/am/are’ are not used with the subjunctive verb.

4. ‘Should + verb’ is not used with a subjunctive verb. Since these words already include demand/request/recommendation, ‘should’ becomes redundant.

5. All the trigger words mentioned above are in verb forms. However, the noun forms of these words also act as trigger words in a sentence.


EXAMPLES:

The doctor recommended that Paul spend some time away from his stressful work.

The authorities from the flood affected states requested that help be provided to their people at the earliest.

The Non-Proliferation Treaty requires that a nation prevent the spread of nuclear weapons.

The recommendation that each board member be present in four board meetings annually will be made in the next board meeting.



When are subjunctive verbs not used?

Unlike the above trigger words, there are certain demand/request/recommendation words that should not be used with a subjunctive verb. These words are used in another format and are followed by a ‘to + verb’. Following are the words that are not used with a subjunctive verb:

i. Advise
ii. Allow
iii. Forbid
iv. Persuade
v. Want


EXAMPLES:

Sheldon’s friends persuaded him to go with them on a trekking camp.

I want you to go there right now.

Stephen’s parents don’t allow him to watch television till late.



Miscellaneous


In the demand/request/recommendation words, there is one more type of words. These are the words that can be used with both subjunctive verb and ‘to + verb’.
i. Ask
ii. Beg
iii. Desire
iv. Intend
v. Order
vi. Prefer
vii. Require
viii. Urge


EXAMPLES:


The Non-Proliferation Treaty requires a nation to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons.

The Non-Proliferation Treaty requires that a nation prevent the spread of nuclear weapons.





Let’s take a few official questions to understand the usage of the subjunctive verbs:

OFFICIAL QUESTION

The commission proposed that funding for the park's development, which could be open to the public early next year, is obtained through a local bond issue.

(A) that funding for the park's development, which could be open to the public early next year, is
(B) that funding for development of the park, which could be open to the public early next year, be
(C) funding for the development of the park, perhaps open to the public early next year, to be
(D) funds for the park's development, perhaps open to the public early next year, be
(E) development funding for the park, which could be open to the public early next year, is to be


EXPLANATION

• The commission proposed
o that funding for the park's development,
 which could be open to the public early next year,
o is obtained through a local bond issue.

Since this sentence uses a trigger word ‘proposed’, it should be followed by a subjunctive verb. The subject for the subjunctive verb is placed next to ‘that’, i.e. ‘funding for the park’s development’. So, the subjunctive verb should be ‘is obtained’.
Now, let’s look at the options one by one.

(A) ‘is obtained’ is not a subjunctive verb. Incorrect

(B) ‘be obtained’ is a subjunctive verb.

(C) ‘to be’ is not a subjunctive verb. ‘to + verb’ cannot be used with ‘proposed’. Incorrect

(D) ‘be obtained’ is a subjunctive verb.

(E) ‘to be’ is not a subjunctive verb. ‘to + verb’ cannot be used with ‘proposed’. Incorrect

In option D, it is not clear what the modifier ‘perhaps open to the public early next year’ is modifying, since the noun ‘park’ is not used in the sentence.
In option B, ‘which’ correctly modifies ‘the park’. So, option B is the correct answer.


Hope this helps! :)
Manyu


Given below are two more official questions on the concept of the subjunctive verbs.

OFFICIAL QUESTION

The report recommended that the hospital should eliminate unneeded beds, expensive services should be consolidated, and use space in other hospitals.

(A) should eliminate unneeded beds, expensive services should be consolidated, and use space in other hospitals.
(B) should eliminate unneeded beds, expensive services should be consolidated, and other hospitals' space be used.
(C) should eliminate unneeded beds, expensive services should be consolidated, and to use space in other hospitals.
(D) eliminate unneeded beds, consolidate expensive services, and other hospitals' space used.
(E) eliminate unneeded beds, consolidate expensive services, and use space in other hospitals.




OFFICIAL QUESTION

Lawmakers are examining measures that would require banks to disclose all fees and account requirements in writing, provide free cashing of government checks, and to create basic savings accounts to carry minimal fees and require minimal initial deposits.

(A) provide free cashing of government checks, and to create basic savings accounts to carry
(B) provide free cashing of government checks, and creating basic savings accounts carrying
(C) to provide free cashing of government checks, and creating basic savings accounts that carry
(D) to provide free cashing of government checks, creating basic savings accounts to carry
(E) to provide free cashing of government checks, and to create basic savings accounts that carry



Looking forward to your response and feedback. :)
Manyu



How did you do the 3rd Question using the subjunctive technique.?

I understand that the question can be done using parallelism ,but how does this question falls into the subjunctive topic.
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SUBJUNCTIVE VERBS AND INFINITIVE VERB FORMS  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Dec 2018, 17:13
sidjain93 wrote:
manyu2409 wrote:

OFFICIAL QUESTION

Lawmakers are examining measures that would require banks to disclose all fees and account requirements in writing, provide free cashing of government checks, and to create basic savings accounts to carry minimal fees and require minimal initial deposits.

(A) provide free cashing of government checks, and to create basic savings accounts to carry
(B) provide free cashing of government checks, and creating basic savings accounts carrying
(C) to provide free cashing of government checks, and creating basic savings accounts that carry
(D) to provide free cashing of government checks, creating basic savings accounts to carry
(E) to provide free cashing of government checks, and to create basic savings accounts that carry



Looking forward to your response and feedback. :)
Manyu

How did you do the 3rd Question using the subjunctive technique.?

I understand that the question can be done using parallelism ,but how does this question falls into the subjunctive topic.

sidjain93 , manyu2409 isn't active now, but your question is good.

The third question contains an implied conditional that involves the subjunctive.

A "conditional" simply refers to an IF(condition)/THEN (result) sentence.

An implied conditional of this particular type includes a similarly implied subjunctive construction.

How do we recognize that an implied condition exists?
Three clues.
-- We have a counterfactual situation. The laws are not yet enacted.
-- More obvious than #1: The prompt describes the result that would follow enacted laws.
-- MOST obvious clue: the non-underlined part uses would.

GMAC tests the ability to recognize whether and in which instances the verb WOULD is necessary.

Hypothetical + would = Conditional

In some conditionals, the IF clause takes the subjunctive mood.

Conditionals

Of the five types of conditionals described
HERE, This sentence is a Type 2.

Type 2 = hypothetical condition and its probable result. The time is the present or any time.

Construction:

If THIS thing happened, then THAT thing would happen.
(simple past in the IF clause)

AND

If THIS thing were to happen, then THAT thing would happen.
(subjunctive construction in the IF clause)

Subjunctive in the lawmakers question?

Because third person plural past = third person plural subjunctive, the implied subjunctive can be hard to spot.

Condition (underlined): IF the proposed measures were passed into laws . . .

Lawmakers are examining certain measures; IF the measures were enacted, [then] the laws would require banks to disclose all fees and account requirements . . .

The subjunctive is easy to spot in the first person.
-- If I was rich, I would fund education programs for the poor. :(

-- If I WERE rich, I would fund education programs for the poor. :)

But in this sentence the subjunctive within the implied conditional is hard to spot because the verb does not change.

Simple past: Laws were
Subjunctive: Laws were

Implied IF clause, simple past vs. subjunctive

"If I was" (simple past) in the subjunctive becomes "If I were."

"If the laws passed" becomes "If the laws were passed."

That phrasing—if law WERE passed—is subjunctive. In the implied conditional, that phrase is the IF clause.

Conclusion

The third question can be analyzed in terms of the subjunctive because

1) its content is contrary to fact (laws have not been enacted)
2) the prompt contains "would"
3) the prompt describes the probable results
4) from these facts we can infer that we have a Type 2 conditional, which
5) often uses the subjunctive WERE in the IF clause.

In this case, we do not have to do anything. We do not have to check for subjunctive construction.

We simply maintain a parallel list, knowing that it is rooted in an implied subjunctive construction.

Hope that helps. :-)
GMAT Club Bot
SUBJUNCTIVE VERBS AND INFINITIVE VERB FORMS &nbs [#permalink] 09 Dec 2018, 17:13
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SUBJUNCTIVE VERBS AND INFINITIVE VERB FORMS

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